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Chapter 24 : Medically Important Arthropods

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Abstract:

As biological vectors, arthropods can serve as intermediate hosts for human infections or can accidentally carry microorganisms from one host to another. Most individuals have come in direct contact with arthropods which are problems because of their bites and human sensitivity to their saliva or toxins. Arthropods usually associated with the introduction of saliva during the act of biting include the Acari (ticks and mites), Anoplura (sucking lice), Araneae (spiders), Chilopoda (centipedes), Diptera (flies, mosquitoes, and biting midges), Hemiptera (true bugs: bedbugs, kissing bugs, and triatomid bugs), and Siphonaptera (fleas). To be effective vectors for malaria, female Anopheles mosquitoes must feed frequently on humans, must be relatively susceptible to the malarial gametocytes, must live long enough for the malaria parasite to complete the life cycle, and must be present in sufficient numbers to maintain transmission of the parasite. The presence of drugs and/or toxins in decomposing tissues may alter the rate and patterns of development of arthropods feeding on these tissues. Insects can also accumulate heavy metals and toxic compounds, or their by-products, in their tissues. Unfortunately, as with all animal populations, susceptibility and resistance to these insecticides will vary; arthropods that are resistant will survive. Crossbreeding of these survivors often tends to enhance the resistance. This has occurred with insects exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorus compounds.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24

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Figures

Image of Figure 24.1
Figure 24.1

Relative sizes of various arthropods. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.2
Figure 24.2

Caterpillars that sting (A and B) or cause dermatitis (C and D). (A) Io moth, ; (B) puss caterpillar, ; (C) saddleback caterpillar, ; (D) brown tail moth, (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.3
Figure 24.3

Saddleback caterpillar ( sp.), which may cause dermatitis and necrosis. The irritant is in the barbed rigid nettling hairs. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.4
Figure 24.4

Caterpillars. (left) and sp. (right). The small knobs on the body segments carry the stinging hairs, which are too small to be seen in the photograph. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.5
Figure 24.5

, the puss caterpillar. Dermatitis is caused by venom introduced into human skin by hollow larval poisonous spines and occurs 24 h after exposure. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.6
Figure 24.6

Severe reaction to multiple stings from a fire ant, , on the arm of a male in Mississippi. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.7
Figure 24.7

Sand fly ( and spp., vectors of spp.), ~5 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.8
Figure 24.8

Sand fly ( sp.). (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.9
Figure 24.9

Blackfly ( sp., vector of and spp.), 4 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.10
Figure 24.10

Deerfly ( sp., vector of ), 8 to 12 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.11
Figure 24.11

Deerfly ( sp.). (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.12
Figure 24.12

Tsetse fly ( sp., vector of African trypanosomes), 12 mm. The characteristic “hatchet” cell is seen within the circle. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.13
Figure 24.13

Stablefly ( sp.), 6 to 15 mm long. (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.14
Figure 24.14

Stablefly ( sp.), 6 to 15 mm long. (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.15
Figure 24.15

Biting midge ( sp., vector of spp.), 1 to 2.5 mm (usually 1 to 4 mm long). (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; adapted from E. C. Faust, R. F. Russell, and R. C. June, ed., , 8th ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa., 1970.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.16
Figure 24.16

Mosquito, ~4 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.17
Figure 24.17

mosquito. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.18
Figure 24.18

Fly larva and stigmal plates, 15 to 20 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.19
Figure 24.19

sp. (screwworm). (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.20
Figure 24.20

Flesh fly, which causes myiasis in humans. (Adapted from M. T. James, , 1947.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.21
Figure 24.21

Flesh fly. (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.22
Figure 24.22

Myiasis. Nodule from the pubis of a 24-year-old woman. She was bitten while in a banana grove in Colombia 2 weeks before this nodule was removed. The fly larva is coiled in a cyst that communicates with the surface. The cyst and tract are lined in part by squamous epithelium. This lesion is characteristic of the “warble” or boil of , although the species could not be determined from the section studies. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.23
Figure 24.23

Myiasis. Higher magnification of the lesion in Figure 24.22 . The larva is surrounded by an intense inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Magnification, ×9.7. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.24
Figure 24.24

Myiasis. A portion of the spiracular system of the larva shown in Figures 24.22 and 24.23 . Note the distinct tracheal rings. Magnification, ×440. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.25
Figure 24.25

Myiasis in the skin of a leg of a patient in Panama. This is the warble of of about 1 month’s duration. The shiny black spot in the center is the posterior end of the larva. This lesion was over the tibia and was painful. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.26
Figure 24.26

Myiasis. Brain of a child in Panama who died of malaria. There were several warbles on the scalp. The larva in the cavity entered through a 4-mm hole that it had bored through the anterior fontanelle. The shape and spines of the larva are consistent with (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.27
Figure 24.27

Fly larva removed from a man living in Lynchburg, Va. The patient had a pruritic “mosquito bite” on the chest, which became red and then enlarged to about 4 cm. A “head” developed, from which the patient expressed this larva. The larva was identified as sp. Magnification, ×22. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.28
Figure 24.28

Bedbug ( sp.), 5 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; based on an illustration from H. H. Najarian, , The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., 1967.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.29
Figure 24.29

Bedbug ( sp.).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.30
Figure 24.30

Triatomid bug ( sp.), 25 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.31
Figure 24.31

Triatomid bug.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.32
Figure 24.32

Blister beetles. (A) Margined (); (B) ash gray (). (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.33
Figure 24.33

, a beetle of Central America which elaborates a vesiculating toxin. Magnification, ×4. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.34
Figure 24.34

Contact dermatitis from staphylinid beetle, sp., on the body of a man in Ethiopia. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.35
Figure 24.35

Flea, 1.5 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.36
Figure 24.36

Flea. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.37
Figure 24.37

Flea (, chigoe flea), 1.5 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.38
Figure 24.38

Tungiasis. Multiple and irregularly confluent tunga craters on the foot of an African. The nonpressure areas (instep and between the toes) are the most severely involved. The weight-bearing portion of the sole tends to be spared. This patient died of tetanus. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.39
Figure 24.39

Body louse ( sp.), 1.5 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.40
Figure 24.40

Body louse ( sp.).

