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Chapter 10 : Cells Differentiate

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Cells Differentiate, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Much of the understanding of both cell differentiation and development comes from the study of model organisms. Studies of the fruit fly and the nematode, because they are small enough to be housed by the multiple thousands and because they can be easily mutagenized, led to the isolation of developmental mutants and thus to the identification of many genes important in development. Development involves differentiation, the process through which cells become specialized in form and function, and morphogenesis, the combination of cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and death that produces the final shape of the body. Cells of an early mammalian embryo are said to be totipotent because they can differentiate into all types of adult cells. The various differentiated cells within an organism have the same genetic content, but they express different sets of genes and thus make different specialized protein products. Differential gene expression is usually controlled at the level of transcription. During development, cells signal to one another via proteins or other chemicals. These signals bind to receptors on target cells and elicit changes in the targets. Differentiation begins in a embryo because the maternal cells surrounding the egg deposited mRNA and proteins at specific places in the egg.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10

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Gene Expression and Regulation
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.1
Figure 10.1

The fruit fly . Normal fly. A homeotic mutant with an extra pair of wing segments instead of the normal haltere segment. (Photographs by Ed Lewis, courtesy of the California Institute of Technology Archives.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.2
Figure 10.2

The nematode . (Photograph courtesy of David Gems, University College London.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.3
Figure 10.3

The zebrafish . A 24-hour embryo. A newly hatched 3-day fish. (Photographs courtesy of Steven Baskauf [http://bioimages.cas. vanderbilt.edu].)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.4
Figure 10.4

Differentiation of blood stem cells into blood cells. All of the different blood cells develop from stem cells located in the bone marrow. Electron micrograph of red blood cells (red), macrophages (blue), and T lymphocytes (pink). The colors were added artificially. (Photograph copyright Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.5
Figure 10.5

TJ (left) and Annabelle have identical coloring, but TJ's melanocytes migrated further than Annabelle's during his embryonic development. TJ's white chest and muzzle patches are smaller than Annabelle's, and TJ has a single white toe compared to Annabelle's white socks. (Photograph of TJ courtesy of Thomas A.Martin. Photograph of Annabelle courtesy of John and Jennifer Kleinschmidt.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.6
Figure 10.6

Transcription factors bind to DNA base sequences called enhancers and interact with the RNA polymerase complex at the promoter, initiating transcription. The DNA between the promoter and the enhancer folds into a loop.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.7
Figure 10.7

Many eukaryotic transcription factors have one domain that binds to an enhancer DNA base sequence and a second domain that interacts with the RNA polymerase complex.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.8
Figure 10.8

Many transcription factors work in pairs, allowing a few factors to activate several different enhancers. Three two-domain transcription factors. Three factors can activate transcription from a total of six different enhancers. Both enhancer DNA sequence “halves” must be bound by transcription factors for activation to occur.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.9
Figure 10.9

Transcription of the amylase gene in the salivary gland is controlled by an enhancer sequence. The human amylase gene has a salivary-gland-specific enhancer and is transcribed in the salivary gland. Humans have amylase in their saliva. The dog amylase gene does not have a salivary-gland-specific enhancer and is not transcribed there. Dogs do not have amylase in their saliva.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.10
Figure 10.10

Theanterior-posterior body axis in embryos is established by proteins synthesized from mRNA deposited at opposite ends of the egg by cells in the mother fly.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.11
Figure 10.11

Bicoid and nanos proteins regulate the expression of further proteins,such as hunchback (H) and Kruppel (K).These proteins in turn activate others, dividing the embryo into stripes, which become body segments. In this photograph of a embryo, the hunchback and Kruppel proteins are stained different colors, revealing their locations: green, H; red, K; yellow, both are present. (Photograph courtesy of Jim Langeland, Steve Paddock, and Sean Carroll, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Wisconsin.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.12
Figure 10.12

Normal and antennapedia fly heads. (Photographs by Rudi Turner, courtesy of Flybase [http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu.])

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.13
Figure 10.13

Homologous homeotic genes control the development of anterior and posterior body segments in and the mouse.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.14
Figure 10.14

Gastrulation, shown as it occurs in the sea urchin.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.15a
Figure 10.15a

Early human embryos. An eight-cell human embryo. A trophoblast with visible inner cell mass. (Photographs courtesy of Michael Vernon, West Virginia University Center for Reproductive Medicine.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.15b
Figure 10.15b

Early human embryos. An eight-cell human embryo. A trophoblast with visible inner cell mass. (Photographs courtesy of Michael Vernon, West Virginia University Center for Reproductive Medicine.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.16
Figure 10.16

Graphic portrayal of human chromosomes showing the 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. The chromosomes are drawn as X shaped because they are visible at metaphase, when they consist of two chromatids connected at the centromere.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.17
Figure 10.17

Development of sex organs in mammals.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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Image of Figure 10.18
Figure 10.18

The sex differentiation cascade.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10
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References

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Tables

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Table 10.1

Specialized products of differentiated cell types

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Differentiate, p 205-232. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch10

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