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Chapter 8 : Crossing Over

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Crossing Over, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Pathogenic strains of fall into five distinct categories: enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, enteroinvasive, enterotoxigenic, and enterohemorrhagic, also known as verotoxigenic or Shiga toxin-producing . When school children in Sakai City began to complain of diarrhea in July 1996, epidemiologists were faced with a daunting task. Lab tests quickly established that O157:H7 was the cause of the illnesses. There were 16 outbreaks of O157:H7 in Japan between May and December 1996, encompassing more than 11,800 cases and 12 deaths. Three of the incidents were connected with meals served in nursing homes; one was linked to a factory cafeteria; two could not be traced to a specific origin; and nine outbreaks were tied to school lunches. One of the difficulties faced by investigators of food-borne outbreaks is the effectiveness of available lab methods to detect pathogens like O157:H7. There have been at least two recalls of sprouts due to O157:H7 in the United States since the 1997 outbreak. The first, in 2000, was limited to California and was the result of O157:H7 having been detected in samples of sprouts at the processing plant. The second recall, which took place in 2004, resulted from the pathogen having been found in irrigation water used to produce the sprouts. Regulators, researchers, and juice producers have known since 1975 that can survive in apple cider and still be able to cause gastroenteritis.

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Crossing Over, p 133-156. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch8

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Tables

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Table 8.1

Selected food-borne disease outbreaks associated with consumption of raw sprouts

Citation: Entis P. 2007. Crossing Over, p 133-156. In Food Safety. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816186.ch8

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