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Chapter 1 : An Overview of Biotechnology

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Abstract:

In the field of human health, biotechnology will bring new ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Human use and manipulation of microorganisms extend well beyond food fermentations. Most of the commercial applications of biotechnology will be in three markets: human health care, agriculture, and environmental management. For medical researchers, some of the most important outcomes of advances in biotechnology are not commercial products but the powerful research tools biotechnology provides. Nonetheless, scientists have made remarkable progress in plant biotechnology, largely because of improvements in two fundamental techniques of biotechnology: genetic engineering and plant cell and tissue culture. The field of animal agriculture will continue to progress as biotechnology provides new ways to improve animal health and increase productivity. In summary, no matter what stage of industrial production you choose-inputs, manufacturing process, or final product-modern biotechnology provides industry with tools, techniques, and know-how to move beyond command-and-control regulatory compliance to proactive pollution prevention and resource conservation strategies that are characteristic of industrial sustainability. An essential advantage of biotechnology over other technologies is that it is based on biology. The techniques of biotechnology also provide novel methods for diagnosing environmental problems and assessing normal environmental conditions so that we can be more informed environmental stewards in the future.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Immune System Proteins
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Transforming Growth Factor beta
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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.1
Figure 1.1

The wild ancestor of corn, teosinte, bears little resemblance to modern corn. (A) Ancient farmers in Central America used genetic modification through seed selection to convert teosinte, which had been a wild gathered plant and is only 3 to 4 in. long, into corn. (Image courtesy of Nicolle Rager Fuller, National Science Foundation.) (B) Seeds from modern corn and teosinte.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.2
Figure 1.2

Radiolabeled antibodies confirm that the patient's cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, because radioactivity, indicated by the dark areas, is detected in the lymph nodes of the armpits, neck, and groin. A strong outline of the patient's body also verifies skin involvement in the cancer. The patient's liver and spleen are also darkened, because all antibodies normally collect in those organs. (Photograph courtesy of Jorge Carrasquillo, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.3
Figure 1.3

Large-scale mammalian cell culture and microbial fermentation, carried out in bioreactors such as this, are biologically based manufacturing processes that utilize the biochemical machinery of cells to manufacture useful products. (Photograph courtesy of Diosynth RTP, Inc., a subsidiary of Organon.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.4
Figure 1.4

(A) Useful metabolic products (in boldface type) of glucose breakdown provided by various microorganisms. (B) Chemicals currently produced by microbial fermentation of glucose and their industrial applications.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.5
Figure 1.5

oil spill, Alaska. Rocks on the beach before (right) and after (left) bioremediation are shown. (Photograph courtesy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.6
Figure 1.6

Stages of plant cell culture from callus, a mass of undifferentiated plant tissue, to plantlet.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.7
Figure 1.7

Schematic drawing of a simple biosensor.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.8
Figure 1.8

Schematic representation of the movement of a gene for a desired trait (colored circle) to a crop plant from its wild relative. Two methods of gene transfer are depicted: selective breeding and genetic engineering. Note that in selective breeding, sets of genes of unknown function are transferred from the wild relative to the crop plant. In genetic engineering, a single gene of known function is transferred.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.9
Figure 1.9

(Left) Corn plant genetically engineered to produce the protein from Bt that kills caterpillars that ingest it. (Right) Damage by European corn borer caterpillars to cornstalks that do not contain the Bt gene. (Photograph courtesy of Syngenta, Inc., RTP, NC.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.10
Figure 1.10

Schematic representation of antisense technology. In this example, the antisense oligonucleotide is an RNA molecule that blocks protein production by preventing the binding of messenger RNA (mRNA) to the ribosome.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.11
Figure 1.11

Microarray technology. The “lab chip” devices shown here enable fast, automated analysis of DNA, RNA, proteins, and cells. These chips rely on the principles of microfluidics to manipulate tiny amounts of liquid within a miniaturized system. (Photograph courtesy of Agilent Technologies.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.12
Figure 1.12

Nanotechnology. (A) Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have built robots that are one-quarter of an inch long and weigh less than 1 oz. (B) Powered by three watch batteries, these autonomous, untethered robots may one day perform tasks carried out by large robots today, such as disabling land mines and detecting biological and chemical weapons. (Courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories; Randy Montoya, photographer.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.13
Figure 1.13

Synthesis of scientific and technical knowledge from many academic disciplines has produced a set of enabling technologies—the biotechnologies. Any one technology will be applied to a number of industries to produce an even broader array of products.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.14
Figure 1.14

(A) The anticancer drug taxol occurs in the bark of the slow-growing Pacific yew tree, which reaches 5 ft in a number of decades. (B) It takes 30,000 pounds of bark to produce 1 kg of taxol. Between 2,000 and 4,000 trees are cut down to obtain that much bark. Plant cell culture provides another method for taxol production. (Photographs courtesy of National Institutes of Health; Mike Trumball, Hauser Northwest, photographer.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.15
Figure 1.15

