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Chapter 36 : A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues

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Abstract:

In this chapter, the author provides an approach and process for analyzing some of the issues associated with biotechnology that are often "debated" through the media. A productive approach to analyzing any issue associated with biotechnology begins with the simple task of placing modern biotechnology within the context of other technologies. Observers are left with the impression that these technologies appeared suddenly, with no historical precedents, and that the issues raised by biotechnology are unique to biotechnology. Knowing that today’s biotechnologies are the next step in a continuum of technologies has important, real-world implications for charting its course. The costs of no technology are difficult to assess, because those costs are usually unknown to people who have lived in a world in which technology has solved certain problems. Gene flow from a transgenic crop to a wild plant depends on the potential for (i) cross-pollination between the transgenic crop (pollen donor) and the wild plant and (ii) successful hybridization. Crops and wild plants can potentially cross-pollinate only if the wild plants occurring near the crop field are closely related to the crop. In fact, botanists have been studying it for at least a century. A corn plant can either self-pollinate or cross-pollinate, and pollen dispersal is driven by wind speed and direction. Canola is a special type of oil that is produced by any of three species, , , and , which are known as the oilseed brassicas.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Figures

Image of Figure 36.1
Figure 36.1

Technology life cycle. In 1981, Arthur D. Little, Inc., developed a simplified model of the economic impacts of a technology during its life span. In the emerging stage, product and process research and development expenditures are high, as is the uncertainty of the technology’s economic success. Product commercialization initiates the growth phase. As the technology-based product or process is adopted by various industrial sectors, product sales increase and process improvements reduce costs. In the mature phase, the technology is well accepted, and sales are stable. The cost reductions from process improvements based on the technology have reached a plateau. In the final stage of a technology’s life span, growth and acceptance of newer technologies (dotted line) displace the older technology.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.2
Figure 36.2

Corn and teosinte. In Mexico, the center of origin for corn or maize, a primitive variety of corn (upper left) readily hybridizes with its wild relatives, the teosintes (lower right). Hybrids are shown between the two parental types. (Photograph copyright Klaus Ammann, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.3
Figure 36.3

ES cell culture. To generate a culture of ES cells, researchers remove the ICM from a blastocyst. If placed into the uterus, neither cells from the ICM nor ES cells will develop into a complete organism because they cannot implant into the uterine wall. Trophoblast cells are required for implantation.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.4
Figure 36.4

Early embryonic development. (A) A human blastocyst. (B) Schematic representation depicting human embryonic development from blastocyst to gastrulation. Five days after fertilization, the blastocyst begins to implant into the wall of the uterus. By day 14, gastrulation has occurred, implantation is complete, and the pluripotent cells of the ICM have already differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Therefore, they are no longer pluripotent. The trophoblast cells differentiate into placental tissues. (Photograph courtesy of Michael Vernon, West Virginia Center of Reproductive Medicine.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.5
Figure 36.5

Creating hES cell lines. All hES cell lines in the United States were derived from frozen blastocysts from IVF clinics that were being discarded with the parents’ permission. The first successful attempts to establish hES cell lines from ICMs (1998 to 2001) relied on a layer of mouse cells to support the human cells. As a result, the early lines are unsuitable for therapeutic uses because of possible contamination with mammalian viruses.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.1
Figure 36.1

Cloning is the creation of genetically identical copies. Livestock breeders have used this form of cloning for approximately 20 to 25 years. A fertilized egg is allowed to develop to the two- or four-cell stage and is divided into single cells. Each cell gives rise to an offspring that is genetically identical to the others.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.2
Figure 36.2

Enucleation of eggs. Working at a microscope that is hooked to a computer monitor or television screen, scientists hold the egg steady with a pipette and then insert a much smaller pipette into the egg to withdraw the nucleus. (Photographs courtesy of Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.3
Figure 36.3

Embryo splitting. At early stages of development, scientists use microsurgical blades to separate livestock embryos into separate cells. (Photograph courtesy of George Seidel, Colorado State University.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.4
Figure 36.4

