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Chapter 7 : Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments

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Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter discusses how cells sense and respond to their environments, and also talks about various kinds of transport proteins involved in moving substances in and out of cells. The cell membrane determines whether energy is required to transport something and some of the many proteins embedded in the cell membrane are transport proteins. There are different types of transport proteins for different substances and situations. This chapter discusses how transport proteins function to transmit one's nerve impulses and make the heart beat and how disturbances in ion gradients can disrupt these critical body functions. The family members with hereditary heart failure have an altered form of the regulatory protein with a shape that cannot be phosphorylated. Without the phosphate group, the regulatory protein constantly inhibits the pump. Lactose intolerance results from a lack of the enzyme lactase that breaks the complex milk sugar lactose into its simple- sugar components, glucose and galactose. Water-salt imbalance also explains the symptoms of people who have cystic fibrosis, the most common fatal inherited disease of Caucasians. Water follows solutes in the body. Water will move across membranes and through aquaporins, when possible, to maintain osmotic balance in various cell compartments.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Small Intestine
0.596032
Carrier Proteins
0.56704044
Amino Acids
0.5665285
Hydrophobic Molecules
0.551606
Hydrophilic Molecules
0.54619807
0.596032
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Figures

Image of Figure 7.1
Figure 7.1

The basis of the cell membrane is a lipid bilayer.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.2
Figure 7.2

The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Many of the external membrane proteins have attached carbohydrate groups.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.3
Figure 7.3

Diffusion happens. If not blocked, substances will move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.4
Figure 7.4

Energy is released when substances move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration. It takes energy to move a substance from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.5
Figure 7.5

A gated channel protein allows its target substance to pass through when the gate is open. Transport is with the concentration gradient.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.6
Figure 7.6

The glucose carrier protein binds to glucose and permits it to pass through the cell membrane. Transport is with the concentration gradient.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.7
Figure 7.7

The glucose pump uses the energy of sodium ions moving down their concentration gradient to transport glucose against its gradient.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.8
Figure 7.8

Inhibition of calcium pumping in hereditary heart failure.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.9
Figure 7.9

Intestinal microvilli. (Photograph copyright Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.10
Figure 7.10

Structure of the intestinal epithelium.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.11
Figure 7.11

Transport of glucose from the small intestine into the bloodstream.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.12
Figure 7.12

A system of pumps and carrier proteins keeps glucose flowing from the small intestine into the bloodstream.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.13
Figure 7.13

Water balance in a cell. Water will move in or out of a cell in response to the solute concentration in the environment.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.14
Figure 7.14

Red blood cells illustrate osmosis. Blood cells and the environment are in osmotic balance. The environment has a higher salt concentration than the cells' cytoplasm. Water has flowed out of the blood cells, leaving them shriveled. (Photograph copyright Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 7.1

Approximate concentrations of ions in intracellular and extracellular fluids

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Maintain Their Internal Environments, p 137-156. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch7

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