1887

Chapter 1 : Science, Technology, and Society

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Science, Technology, and Society, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816094/9781555813048_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816094/9781555813048_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on genetic modification of crop plants and tries to draw very similar pictures for the history of genetically modifying virtually all of the organisms people use, such as domesticated animals, yeasts that make bread and wine, or microbes that produce antibiotics. When Mendel conducted his research, the prevailing model of inheritance involved fluid hereditary material that blended together when egg and sperm fused, much like mixing two colors of paint. While the fluid-blending model of heredity may have organized one set of observations, that both parents contribute hereditary material to the offspring, it ignored another set of observations: nature’s extraordinary variation. Mendel’s research proved that the fluid-blending model of inheritance was inaccurate by demonstrating that the hereditary material that passes from one generation to the next is organized as discrete packets of information. Restriction enzymes, in conjunction with other enzymes, allow researchers to move single genes between organisms. Because of the unity of life described earlier, all organisms can read the DNA instruction book of any other organism and convert the genetic information into the appropriate protein. The societal forces altering science and technology include economics, ethics, government policies, and public opinion. Many diverse industrial sectors use biotechnology to conduct research, develop new products, and improve processes. Therefore, like all technology, biotechnology will drive economic growth by stimulating industrial productivity.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Hepatitis B Vaccine
0.43839368
0.43839368
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1

Refining crude oil. Engineers had to develop a large-scale process to produce gasoline from crude oil when the sudden popularity of automobiles created a surge in the demand for gasoline. The process, known as distillation, uses heat to separate the hundreds of compounds found in crude oil from each other. The different compounds in heated oil turn from gas back to liquid form at different temperatures. As crude oil vapors rise in the distillation column, they gradually cool, and different sets of compounds, or fractions, are collected as they become liquid again. At first, oil refiners saved only the gasoline fraction and threw away the others. Later, they realized that all of the fractions had uses.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2

Technology development. Not all technologies that are both scientifically and technically possible make it all the way through the development process and become commercialized. They must pass through a series of filters, created by society, before they become reality. The order of the filters shown does not necessarily reflect the actual sequence of barriers that every technology confronts during development, except the final filter, market forces. Only certain technologies that are commercialized are successful in the marketplace.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.3
Figure 1.3

In today's world, the relationship between progress in science and technology is circular, not linear. Changes in one lead to changes in the other. In addition, the relationship between the two is reciprocal: science is as important to technology as technology is to science.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.4
Figure 1.4

The nature of science. The yellow line indicates how science is taught, but the blue lines show how science is conducted.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.5
Figure 1.5

The scientific process. Science always begins with observations of the physical world. Those observations may come from observing nature, conducting an experiment, or reading the scientific literature. First, the scientist uses inductive reasoning (from specific to general) to create a generalization to explain a set of observations, which are often referred to as facts. Then, the process is turned on its head, and the scientist uses deductive reasoning (from general to specific) to make a prediction based on the generalization. The scientist then tests the prediction to see if it is correct. If the prediction is not accurate, the generalization is either revised or rejected. If the prediction is accurate, the generalization is accepted. Scientists, however, can never prove that a generalization is accurate.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.6
Figure 1.6

Crop genetic modification. The wild ancestor of corn, teosinte, bears little resemblance to modern corn. Ancient farmers in Central America used genetic modification through seed selection to convert teosinte, which had been a wild gathered plant, to corn.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.7
Figure 1.7

The first microscope. In the 16th century, Zacharias Johanssen, a theatrical producer whose hobby was lens grinding, invented the first microscope. Scientists would look through the lens opening on one side of the metal plate to study objects mounted on the point of a pin on the other side. They would bring objects into focus by moving the pin with a system of screws.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.8
Figure 1.8

Flowering plant reproduction. A single flower usually contains both male and female reproductive organs and gametes from both sexes. The male organ, the anther, releases pollen, which fertilizes ovules (eggs) and leads to the production of fruit and seeds. Seeds contain the embryos from that fertilization event. Many plants can self-pollinate in addition to cross-pollinating.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.9
Figure 1.9

Models of inheritance. Shown are graphic representations of two models of inheritance, fluid blending and discrete particle.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.10
Figure 1.10

Discrete-particle inheritance. Mendel's theory of heredity provided an explanation for the observation that nature contains a great deal of diversity.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.11
Figure 1.11

Inheritance of flower color. Mendel ordered his experimental results (observations) into a number of generalizations that ultimately led to his theory of inheritance. Two of the most important generalizations he constructed are the concept of dominant and recessive genes and the idea that organisms that look the same (have the same phenotype) can have different genotypes. Purple flower color is dominant to white flower color.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.12
Figure 1.12

Discovery of the transforming factor by Frederick Griffith. The virulent strain of a pneumonia-causing bacterium has a gene for a protective outer covering that gives it a smooth appearance. The nonvirulent (rough) strain does not have this gene and is therefore recognized and attacked by the immune system. When Griffith mixed nonvirulent live bacteria with heat-killed virulent bacteria, the gene for the protective coat moved from the dead smooth bacteria into the rough forms and transformed them into virulent bacteria.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.13
Figure 1.13

Experiments of Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase. One group of bacteriophage viruses containing protein labeled with the radioactive isotope S and a second group containing DNA labeled with the radioactive isotope P infected bacteria by injecting their genetic material into the host's cells. Hershey and Chase separated the viral coats from the bacterial cells and found S in the viral coats and P within the bacterial cells. Viral progeny that resulted from the infection also contained P, confirming that DNA is the genetic material because it had been transmitted from one generation of viruses to the next.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1.14
Figure 1.14

Schematic representation of DNA. Long before Watson and Crick determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA, biochemists had proven that it was a very long molecule composed of a subunit that repeated many times. The subunit consisted of a phosphate (P) attached to a sugar, which was also attached to one of four nitrogenous bases. The four bases are represented by the familiar letters A, T, C, and G that people associate with DNA.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816094.chap1

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.1

Fundamental differences between science and technology

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.2

Time lapse between technology introduction and widespread use

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.3

The four classes of biological molecules

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.4

Biotechnologies

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.5

Examples of industrial sectors affected by biotechnologies

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Generic image for table
Untitled

Pea characteristics studied by Mendel

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.6

Examples of genes and traits transferred to bread wheat from plants in different species but the same genus (interspecific cross) and different genera (intergeneric cross)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.7

Increasing wheat production

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Science, Technology, and Society, p 3-32. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error