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.41
Figure 24.41

Crab louse ( sp.), 1 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; based on an illustration from H. H. Najarian, , The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., 1967.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.42
Figure 24.42

Crab louse. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.43
Figure 24.43

Louse. (Upper) Eggs on hair shaft; (lower) enlargement of egg on hair shaft. (Photographs courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.44
Figure 24.44

(A) Bee; (B) fire ant; (C) wasp. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.45
Figure 24.45

Typical mound of the fire ant; the height can reach 2 ft.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.46
Figure 24.46

Typical flat mound of the harvester ant; the flat area with no vegetation can range from 3 to 9 ft.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.47
Figure 24.47

(Upper) American cockroach () (illustration by Sharon Belkin); (lower)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.48
Figure 24.48

Soft tick, ~12 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; based on an illustration from H. H. Najarian, , The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., 1967.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.49
Figure 24.49

Soft tick. (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.50
Figure 24.50

Hard tick, 4 to 10 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; based on an illustration from H. H. Najarian, , The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., 1967.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.51
Figure 24.51

(Upper) Hard tick (photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention); (lower left) sp.; (lower right) sp.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.52
Figure 24.52

spp. Diagram of the female (A) and male (B) adult ticks and the nymph (C) (bar, 3 mm). (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; based on information in reference .)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.53
Figure 24.53

(Left) Scutum (the dorsal shield, being small in the female and almost covering the dorsal surface in the male) and the terminal capitulum, which is attached to the anterior end of the body of Ixodidae. Note that the scutum is nearly circular, with punctuations larger peripherally. The cornua (arrowhead) is small but definite for (Right) Scutum and the terminal capitulum. Note that the scutum is oval with uniformly distributed small punctuations (arrowhead), and the cornua is absent. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; based on information in reference .)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.54
Figure 24.54

(Upper) (Left) Adult female. (Right) Adult male. Note that there are no white markings on the dorsal surface and no eyes or festoons ( Table 24.8 ). (Lower) (Left) Adult male. (Right) Adult female.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.55
Figure 24.55

Itch mite ( sp.), –0.25 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; based on an illustration from H. H. Najarian, , The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md., 1967.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.56
Figure 24.56

Itch mite. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.57
Figure 24.57

Scabies of hand, thorax, and abdomen of a Zairian child. Lesions are complicated by scratching and secondary bacterial infection. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.58
Figure 24.58

Scabies of buttocks of a Brazilian child. There is evidence of scratching and secondary bacterial infection. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.59
Figure 24.59

Norwegian scabies over the buttocks of a 19-year-old Zairian. Scaling and crusting were severe about the elbows and from the lower trunk to the knees. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.60
Figure 24.60

Skin from the thigh of the patient in Figure 24.59 . Sections of many mites are present in the hyperkeratotic horny layer. Magnification, ×18. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.61
Figure 24.61

Close-up of two mites in a section of skin shown in Figure 24.60 . They are at the keratoepidermal junction. On the cuticle of the uppermost parasite, there are six dorsal spines. Magnification, ×275. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.62
Figure 24.62

(left) and (right). Note the rudimentary legs.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.63
Figure 24.63

in a hair follicle. (From A Pictorial Presentation of Parasites: A cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.64
Figure 24.64

Black widow spider ( sp.), 20 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.65
Figure 24.65

Black widow spider ( sp.). (Photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.66
Figure 24.66

Violin spider ( sp.), 9 to 15 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.67
Figure 24.67

Violin spider ( sp.). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.68
Figure 24.68

Tissue necrosis caused by sp. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.69
Figure 24.69

Tarantula. (Note the hairy legs.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.70
Figure 24.70

Scorpion, 30 to 40 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.71
Figure 24.71

Scorpion. Although painful, scorpion stings are rarely fatal. Exceptions are infants and children who sustain multiple stings. The venom is contained in two venom glands in the tail.

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.72
Figure 24.72

Scorpion sting. This blister has formed at the site of a scorpion sting. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.73
Figure 24.73

Centipede, 30 to 40 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.74
Figure 24.74

Millipede, 30 to 40 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 24.1

Classification of medically important arthropods

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.2

Vector-borne human infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.3

Medically important arthropods and their potential effect on humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.4

Common arthropods: diagnostic procedures and recommended therapy

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.5

Common terms used in discussing arthropods

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.6

Diptera of medical importance in myiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.7

Species infecting the skin, eyes, nose, and ears in myiasis and examples of spiracles (stigmal plates)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.8

Identification of the more common hard and soft ticks. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; adapted from National Communicable Disease Center Pictorial Keys, 1969.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.9

Descriptions of some of the more common hard ticks found in the United States

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.10

Dichotomous key to some of the arthropods important in human disease and/or disease transmission

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 24.11

Key to the important myiasis-producing larvae

Citation: Garcia L. 2007. Medically Important Arthropods, p 670-717. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816018.ch24

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