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Page 1. L. K. Altman, and T. S. Purdum, JFK file, hidden illness, pain and pills, New York Times 17 Nov. 2002.
Page 1–3. Porphyria—a Royal Malady; articles published in or commissioned by the British Medical Association (London: British Medical Association, 1968); I. Macalpine, and R. Hunter, George III and the Mad Business (New York: Pantheon, 1970).
Page 3–4. V. Vadakan, Porphyria, curse of royalty, Hosp. Pract. 22 (1987):107114.
Page 3–4. M. R. Moore,, Biochemistry of porphyria, Int. J. Biochem. 25 (1993): 13531368; H. H. Billett, Porphyrias: inborn errors in heme production, Hosp. Pract. 23 (1988):4160.
Page 5. A. Bennett, The Madness of George III. (London: Faber and Faber, 1992), 1821, 25, 31, 56.
Page 6–7. J. Rohl,, M. Warren,, and D. Hunt,, Purple Secret: Genes, Madness and the Royal Houses of Europe (New York: Bantam, 1998); I. Macalpine, and R. Hunter,, George III and the Mad Business (New York: Pantheon, 1970); F. Cartwright, and M. Biddis, Disease and History (London: Sutton, 1972), p. 172173.
Page 7. T. M. Cox,, N. Jack,, S. Lofthouse,, J. Watting,, J. Haines,, and M. J. Warren. King George III and porphyria: an elemental hypothesis and investigation. Lancet 366 (2005):332335.
Page 7–8. I. Macalpine, and R. Hunter, Porphyria and King George III, Sci. Am. 221 (1969):3843.
Page 8–9. R. F. Stevens, The history of hemophilia in the royal families of Europe, Br. J. Haematol. 25 (1999):2532.
Page 8–9. P. Mannuci, and E. Tuddenham, The haemophiliacs—from royal genes to gene therapy, N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (2001):17731779.
Page 10–13. J. P. Gelardi, Born To Rule (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005).
Page 10–13. F. Cartwright,, Disease and History (New York: Dorset, 1972), ch. 7, p. 167196; for another perspective, see J. Kendrick,, Russia's imperial blood: Was Rasputin not the healer of legend, Am. J. Hematol. 77 (2004):92102; R. F. Stevens, The history of haemophilia in the royal families of Europe, Br. J. Haematol. 105 (1999):2532.
Page 12–13. K. Rose, King George V (New York: Knopf, 1983).
Page 13–17. D. M. Potts, and W. T. W. Potts,, Queen Victoria's Gene: Haemophilia and the Royal Family (New York: Sutton, 1999); J. M. Packard, Victoria's Daughters (London: St. Martin's Press, 1998).
Page 16–17. P. Ziegler, King Edward VIII (New York: Knopf, 1990).
Page 20–22. R. English, History of Ireland (New York: Gill and Macmillan, 1991).
Page 22. T. Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization (New York: Random House, 1996).
Page 23–29. G. L. Schumann,, Plant Diseases: Their Biological and Social Impact (St. Paul, Minn.: American Phytopathological Society Press, 1991), 120; G. L. Comfort, and E. R. Sprott,, Famine on the Wind (New York: Rand McNally, 1967), 7089; J. S. Donnelly,, The Great Irish Potato Famine (Phoenix Mill: Sutton, 2001); N. Kissane,, The Irish Potato Famine: a Documentary History (Dublin: National Library of Ireland, 1995); E. C. Large,, The Advance of the Fungi (St. Paul, Minn.: American Phytopathological Society, 2003); D. C. Daly,, The leaf that launched a thousand ships, Nat. Hist. 105 (1996):2432; C. Kinealy,, How politics fed the famine, Nat. Hist. 105 (1996):3335; C. Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger (New York: Harper and Row, 1962).
Page 23–24, 30–31. H. Hobhouse, Seeds of Change: Five Plants That Transformed Mankind (New York: Harper and Row, 1987), 191232.
Page 32. G. Garelik, Taking the bite out of potato blight, Science 298 (2002): 17021704.
Page 33. J. Franklin, and J. Sutherland,, Guinea Pig Doctors: the Drama of Medical Research through Self-Experimentation (New York: Morrow, 1984), 140; W. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (New York: Anchor, 1976), 231.
Page 33–34. I. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues (Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2006), 167; S. LaFranniere, In oil-rich Angola, cholera preys upon poorest, New York Times, 16 June 2006.
