Chapter 13 : Deliberately Contaminated Food

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $7.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Deliberately Contaminated Food, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816186/9781555814175_Chap13-2.gif


This chapter talks about Wasco County officials who dealt with an outbreak of serotype in The Dalles (the county seat). The outbreak of gastroenteritis, which occurred in two waves and affected 751 people, was traced to salad bars in 10 restaurants in and around the town. The first phase of the outbreak began on September 9, 1984, and continued until the 18th. The second wave of the outbreak began on September 19 and ended on October 10. The incidents in The Dalles and in Dallas were two early warning indicators that bioterrorism (as opposed to state-sponsored biological or chemical warfare) could become a reality. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also developed guidance documents to provide information to domestic food facilities that would assist them to improve their food security systems, commissioned a threat assessment, redirected research funds to developing improved analytical methods, and cooperated with other agencies in emergency response exercises. The food we eat and the water we drink pass through too many different hands for us to ever hope to achieve 100% security. The door on possible large-scale bioterrorism attacks on our food supply can be shut, but we will always be susceptible to more petty instances of intentional food or water contamination, such as those committed by the Rajneesh cult and the Dallas hospital lab worker.

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Deliberately Contaminated Food, p 243-252. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Respiratory Diseases
Salmonella enterica
Bacillus anthracis
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Altman, L. K. 12 August 1997. Some medical puzzles lead to dark, and criminal, minds. New York Times, New York, N.Y..
2.Anonymous. 12 March 1982. Town may abolish itself to bar sect’s takeover. New York Times, New York, N.Y..
3.Anonymous. 16 September 1984. Tension building over Oregon sect. Recruiting of many homeless to live at group’s ranch prompts political fear. New York Times, New York, N.Y.
4.Anonymous. 11 October 1984. Voter registration halted as guru is picketed. New York Times, New York, N.Y..
5.Anonymous. 9 November 1984. Salmonella culprits: dirty hands. Seattle Times, Seattle, Wash..
6.Anonymous. 22 July 1986. Ma Sheela pleads guilty in poisoning. Seattle Times, Seattle, Wash..
7.Anonymous. 12 November 1996. FBI probes tainted doughnuts. The Commercial Appeal, Memphis, Tenn..
8..Anonymous. 7 August 2003. 13 fall ill after taking food. News Today, Chennai, India. [Online.] http://foodhaccp.com/msgboard.mv?parm_func= showmsg+parm_msgnum=1009573. Accessed 28 June 2006.
9..Anonymous. 15 August 2003. Cook decamps with jewels. News Today, Chennai, India. [Online.] http://foodhaccp.com/msgboard.mv?parm_func= showmsg+parm_msgnum=1009600. Accessed 28 June 2006.
10. Becka, H. 12 September 1998. 20-year sentence given in taintings. Woman gives tearful apology for sickening workers, ex-boyfriend. Dallas Morning News, Dallas, Tex..
11. Cieslak, T. J.,, and E. M. Eitzen, Jr. 1999. Clinical and epidemiologic principles of anthrax. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:552555.
12. Davis, C. J. 1999. Nuclear blindness: an overview of the biological weapons programs of the former Soviet Union and Iraq. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 509512.
13..Department of Agriculture. 2002. FSIS security guidelines for food processors. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. [Online.] http://www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/topics/SecurityGuide.pdf. Accessed 28 June 2006.
14..Department of Agriculture. 2005. Announcing food security training program opportunities. Protecting the food supply from intentional adulteration: an introductory training session to raise awareness. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service. [Online.] http://www.ams.usda.gov/ foodsecurity/. Accessed 28 June 2006.
15. Dietrich, B. 4 October 1984. Election-day showdown coming for Rajneesh. High stakes for guru followers, Oregon neighbors. Seattle Times, Seattle, Wash..
16. Dragon, D. C.,, D. E. Bader,, J. Mitchell,, and N. Woollen. 2005. Natural dissemination of Bacillus anthracis spores in northern Canada. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:16101615.
17..Food and Drug Administration. 19 March 2003. Guidance for industry: FDA issues food and cosmetic security preventive measures guidance. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/oc/factsheets/ foodsecurity.html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
18..Food and Drug Administration. 23 July 2003. Progress report to Secretary Tommy G. Thompson: ensuring the safety and security of the nation’s food supply. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [Online.] http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fssrep.html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
19..Food and Drug Administration. 2005. Testing for rapid detection of adulteration of food. Report to Congress. Submitted to the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate. Second annual report— February 2005. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda. gov/oc/bioterrorism/report_adulteration.html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
20..Food and Drug Administration. 2005. The Bioterrorism Act of 2002. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Online.] http://www.fda.gov/oc/ bioterrorism/bioact.html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
21..Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. 2005. European clinical guidelines for bioterror agents. European Commission, Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. [Online.] http://europa.eu.int / comm/health/ph_threats /Bioterrorisme/clin_guidelines_en.htm. Accessed 28 June 2006.