Treating cancer with immune system molecules. Mice with lung cancer (left) were treated with activated killer T cells and interleukin-2. More than 250 tumor foci were reduced to fewer than 12 in mice receiving this treatment (right). (Photograph courtesy of Steven Rosenberg, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.16
Figure 1.16

Gene therapy. (A) Children with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), which can have a number of causes, must spend their lives in germ-free environments. (Photograph courtesy of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.) (B) In 1991, two children with SCID received gene therapy to correct the genetic defect. (Photograph courtesy of Michael Blaese, National Institutes of Health.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.17
Figure 1.17

Some cancer vaccines teach the immune system to recognize tumors as foreign. (A) A metastatic cancer cell (note the long arms, or pseudopods, that permit certain cancer cells to move). (B) Immune system cells, the macrophages, recognize the cancer cell and begin to stick to it. (C) Macrophages inject toxins into the cancer cell, which begins losing its pseudopods. (D) The macrophages fuse with the cancer cell, which shrinks up and dies. (Scanning electron micrographs courtesy of Raouf Guirgus and Susan Arnold, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.18
Figure 1.18

To maintain a constant supply of stem cells while continuing to provide differentiated cells for renewing tissue, a single stem cell divides into two daughter cells. One daughter differentiates, and one daughter remains a stem cell.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.19
Figure 1.19

Tissue engineering. A surgeon prepares to apply a sheet of artificially produced human skin to a patient. (Photograph copyright SIU/Visuals Unlimited.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.20
Figure 1.20

To produce vaccines to viral diseases, the virus must be grown in living tissue. Typically, companies that manufacture vaccines use the embryos in chicken eggs. In this photograph, pockmarks (light areas) in chick embryonic tissue indicate colonies of the smallpox virus. (Photograph courtesy of John Noble, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.21
Figure 1.21

Plasmids altered to carry a gene for a protein (antigen) produced by a pathogen are injected into muscle cells. The gene encoding the antigen is transcribed in the nucleus into messenger RNA (mRNA), which moves to the ribosome, where it is translated into the antigen. The cell secretes some copies of the antigen into the bloodstream and chops others into small pieces. Proteins that identify every cell in the body as “self” carry the antigen pieces to the cell surface. In response, the immune system synthesizes T cells that will recognize the pathogen's antigen, while the secreted antigens trigger the production of antibodies by the B cells of the immune system.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.22
Figure 1.22

Scanning electron micrograph of infecting a plant cell. (Photograph courtesy of Ann Matthysse, Biology Department, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.23
Figure 1.23

Global acreage of transgenic crops. Comparable data for adoption of transgenic crops by farmers in the United States can be found at http://www.ers.usda.gov/data/biotechcrops/alltables.xls.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.24
Figure 1.24

Parasitic wasps are effective biocontrol agents. Female wasps deposit eggs inside caterpillars, where larvae develop and feed. After the larvae emerge, they form white ovoid pupal cases attached to the caterpillar's body. (Image courtesy of Lacy L. Hyche, photographer.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.25
Figure 1.25

(A) Alfalfa nitrogen-fixing nodules. (Photograph copyright C. P. Vance/Visuals Unlimited.) (B) Alfalfa nodule cells containing actively nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Magnification, 3640. (Photograph copyright C. P. Vance/Visuals Unlimited.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.26
Figure 1.26

Because Bt corn provides better protection against insect damage, there are fewer holes in the corn plant that can be infected with fungal pathogens, such as University researchers in the United States, France, Italy, Spain, Turkey, and Argentina have documented lower levels of pathogen infection and mycotoxin contamination in Bt corn.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.27
Figure 1.27

A natural mutation of a gene involved in muscle growth leads to double muscling, which increases the productivity of beef cattle and improves the quality of their meat. (Photograph courtesy of Keith Weller, U.S. Department of Agriculture.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.28
Figure 1.28

Sylvia, the black and white cow, is the biological mother of all of the calves in the photograph. Embryos derived from Sylvia's eggs were implanted into the brown and white cows on the left, which served as surrogate mothers for Sylvia's calves. (Photograph courtesy of Colorado State University.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.29
Figure 1.29

Gasoline from an underground storage tank seeps through the soil to the water table. After the leak is stopped, the free-floating gasoline is pumped out to a recovery tank, and polluted groundwater is pumped into a bioreactor with oxygen, nutrients, and hungry microbes. After the microbes eat the gasoline, the mixture of clean water, nutrients, and microbes is pumped back into the ground so that more of the pollutant can be degraded.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.30
Figure 1.30

Microbes living in extreme environments, such as hot pools in Yellowstone National Park, will provide industrial manufacturing companies with enzymes that retain their functions under extreme manufacturing conditions. (Photograph courtesy of Thomas A. Martin.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.31
Figure 1.31

The bus uses diesel fuel derived from soybean oil. (Photograph courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Nebraska Soybean Board.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.32
Figure 1.32

Biofine Corporation in Waltham, MA, has developed a process that converts plant starch, including cellulose, into small organic molecules that can serve as a monomer for synthesizing many chemicals. (Photograph courtesy of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Image of Figure 1.33
Figure 1.33