Page 34–35. P. Johansen,, H. Brody,, N. Paneth,, S. Rachman,, and M. Rip,, Cholera, Chloroform and the Science of Medicine: a Life of John Snow (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); N. Longmate,, King Cholera: The Biography of a Disease (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1966); S. Johnson, The Ghost Map: the Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic and How It Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World (New York: River-head, 2002).
Page 35. P. Pharoah letter. Lancet 363 (2004):1552.
Page 35–37. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 160161.
Page 37–38. G. N. Grob, The Deadly Truth (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002), 104107.
Page 38. C. E. Rosenberg, Explaining Epidemics and Other Studies in the History of Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 114121.
Page 39–40. F. Cartwright, A Social History of Medicine (London: Longman, 1977), 102110.
Page 40. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 128.
Page 40–43. H. Markell, Quarantine! (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997).
Page 43–47. C. J. Gill, and G. C. Gill,. Nightingale in Scutari: her legacy re-examined, Clin. Infect. Dis. 40 (2005):17991805; L. Strachey,, Eminent Victorians (London: Continuum, 2002); Florence Nightingale obituary, The London Times 15 August 1910; E. Huxley, Florence Nightingale (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1975).
Page 47–49. R. L. Guerrant,, B. Carneiro-Filho,, and R. E. Dillingham, Cholera, diarrhea and oral rehydration therapy: triumph and indictment, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37 (2003):398505.
Page 50–51. R. Preston, The Demon in the Freezer (New York: Random House, 2002).
Page 50–52. T. O'Toole, Smallpox: an attack scenario, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5 (1999):540546.
Page 53–55. J. Eyler,, Smallpox in history: the birth, death and impact of a dread disease, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 142 (2003):216220; D. Hopkins,, Smallpox (London: Churchill, 1962); D. Hopkins,, Princes and Peasants (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983); Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 191195.
Page 55–56. M. Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues and History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Page 57–66. C. Mims,, The War within Us. Everyman's Guide to Infection and Immunity (San Diego: Academic Press, 2000); Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 199206, 211228.
Page 68. G. Boccaccio,, The Decameron, quoted in P. Ziegler, The Black Death (New York: Harper, 1969), 46.
Page 69. D. Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997).
Page 69–73. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 7283, 128129.
Page 74. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 108.
Page 75–76. C. McEvedy,, The bubonic plague, Sci. Am. 258 (1988):118123; M. Drancourt, and D. Raoult,, Molecular insights into the history of plague, Microbes Infect. 4 (2002):105109; R. D. Perry, and J. D. Featherstone, Yersinia pestis: etiologic agent of plague, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10 (1997):3566.
Page 76. C. Cunha, and B. Cunha, Impact of plague on history, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 20 (2006):253272.
Page 77. R. Gani, and S. Leach, Epidemiologic determinants for modeling pneumonic plague outbreaks, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10 (2004):608614.
Page 77–78. E. Caniel,, Plague. Encyclopedia Microbiol. 3 (2000):654661; D. Zhou,, Y. Han,, Y. Sang,, P. Huang,, and R. Young,, Comparative and evolutionary genomics of Yersinia, Microbes Infect. 6 (2004):12261234; N. C. Stenseth, et al., Plague dynamics are driven by climate variation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (2006):1311013115; M. Achtman et al., Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999):1404314048.
Page 79. M. Wheelis, Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8 (2002):971975.
Page 79. T. Inglesby et al., Plague as a biological weapon, JAMA 283 (200):22812289.
Page 79–80. T. Inglesby,, R. Grossman,, and T. O' Toole, A plague on your city: observations from TOPOFF, Clin. Infect. Dis. 32 (2001):436445.
Page 81. Plague—worldwide incidence (Figure 8). Int. J. Health Geogr. 4 (2005):1021; S. A. Berger, GIDEON: a comprehensive web-based resource for geographic medicine, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/plague/index.htm.
Page 82. W. Orent, Plague: The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World's Most Dangerous Disease (New York: Free Press, 2004).
Page 83. Franklin and Sutherland, Guinea Pig Doctors, 2527.
Page 84. E. Tramont,, The impact of syphilis on humankind, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 18 (2004):101110; A. Singh, and B. Romanowski, Syphilis: review with emphasis on clinical, epidemiological and some biologic features, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12 (1999): 187209.
Page 85. G. Anta,, S. Lukehart,, and A. Meheus, The endemic treponematoses, Microbes Infect. 4 (2002):8394.
Page 85–86. C. Fraser et al., Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, Science 281 (1998):375388.
Page 86–87. C. Meyer,, C. Jung,, T. Kohl,, A. Poenicke,, A. Poppe,, and K. Alt, Syphilis 2001—a palaeopathological reappraisal, Homo 53 (2002):3958.
