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Chapter 8 : Cells Respond to Their External Environments

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Cells Respond to Their External Environments, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter discusses the types of cell signals and cell receptors, examples of direct interaction between the environment and single-celled organisms, how hormones regulate the environment within multicellular organisms regulation of glucose concentration in the blood, regulation of salt and water balance and blood pressure. A key concept for the chapter is that in order for a cell (or, by extension, a multicellular organism) to respond to signals from the environment, all the steps from the signal to the effect must be in place. The chapter discusses some examples of cascades related to some of the ways our bodies regulate salt and water balance. Some basics of signaling and response are illustrated by an example from the bacterium . The interconnected system of hormones that regulate body’s blood pressure and salt and water balance, and the major hormones involved in blood pressure regulation are explained. Each of these hormones has a receptor through which it exerts its effects. Taking diabetes as an example, one might assume that blood pressure regulation could be impaired by either a failure to make one of the hormones or a failure to respond to it. Kidney failure is treated with dialysis, in which blood is pumped through porous membrane tubes suspended in fluid containing healthy concentrations of salt and glucose.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Blood Glucose
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Sodium Channels
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Anticancer Drugs
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Chemicals
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Ion Channels
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Figures

Image of Figure 8.1
Figure 8.1

When a chemical signal binds to its receptor protein, the receptor's shape and activity change.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.2
Figure 8.2

The pathway leading from a signal to a response often involves a cascade of changes.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.3
Figure 8.3

Regulation of lactose utilization genes in . No lactose in cells; active repressor prevents transcription. Lactose in cells; inactive lactose-repressor complex cannot bind to DNA. Transcription occurs.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.4
Figure 8.4

Slime mold amoebas swarm toward a chemical signal, piling onto one another at the focus. (Photograph courtesy of Danton O' Day, University of Toronto at Mississauga, Mississauga, Canada.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.5
Figure 8.5

Imagine you saw this grizzly bear near you while you were hiking in a remote area. Can you feel changes in your body just thinking about it? If you received this signal for real, a multitude of coordinated responses would prepare you to run for your life. (Photograph copyright Ross Warner.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.6
Figure 8.6

The three-dimensional structures of insulin and glucagon. Insulin. (Structure courtesy of G. G. Dodson.) Glucagon. (Structure courtesy of T. Blundell.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.7
Figure 8.7

An increase in glucose concentration inside beta cells of the pancreas causes release of insulin from vesicles. Glucose concentration is low. Insulin remains in vesicles. Glucose concentration is high. Insulin is released.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.8
Figure 8.8

Blood insulin concentration during an hour-long infusion of glucose. The initial spike (before 10 minutes) is caused by the release of stored insulin from vesicles. The rise in concentration beginning around 15 minutes is due to the release of newly transcribed and translated insulin.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.9
Figure 8.9

Effect of insulin on glucose transport in target cells. Low insulin concentration in blood. Glucose transporters are stored in vesicles. High insulin concentration in blood. Insulin receptors are activated, stimulating insertion of glucose transporters into the cell membrane. The target cell absorbs glucose.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.10
Figure 8.10

Responses to high and low blood glucose levels.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.11
Figure 8.11

A blood pressure cuff measures blood pressure by determining how much pressure is required to stop blood flow.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.12
Figure 8.12

Solute transport in the kidney.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.13
Figure 8.13

Effect of hormone-regulated channels on the salt and water content of urine.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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Image of Figure 8.14
Figure 8.14

The renin-angiotensin cascade.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 8.1

Receptors and the five senses

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 8.2

Examples of human hormones

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 8.3

Two types of diabetes mellitus

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 8.4

Major hormone systems affecting blood pressure

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 8.5

Key hormones involved in regulating salt and water balance and blood pressure

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Respond to Their External Environments, p 157-182. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch8

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