Nuclear transfer. (A) Nuclei have been removed from either somatic or embryonic cells. (B) Note the nucleus in the small pipette. Each nucleus is injected into a separate enucleated egg cell. (C) The newly inserted nucleus is barely visible between the egg cell membrane and the cellular cytoplasm. A small tear in the cell membrane indicates the site where the pipette was inserted. (Photographs courtesy of Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, Scotland.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.5
Figure 36.5

Somatic cell nuclear transfer. Dolly was produced by a unique type of cloning. The nucleus in a fully differentiated somatic cell from breed A's udder was inserted into the enucleated egg of breed B by fusing the two cells. The resulting egg contained breed A's nuclear genetic material and mitochondrial DNA from breeds A and B. The egg developed into a blastula in tissue culture, and the blastula was inserted into the uterus of sheep C, the surrogate mother of Dolly. Note that Dolly's coloring is identical to that of female A, her genetic mother, and does not exhibit any markings of either her surrogate mother or breed B.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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Image of Figure 36.6
Figure 36.6

Human blastocyst. A fertilized egg develops into a blastocyst in approximately 4 to 5 days, whether it is in cell culture or the female reproductive tract. (Photograph courtesy of Michael Vernon, West Virginia Center of Reproductive Medicine.)

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816100.chap36a
1. Bent, Stephen. 2005. Stem cells: under the microscope. The Scientist19(13):2224.
2. Chrispells, Martin,, and D. E. Sandava. 2003. Plants, Genes and Crop Biotechnology.Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA.
3. Clarke, Michael,, and Michael Becker. 2006. Stem cells: the real culprit in cancer?Scientific American295(1):4852.
4. Cookson, Clive, et al. 2005. The future of stem cells. Scientific American292(5):6396.
5. Glynn, Kevin. 2000. Tabloid Culture.Duke University Press, Durham, NC.
6. James, Clive. 2006. Global Review of Commercialized Transgenic Crops: 2006. The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, Ithaca, NY (http://www.isaaa.org).
7. Kreuzer, Helen,, and Adrianne Massey. 2005.Biology and Biotechnology: Science, Applications, and Issues.ASM Press, Washington, DC.
8. Lewis, Ricki. 2005. Stem cells: an emerging portrait. The Scientist 19(13):1521.
9. National Research Council. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informed Decisions in a Democratic Society.National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
10. Parson, Anne B. 2004. The Proteus Effect: Stem Cells and Their Promise for Medicine.Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC.
11. Sankula, Sujatha,, Gregory Marmon,, and Edward Blumenthal. 2005. Biotechnology-Derived Crops Planted in 2004: Impacts on US Agriculture. National Council for Food and Agricultural Policy, Washington, DC. Available at http://www.ncfap.org .
12. Stewart, Neal,, Harold Richards,, and Matthew D. Halfhill. 2001. Transgenic plants and biosafety: science, misconceptions, and public perception. BioTechniques29:832843. Abstract available at http://www.biotechniques.com.
13. Waterstone, Marvin (ed.). 1996. Risk and Society: the Interaction of Science, Technology and Public Policy. Kluwer Publishers, Boston, MA.
14. West, Darrell M,. 2001. The Rise and Fall of the Media Establishment. St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY. Wolfenbarger, L. L.,, and P. R. Phifer. 2000. The ecological risks and benefits of genetically engineered plants. Science 290:20882093.

Tables

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Table 36.1

Probable centers of origin for some important food crops

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 36.2

Reproductive isolating mechanisms in plants

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 36.3

Cross-pollination of the three oilseed species (canola), and with their wild relatives, and under laboratory and field conditions

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36
Generic image for table
Table 36.4

Laboratory techniques for crossbreeding distantly related plants.

Citation: Kreuzer H, Massey A. 2008. A Framework for Rational Analysis of Issues, p 495-526. In Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: A Guide for Teachers, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816100.ch36

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