Page 87–89. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 265266.
Page 89–90. E. Tramont, Syphilis in adults: from Christopher Columbus to Sir Alexander Fleming, Clin. Infect. Dis. 21 (1995):13611371.
Page 90–91. T. G. Benedek, and J. Erlen, The scientific environment of the Tuskegee study of syphilis, 1920–1960, Perspect. Biol. Med. 43 (1999):130.
Page 91–93. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 245251, 258259.
Page 96. R. Hare,, The Birth of Penicillin and the Disarming of Microbes (London: Allen and Unwin, 1970); E. Lax, The Mould in Dr. Florey's Coat: the Remarkable True Story of Penicillin (New York: Little, Brown, 2004).
Page 97. C. Amabile-Cuevas,, M. Cardenas-Garcia,, and M. Ludgar,, Antibiotic resistance, Am. Sci. 83 (1995):320329; S. Levy, and B. Marshall, Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nat. Med. 10 (2004): S122S127.
Page 98–101. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues, 268270; http://www.who.int/docstore/hiv/GRSTI/index.htm; CDC, Primary and secondary syphilis—United States, 2003–2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55 (2006):269273; L. Ferguson, and J. Vanada, Syphilis: an old enemy still lurks, J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract. 18 (2006):4955.
Page 101–103. A. Rompalo, Can syphilis be eradicated from the world? Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 14 (2001):4144.
Page 104. L. Hutchinson, and M. Hutchinson,, Opera, Desire and Death (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996); S. Sontag, Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors (New York: Anchor, 1989).
Page 105–109. R. Dubos, and J. Dubos,, The White Plague (Boston: Little, Brown, 1952); T. Dormandy,, The White Death: a History of Tuberculosis (London: Hambledon, 1999); T. M. Daniel,, Captain of Death: the Story of Tuberculosis (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 1997); F. Haas, and S. Haas,, The origins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the notion of its contagiousness, in W. Rom, and S. Garay (ed.), Tuberculosis (Boston: Little Brown, 1996), 334.
Page 106–107. S. Grzbowski, and E. Allen, History and importance of scrofula, Lancet 346 (1995):14721474.
Page 109. D. Morens, At the deathbed of consumptive art, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8 (2002):13531358.
Page 110. Ancient tuberculosis identified? Science 286 (1999):1071; M. Caldwell,, The Last Crusade: the War on Consumption 1862–1954 (New York: Atheneum, 1988); T. Garnier, et al., The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003):78777882; S. T. Cole et al., Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393 (1998):537544.
Page 111. G. N. Grob, The Deadly Truth: a History of Disease in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002).
Page 111–112. A. M. Kraut,, Plagues and prejudice, in D. Rosner (ed.), Hives of Sickness (Rutgers: Rutgers University Press, 1995), 6590.
Page 112–120. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues, 286293; D. E. Hammerschmidt,, Bovine tuberculosis: still a world health problem, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 141 (2003):359; S. Blower et al., The intrinsic transmission dynamics of tuberculosis epidemics, Nat. Med. 1 (1995):815821.
Page 121–124. F. Ryan, The Forgotten Plague: How the Battle against Tuberculosis Was Won—and Lost (Boston: Little, Brown, 1993).
Page 124–126. P. Small, and P. Fujiwara,, Management of tuberculosis in the United States, N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (2001):189200; T. Frieden, et al., Tuberculosis, Lancet 362 (2003):887897; Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 297299.
Page 125. Treatment of Latent TB Infection—2003, City and County of San Francisco Department of Health, TB Control Section, 4; http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250101.htm.
Page 126–127. T. Doherty, Progress and hindrances in tuberculosis vaccine development, Lancet 367 (2006):947949.
Page 127–129. C. Dye,, Global epidemiology of tuberculosis, Lancet 367 (2006):938940; E. Corbett, et al., Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, challenges and change in the era of antiretroviral treatment, Lancet 367 (2006):926937; S. Sharma, and J. Liu,, Progress of DOTS in global transmission control, Lancet 367 (2006):951954; CDC, Trends in tuberculosis—United States, 2005, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55 (2006): 305308; M. Gandy, and A. Zumla (ed.), The Return of the White Plague (London: Verso, 2003).
Page 130–132. A Fictional Account Based on the Writings of Ronald Ross, Memoirs (London: John Murray, 1923).
Page 132–134. I. W. Sherman,. A brief history of malaria and the discovery of the parasite life cycle, in I. W. Sherman (ed.), Malaria: Parasite Biology, Pathogenesis, and Protection (Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1998), 310.
