1887

Chapter 9 : Cells Grow and Reproduce

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Cells Grow and Reproduce, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816094/9781555813048_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816094/9781555813048_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses the general kinds of genes involved in cancer and shows how two environmental carcinogens work to stimulate its development. DNA replication involves the synthesis of a molecule, and like other cellular synthesis processes, it is carried out by an enzyme. Replication initiation, therefore, is carefully controlled. It begins with the binding of proteins to unique sequences of DNA bases called replication origins. After mitosis is complete, the cell splits in two in a process called cytokinesis. The production of daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the mother cell is the point of cell reproduction. Cell reproduction has to involve the coordinated, regulated processes of growth, DNA replication, chromosome distribution, and cell division. Damaged DNA activates the expression of the gene. The p53 protein activates the G1 checkpoint and halts the division cycle before DNA replication begins. This is important, because otherwise the damaged DNA would be copied and mutations would be transmitted to daughter cells. To become a cancer cell, a normal cell must accumulate mutations in several different genes. These mutations are then transmitted to the cell’s cancerous descendants. The most important message here, though, is that full-fledged cancer requires the accumulation of multiple mutations in genes that normally regulate cell division. Genetic testing is a new tool for managing cancer and its risks.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

DNA Synthesis
0.7830524
Programmed Cell Death
0.5500011
UV-Induced DNA Damage
0.4986368
Cellular Processes
0.49713835
DNA Damage and Repair
0.43039972
DNA
0.41573513
0.7830524
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 9.1
Figure 9.1

DNA structure. DNA consists of two complementary nucleotide strands held together by base-pairing between adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.2
Figure 9.2

DNA replication. Each strand of the parent DNA molecule is used as a template for synthesizing a new complementary strand.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.3
Figure 9.3

In DNA replication, DNA polymerase binds to the nucleotide triphosphate that makes the correct pair with the template base and forms a bond between the 3' OH group of the growing strand and the 5' phosphate groups of the incoming nucleotide. A diphosphate is cleaved from the incoming nucleotide when the bond is formed.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.4
Figure 9.4

Initiation of DNA replication.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.5
Figure 9.5

The base guanine can spontaneously assume an alternate form that pairs with T instead of C.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.6
Figure 9.6

Replication of a mismatched base pair leads to a mutation.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.7
Figure 9.7

Proofreading by DNA polymerase during DNA replication.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.8
Figure 9.8

Getting ready for mitosis.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Untitled
Untitled

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.9
Figure 9.9

Mitosis and cytokinesis.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.10
Figure 9.10

Spindle fibers attach to each chromatid by binding to the kinetochore at the centromere.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.11
Figure 9.11

The cell cycle.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.12
Figure 9.12

Growth factors must be present for a cell to pass the restriction point and commit to divide. Without growth factors, cells enter into G.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.13
Figure 9.13

Checkpoints in the cell cycle.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.14
Figure 9.14

A single G →T mutation changes the normal Ras protein to a permanently active oncogenic form.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.15
Figure 9.15

The development of full-fledged cancer involves the accumulation of multiple mutations that promote more and more aggressive growth.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.16
Figure 9.16

Accumulation of mutations in colon cancer.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.17
Figure 9.17

Breast cancer and inherited mutations. Most, though not all, women with inherited mutations in or will develop breast cancer, but most breast cancer is sporadic and develops in women without the inherited mutations.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.18
Figure 9.18

UV light damages DNA by promoting the formation of thymine dimers.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 9.19
Figure 9.19

The excision repair system removes DNA damage that distorts the DNA helix, such as thymine dimers.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816094.chap9

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 9.1

Some cancer genes and the normal physiological roles of their products

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2005. Cells Grow and Reproduce, p 183-204. In Biology and Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816094.ch9

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error