1887

Chapter 16 : Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816094/9781555813048_Chap16-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816094/9781555813048_Chap16-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses ways in which biological tools are used to accomplish specific goals such as finding genes, analyzing genotypes, generating DNA fingerprints, and genetically engineering both plants and animals. One of the hottest new techniques in biotechnology provides the ability to silence the expression of specific genes. DNA comparisons can be used on a broad scale to assess the degree of relatedness of two species or on a tightly focused individual level to determine whether two DNA-containing samples could have come from the same individual. Mitochondrial DNA analysis is used to determine relatedness through the female line of descent. It can be used in evolutionary studies of fairly recent events to determine the likely ancestry and time of divergence of species or to identify family members of persons living or dead. Genetic markers are easily detected features within a chromosome that are inherited with a specific phenotype or genotype and can be used as a surrogate indicator of the presence of a particular allele. Microarrays, or gene chips, are ordered grids of thousands of nucleotide probes that represent many genes of interest. They are hybridized with sample genomic DNA to reveal genotypes or with sample mRNA to reveal gene expression patterns. Genetic engineering is the directed manipulation of an organism’s genome. Engineering a plant involves techniques of plant tissue culture, in which an entire plant can be regenerated from engineered cells. Engineering animals involves manipulations of eggs or early embryos, since only those cells can develop into whole organisms.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.43640053
0.43640053
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 16.1
Figure 16.1

Isolating mutants that cannot biosynthesize histidine (His).

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.2
Figure 16.2

Using an mutant to find an gene.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.3
Figure 16.3

Analysis of the DNA of genetically obese mice led scientists to genes involved in weight regulation. (Photograph courtesy of Jeffrey Friedman, The Rockefeller Institute.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.4
Figure 16.4

Purebred dogs are an excellent resource for scientists curious about the genetic basis of many different traits. Scientists in Mexico are analyzing the DNA of short legged breeds such as the basset hound to determine the molecular basis of their dwarfism. The DNA profile of this basset hound, Champion Rebec's Fuzzy Navel, ROM (aka Fuzzy), is on file with the American Kennel Club. (Photograph courtesy of Reed and Becky Pomeroy, Rebec Bassets.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.5
Figure 16.5

Genetic testing for SSA. bp, base pairs.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.6
Figure 16.6

The breeding of drought-resistant rice for use in eastern India was facilitated by genetic markers. Rice is a staple crop for billions of people in developed and less-developed countries. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

Madagascar is a large island off the east coast of Africa.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

The falanouc is one of Madagascar's unique carnivores. (Photograph courtesy of the Field Museum, Chicago, Ill., #CSZ77048.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

Gene sequence comparisons revealed that Madagascar’s carnivores descended from one common ancestor whose closest living relative is the mongoose. (Diagram courtesy of John Flynn, Marlene Donnelly, and Anne Yoder, the Field Museum, Chicago, Ill.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

Mitochondrial DNA. kb, kilobases.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

Inheritance of mitochondrial DNA is matrilineal. That is, the mitochondrial genotype (symbolized here by the colors in the male and female symbols) is inherited from the mother. Note that all family members related through the female line share the same mitochondrial genotype.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.7
Figure 16.7

Evolutionary tree based on the amino acid sequence of the protein cytochrome . The numbers represent the number of amino acid changes between two nodes of the tree. For example, when the common ancestor of cartilaginous fish diverged from the line leading to bony fish, mammals, etc., it evolved and accumulated two amino acid changes in its cytochrome protein before the lines leading to dogfish and lamprey diverged. The dogfish line accumulated nine more amino acid changes in becoming the modern organism, while the lamprey accumulated eight changes. Thus, the amino acid sequences of cytochrome in modern lampreys and dogfish have 17 differences. (From A. Lehninger, D. Nelson, and M. Cox, , 2nd ed., Worth Publishers, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1993, with permission.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.8
Figure 16.8

Scientists obtain information about evolutionary changes by analyzing DNA from ancient specimens, such as insects trapped in amber. This insect is a timber beetle. (Photograph courtesy of Fossilmall.com.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.9
Figure 16.9

Neanderthals (skull cast on right), with their large brains and anatomy similar to ours, were long believed to be direct ancestors of modern humans (skull model on left).Mitochondrial DNA analysis suggests that modern humans instead arose independently of Neanderthals and displaced them. (Photograph courtesy of SOMSO Models, Coburg, Germany.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.10
Figure 16.10

RFLP analysis. L, ladder; E, evidence; S, suspect 1; S, suspect 2.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.11
Figure 16.11

Variation in the numbers of tandem (head-to-tail) repeated sequences at many different locations within the genome provides a basis for genetic fingerprinting. To generate a fingerprint, laboratory technicians amplify many different loci using a specific set of primers for each one, or they digest the sample DNA with restriction enzymes known to cut at sites flanking the repeats.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.12
Figure 16.12

Parentage testing by DNA typing. To conduct a test, the DNA fingerprints of the child and the alleged parent are compared. Every band in the child's fingerprint should be present in that of either the mother or father, since a child inherits half its DNA from each parent.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.13
Figure 16.13

Lions are the only cats who live in large social groups, or prides. A pride is made up of 3 to 30 lions, consisting of related adult females and their cubs along with a few males who are not related to the females. DNA typing is revealing new information about social behavior and genetic variation in lions. (Photograph courtesy of the St. Louis Zoo.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.14
Figure 16.14

This handheld device contains a gene chip with thousands of probes. (Photograph courtesy of Affymetrix, Inc.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.15
Figure 16.15

DNA chips can reveal an individual's genotype by hybridizing his or her DNA to probes specific to the known alleles of the gene.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.16
Figure 16.16

A developed gene chip must be read by computerized sensors. (Photograph courtesy of Affymetrix, Inc.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.17
Figure 16.17

Genes are often cloned so that their expression can be controlled. For example, a gene cloned with the promoter will be expressed only if lactose is present in the growth medium.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.18
Figure 16.18

Plant tissue culture. Pieces of plant tissue can be induced to form undifferentiated callus cells (plates on right). Manipulation of hormones in the growth medium causes the callus to differentiate into tiny plantlets (plates on left). Close-up of plantlet. Note the fuzzy roots and tiny leaves. (Photographs courtesy of Syngenta.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

A stand of transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya plants surrounded by PRSV-sensitive plants that have been ravaged by the virus. (Photograph courtesy of Dennis Gonsalves, USDA.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.19
Figure 16.19

Researchers at Virginia Tech produced transgenic pigs that secrete human blood-clotting proteins in their milk. Hemophilia patients can be treated with the purified clotting factors without incurring the risk of infection posed by multiple transfusions of human blood. (Photograph courtesy of Virginia Tech Photo.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.20
Figure 16.20

Making a transgenic mouse with ES cells.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.21
Figure 16.21

Chimeric mice produced via the fusion of ES cells and a blastocyst. The white fur is derived from blastocyst cells, while the brown fur is derived from the ES cells. (Photograph courtesy of Murinus GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 16.22
Figure 16.22

RNAi.In RNAi, dsRNA homologous to the RNA of the gene to be silenced is used. The cellular enzyme Dicer cleaves the dsRNA into short siRNAs. A second cellular protein uses homology between the siRNA and the target mRNA to locate the target by hybridization and then cleave it.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Biotechnology in the Research Laboratory, p 385-418. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch16
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816094.chap16

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error