22. Henderson, D. A. 1998. Bioterrorism as a public health threat. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:488Æ 492.
23. Henderson, D. A. 1999>. About the First National Symposium on Medical and Public Health Response to Bioterrorism. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:491.
24. Henderson, D. A. 1999. Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:537539.
25. Inglesby, T. V. 1999. Anthrax: a possible case history. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:556560.
26. Jernigan, D. B.,, P. L. Raghunathan,, B. P. Bell,, R. Brechner,, E. A. Bresnitz,, J. C. Butler,, M. Cetron,, M. Cohen,, T. Doyle,, M. Fischer,, C. Greene,, K. S. Griffi th,, J. Guarner,, J. L. Hadler,, J. A. Hayslett,, R. Meyer,, L. R. Petersen,, M. Phillips,, R. Pinner,, T. Popovic,, C. P. Quinn,, J. Reefhuis,, D. Reissman,, N. Rosenstein,, A. Schuchat,, W.-J. Shieh,, L. Siegal,, D. L. Swerdlow,, F. C. Tenover,, M. Traeger,, J. W. Ward,, I. Weisfuse,, S. Wiersma,, K. Yeskey,, S. Zaki,, D. A. Ashford,, B. A. Perkins,, S. Ostroff,, J. Hughes,, D. Fleming,, J. P. Koplan,, J. L. Gerberding, and the National Anthrax Epidemiologic Investigation Team. 2002. Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:1019Æ1028.
27. Kassenborg, H.,, R. Danila,, P. Snippes,, M. Wiisanen,, M. Sullivan,, K. E. Smith,, N. Crouch,, C. Medus,, R. Weber,, J. Korlath,, T. Ristinen,, R. Lynfi eld,, H. F. Hull,, J. Pahlen,, T. Boldingh,, K. Elfering,, G. Hoffman,, T. Lewis,, A. Friedlander,, H. Heine,, R. Culpepper,, E. Henchal,, G. Ludwig,, C. Rossi,, J. Teska,, J. Ezzell,, and E. Eitzen. 2000. Human ingestion of Bacillus anthracis-contaminated meat—Minnesota, August 2000. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49:813Æ816.
28. Katz, I. 1 August 1994. The mystic and the mayhem. When the Bhagwan’s followers took on the people of Antelope there could only be one winner. The Guardian, Manchester, United Kingdom.
29. Keim, P.,, K. L. Smith,, C. Keys,, H. Takahashi,, T. Kurata,, and A. Kaufmann. 2001. Molecular investigation of the Aum Shinrikyo anthrax release in Kameido, Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:45664567.
30. Kolavic, S. A.,, A. Kimura,, S. L. Simons,, L. Slutsker,, S. Barth,, and C. E. Haley. 1997. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 among laboratory workers due to intentional food contamination. JAMA 278:396398.
31. Kortepeter, M. G.,, and G. W. Parker. 1999. Potential biological weapons threats. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:523527.
32. Laganella, V. A. 2002. Anthrax: a primary care physician’s perspective. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 102:3740.
33. Lane, H. C.,, and A. S. Fauci. 2001. Bioterrorism on the home front. A new challenge for American medicine. JAMA 286:25952597.
34. Manning, A. 6 August 1997. Terrorism’s versatility hits home with poisoning. Two cases may not have been preventable. USA Today, McLean, Va..
35. Morens, D. M. 2002. Epidemic anthrax in the eighteenth century, the Americas. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:11601162.
36. Olson, K. B. 1999. Aum Shinrikyo: once and future threat? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:513516.
37. O’Toole, T. 1999. Smallpox: an attack scenario. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 540546.
38. O’Toole, T. 2000. The problem of biological weapons: next steps for the nation. Second National Symposium on Medical and Public Health Response to Bioterrorism—Speaker Transcript, Washington, D.C. [Online.] http://www. upmc-biosecurity.org/pages/events/2nd_symposia/transcripts /trans_otoo. html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
39. Pavlin, J. A. 1999. Epidemiology of bioterrorism. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 528530.
40. Perdue, M. L.,, J. Karns,, J. Higgins,, and J. A. van Kessel. 2003. Detection and fate of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) vegetative cells and spores added to bulk tank milk. J. Food Prot. 66:23492354.
41..Public Health Agency of Canada. 2005. Bioterrorism and emergency preparedness. Public Health Agency of Canada. [Online.] http://www.phac-aspc. gc.ca/ep-mu/bioem_e.html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
42. Riedel, S. 2005. Anthrax: a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism. Proc. (Baylor Univ. Med. Cent.) 18:234243.
43. Russell, P. K. 1999. Vaccines in civilian defense against bioterrorism. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:531533.
44. Shalala, D. E. 1999. Bioterrorism: how prepared are we? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:492493.
45. Shane, S.,, and D. Johnston. 17 September 2005. In 4-year anthrax hunt, F.B.I. fi nds itself stymied, and sued. New York Times, New York, N.Y..
46. Sidell, F. R.,, E. T. Takafuji,, and D. R. Franz (ed.). 1997. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, United States of America, Falls Church, Va. [Online.] http://www. nbc-med.org/SiteContent /HomePage/WhatsNew/MedAspects /contents. html. Accessed 28 June 2006.
47. Sirisanthana, T.,, and A. E. Brown. 2002. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:649651.
48. Smallwood, R. A.,, A. Merianos,, and J. D. Mathews. 2002. Bioterrorism in Australia. How real is the threat, and how prepared are we? Med. J. Aust. 176:251253.
49. Stern, J. 1999. The prospect of domestic bioterrorism. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:517522.
50. Takahashi, H.,, P. Keim,, A. F. Kaufmann,, C. Keys,, K. L. Smith,, K. Taniguchi,, S. Inouye,, and T. Kurata. 2004. Bacillus anthracis incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:117120.
51. Torok, T. J.,, R. V. Tauxe,, R. P. Wise,, J. R. Livengood,, R. Sokolow,, S. Mauvais,, K. A. Birkness,, M. R. Skeels,, J. M. Horan,, and L. R. Foster. 1997. A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars. JAMA 278:389395.
52. Wheelis, M. 2002. Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:971975.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error