On-site monitoring of environmental pollutants with MAb technology. (Photograph courtesy of EnSys, Inc.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816100.chap1
1. Anderson, W. F. 1995. Gene therapy. Scientific American 273:124128. Somewhat dated, but still interesting, this article was written by a pioneer in gene therapy who was involved in the first replacement gene therapy trials. In 1997, Scientific American (276[5]) also produced a special edition on gene therapy.
2. Bains, William B. 2004. Biotechnology from A to Z Oxford University Press, Oxford, England. A concise reference for some of the basic terms used in biotechnology and molecular biology.
3. Bloom, M.,, and J. Greenberg. 2006. BSCS Biology: a Molecular Approach. Glencoe/McGraw Hill Publishers, Blacklick, Ohio.
4. Chrispells, Martin,, and D. E. Sandava. 2003. Plants, Genes and Crop Biotechnology. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA, and the American Society of Plant Biologists,Washington, DC. To date, the most comprehensive treatment of agricultural biotechnology, this book serves as an excellent introduction to agricultural ecology for students with little or no understanding of agriculture.
5. Clarke, Michael,, and Michael Becker. 2006. Stem cells: the real culprit in cancer? Scientific American 295:4852.
6. Cookson, Clive, et al. 2005. The future of stem cells. Scientific American 292:6396. A series of articles by a number of authors on various aspects of the biology and politics of stem cells.
7. Ezzell, Carol. 2002. Proteins rule. Scientific American 286:2633. An overview of proteomics.
8. Falkowski, Paul. 2002. The ocean's invisible forest. Scientific American 287:5764. An overview of the wealth of microbial diversity in marine environments with a special emphasis on extremophiles.
9. Fischer, Alain,, and Marina Cavazzana-Calvo. 2006. Whither gene therapy? The Scientist 20:3642.
10. Glick, Bernard R.,, and Jack J. Pasternak. 2003. Molecular Biotechnology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. An excellent general reference on both the science and applications of biotechnology.
11. Gunter, Chris (ed.). 2004. Human genomics and medicine. Nature 429:440475. A series of articles in Nature Insights focused on the transformation in disease diagnosis and treatment derived from an understanding of genomics.
12. Guttmacher, Alan E.,, and Francis Collins. 2002. Genomic medicine: a primer. New England Journal of Medicine 347:15121520.
13. James, Clive. 2005. Global Review of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2005 ISAAA, Ithaca, NY. Contains data on the global growth of plant agricultural biotechnology. ISAAA has published an excellent series of monographs on agricultural biotechnology and developing countries. For information on ordering this and other ISAAA publications on agricultural biotechnology in developing countries, visit their website (http://www.isaaa.org).
14. Kittredge, Claire. 2005. Gene therapy. The Scientist 19:1419.
15. Kreuzer, Helen,, and Adrianne Massey. 2005. Biology and Biotechnology: Science, Applications, and Issues ASM Press, Washington, DC.
16. Lewin, Benjamin. 2006. Genes IX. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, MA. The title speaks for itself. Excellent general reference, as are Lewin's earlier editions, Genes I through Genes VIII.
17. Lysaght, Michael J.,, and Patrick Aebischer. 1999. Encapsulated cells as therapy. Scientific American 280:7682.
18. Mooney, David J.,, and Antonios G. Mikos. 1999. Growing new organs. Scientific American 280:6065.
19. Ng, Rick. 2004. Drugs: from Discovery to Approval. Wiley-Liss, Hoboken, NJ. An accessible and concise description of the drug development process that is appropriate for anyone interested in both the science and regulatory issues.
20. Nicholl, Desmond. 2002. An Introduction to Genetic Engineering. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
21. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1998. Biotechnology for Clean Industrial Products and Processes: towards Industrial Sustainability. OECD, Paris, France. A thorough treatment of biotechnology's potential to improve environmental effects of industrial processes. To order, visit the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development website (http://www.oecd.org).
22. Parson, Anne B. 2004. The Proteus Effect: Stem Cells and Their Promise for Medicine. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC.
23. Rutledge, Colin,, and Bjorn Kristiansen. 2001. Basic Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. An excellent introduction to biotechnology for nonscientists, especially with respect to applied microbiology.
24. Smith, John E. 2006. Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. Provides an excellent overview of the breadth of biotechnology applications and is especially useful for information on bioprocessing, cell culture, and industrial uses of microorganisms.
25. Thieman, William J.,, and M. A. Palladin. 2003. Introduction to Biotechnology. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA. This introductory textbook not only has information on molecular biology and its applications, it also provides more information on the biotechnology industry than most texts.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.1

The four classes of biological molecules

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.2

Examples of industrial sectors affected by the biotechnologies

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.3

Examples of the range of bioprocessing products and typical organisms used to manufacture them

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.4

Useful molecules naturally produced by plants

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
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Table 1.5

Differences between selective breeding and genetic engineering

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.6

Disorders for which gene therapy is being tested

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.7

Countries growing transgenic crops in 2005, ranked from most to fewest acres

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 1.8

Foods, food additives, and enzymes used in food processing for whose production microbial fermentation is essential

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. An Overview of Biotechnology, p 3-44. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch1

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