Page 135. R. Kupuscinsk, Shadow of the Sun (New York: Vantage, 2002).
Page 136. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 145146, 156.
Page 136–138. G. Harrison,, Mosquitoes, Malaria and Man: a History of the Hostilities since 1880 (New York: Dutton, 1978); W. Bynum, and C. Ovary, The Beast in the Mosquito: the Correspondence of Ronald Ross and Patrick Manson (Amsterdam: Editions Rudolphi, 1998).
Page 137. P. deKruif, Microbe Hunters (San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1926), 256285.
Page 138. R. Ross, Memoirs (London: John Murray, 1923).
Page 138–141. B. Greenwood et al., Malaria. Lancet 365 (2005):14871498.
Page 143. deKruif. Microbe Hunters , 286287.
Page 144. Franklin, and Sutherland, Guinea Pig Doctors, 205206.
Page 144–145, 147–148. M. Oldstone,, Viruses, Plagues and History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 4572; Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 340342, 344345.
Page 146–147. E. T. Savitt, and J. Young (ed.), Disease and Distinctiveness in the American South (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988).
Page 149–153. Quoted in Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues and History, 47; L. K. Altman,, Who Goes First? (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 129158; Franklin, and Sutherland,, Guinea Pig Doctors, 183226; deKruif, Microbe Hunters, 286307.
Page 155–156. T. P. Monath,, Yellow fever: an update. Lancet Infect. Dis. 1 (2001): 1120; M. Theiler, The Development of Vaccines against Yellow Fever, Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1951.
Page 156. C. Soares, Turning yellow: making the yellow fever vaccine fight other germs, Sci. Am. Apr. 2006, 2223.
Page 158–159, 165–167. J. M. Barry, The Great Influenza: the Epic Story of the 1918 Pandemic (New York: Viking, 2004).
Page 159–160, 167. Oldstone,, Viruses, Plagues and History; M. Specter, Nature's bioterrorist. New Yorker, 28 Feb. 2005, 5161.
Page 160–163, 172–173. R. Webster, and E. Walker,, Influenza, Am. Sci. 91 (2003): 122129; K. Nicholson,, J. Wood,, and M. Zambon,, Influenza, Lancet 362 (2003): 17331745; P. Palese,, Influenza: old and new threats, Nat. Med. 10 (2004):S82S87; W. Laver,, N. Biscofberger,, and R. Webster, Disarming flu viruses, Sci. Am. Jan. 1999, 7887.
Page 163–164. E. D. Kilbourne,, Influenza pandemics of the 20th century, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 (2006):913; G. Neumann, and Y. Kawaoka, Host range restriction and pathogenicity in the context of the influenza pandemic, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 (2006):881886.
Page 164–165. J. C. Obenauer et al., Large-scale analysis of avian influenza isolates, Science 311 (2006):15761580.
Page 164–165. C. S. Smith,, French farmers shudder as flu keeps chickens from ranging free, New York Times 1 Mar. 2006; J. Taubenberger, and D. Morens, 1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 (2006):1522.
Page 168–169, 170–171. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 1718, 398399.
Page 169–170. D. M. Bell and the WHO Working Group, Nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, international measures, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 (2006):8187.
Page 171–172. I. Longini, et al., Containing pandemic influenza at the source, Science 309 (2005):10831087; D. M. Bell, and the WHO Working Group, Nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, national and community measures, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 (2006):8894; R. Webster,, M. Peiris,, H. Chen,, and Y. Guen, H5N1 outbreaks and enzootic influenza, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 (2006):313.
Page 175–179, 181–185, 187–191. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues, 92105, 112115; A. Galvani, and M. Slatkin, Evaluating plague and smallpox as historical selective pressures for the CCR-δ32 HIV-resistance allele, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2003):1527615279.
Page 186–187. W. Koff, et al., HIV vaccine design: insights from the live attenuated SIV vaccines, Nat. Immunol. 7 (2006):1923; P. Spearman,, Current progress in the development of HIV vaccines, Curr. Pharm. Des. 12 (2006):121; M. Girard,, S. D. Osmanov,, and M. Kiery, A review of vaccine research and development: the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Vaccine 24 (2006):40624081.
Page 195–196. C. W. Dugger, and D. G. Mc Neill, Jr., Rumor, fear and fatigue hinder final push to end polio, New York Times 20 Mar. 2006.
Page 196–197. C. Dugger, Mothers of Nepal vanquish a killer of children, New York Times 30 Apr. 2006.

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