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Page 1. L. K. Altman, and T. S. Purdum, JFK file, hidden illness, pain and pills, New York Times 17 Nov. 2002.
Page 1–3. Porphyria—a Royal Malady; articles published in or commissioned by the British Medical Association ( London: British Medical Association, 1968); I. Macalpine, and R. Hunter, George III and the Mad Business ( New York: Pantheon, 1970).
Page 3–4. V. Vadakan, Porphyria, curse of royalty, Hosp. Pract. 22 ( 1987): 107 114.
Page 3–4. M. R. Moore,, Biochemistry of porphyria, Int. J. Biochem. 25 ( 1993): 1353 1368; H. H. Billett, Porphyrias: inborn errors in heme production, Hosp. Pract. 23 ( 1988): 41 60.
Page 5. A. Bennett, The Madness of George III. ( London: Faber and Faber, 1992), 18 21, 25, 31, 56.
Page 6–7. J. Rohl,, M. Warren,, and D. Hunt,, Purple Secret: Genes, Madness and the Royal Houses of Europe ( New York: Bantam, 1998); I. Macalpine, and R. Hunter,, George III and the Mad Business ( New York: Pantheon, 1970); F. Cartwright, and M. Biddis, Disease and History ( London: Sutton, 1972), p. 172 173.
Page 7. T. M. Cox,, N. Jack,, S. Lofthouse,, J. Watting,, J. Haines,, and M. J. Warren. King George III and porphyria: an elemental hypothesis and investigation. Lancet 366 ( 2005): 332 335.
Page 7–8. I. Macalpine, and R. Hunter, Porphyria and King George III, Sci. Am. 221 ( 1969): 38 43.
Page 8–9. R. F. Stevens, The history of hemophilia in the royal families of Europe, Br. J. Haematol. 25 ( 1999): 25 32.
Page 8–9. P. Mannuci, and E. Tuddenham, The haemophiliacs—from royal genes to gene therapy, N. Engl. J. Med. 344 ( 2001): 1773 1779.
Page 10–13. J. P. Gelardi, Born To Rule ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 2005).
Page 10–13. F. Cartwright,, Disease and History ( New York: Dorset, 1972), ch. 7, p. 167 196; for another perspective, see J. Kendrick,, Russia's imperial blood: Was Rasputin not the healer of legend, Am. J. Hematol. 77 ( 2004): 92 102; R. F. Stevens, The history of haemophilia in the royal families of Europe, Br. J. Haematol. 105 ( 1999): 25 32.
Page 12–13. K. Rose, King George V ( New York: Knopf, 1983).
Page 13–17. D. M. Potts, and W. T. W. Potts,, Queen Victoria's Gene: Haemophilia and the Royal Family ( New York: Sutton, 1999); J. M. Packard, Victoria's Daughters ( London: St. Martin's Press, 1998).
Page 16–17. P. Ziegler, King Edward VIII ( New York: Knopf, 1990).
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Page 22. T. Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization ( New York: Random House, 1996).
Page 23–29. G. L. Schumann,, Plant Diseases: Their Biological and Social Impact ( St. Paul, Minn.: American Phytopathological Society Press, 1991), 1 20; G. L. Comfort, and E. R. Sprott,, Famine on the Wind ( New York: Rand McNally, 1967), 70 89; J. S. Donnelly,, The Great Irish Potato Famine ( Phoenix Mill: Sutton, 2001); N. Kissane,, The Irish Potato Famine: a Documentary History ( Dublin: National Library of Ireland, 1995); E. C. Large,, The Advance of the Fungi ( St. Paul, Minn.: American Phytopathological Society, 2003); D. C. Daly,, The leaf that launched a thousand ships, Nat. Hist. 105 ( 1996): 24 32; C. Kinealy,, How politics fed the famine, Nat. Hist. 105 ( 1996): 33 35; C. Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger ( New York: Harper and Row, 1962).
Page 23–24, 30–31. H. Hobhouse, Seeds of Change: Five Plants That Transformed Mankind ( New York: Harper and Row, 1987), 191 232.
Page 32. G. Garelik, Taking the bite out of potato blight, Science 298 ( 2002): 1702 1704.
Page 33. J. Franklin, and J. Sutherland,, Guinea Pig Doctors: the Drama of Medical Research through Self-Experimentation ( New York: Morrow, 1984), 140; W. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples ( New York: Anchor, 1976), 231.
Page 33–34. I. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues ( Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2006), 167; S. LaFranniere, In oil-rich Angola, cholera preys upon poorest, New York Times, 16 June 2006.
Page 34–35. P. Johansen,, H. Brody,, N. Paneth,, S. Rachman,, and M. Rip,, Cholera, Chloroform and the Science of Medicine: a Life of John Snow ( New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); N. Longmate,, King Cholera: The Biography of a Disease ( London: Hamish Hamilton, 1966); S. Johnson, The Ghost Map: the Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic and How It Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World ( New York: River-head, 2002).
Page 35. P. Pharoah letter. Lancet 363 ( 2004): 1552.
Page 35–37. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 160 161.
Page 37–38. G. N. Grob, The Deadly Truth ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002), 104 107.
Page 38. C. E. Rosenberg, Explaining Epidemics and Other Studies in the History of Medicine ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 114 121.
Page 39–40. F. Cartwright, A Social History of Medicine ( London: Longman, 1977), 102 110.
Page 40. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 128.
Page 40–43. H. Markell, Quarantine! ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997).
Page 43–47. C. J. Gill, and G. C. Gill,. Nightingale in Scutari: her legacy re-examined, Clin. Infect. Dis. 40 ( 2005): 1799 1805; L. Strachey,, Eminent Victorians ( London: Continuum, 2002); Florence Nightingale obituary, The London Times 15 August 1910; E. Huxley, Florence Nightingale ( London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1975).
Page 47–49. R. L. Guerrant,, B. Carneiro-Filho,, and R. E. Dillingham, Cholera, diarrhea and oral rehydration therapy: triumph and indictment, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37 ( 2003): 398 505.
Page 50–51. R. Preston, The Demon in the Freezer ( New York: Random House, 2002).
Page 50–52. T. O'Toole, Smallpox: an attack scenario, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5 ( 1999): 540 546.
Page 53–55. J. Eyler,, Smallpox in history: the birth, death and impact of a dread disease, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 142 ( 2003): 216 220; D. Hopkins,, Smallpox ( London: Churchill, 1962); D. Hopkins,, Princes and Peasants ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983); Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 191 195.
Page 55–56. M. Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues and History ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
Page 57–66. C. Mims,, The War within Us. Everyman's Guide to Infection and Immunity ( San Diego: Academic Press, 2000); Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 199 206, 211 228.
Page 68. G. Boccaccio,, The Decameron, quoted in P. Ziegler, The Black Death ( New York: Harper, 1969), 46.
Page 69. D. Herlihy, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997).
Page 69–73. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 72 83, 128 129.
Page 74. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 108.
Page 75–76. C. McEvedy,, The bubonic plague, Sci. Am. 258 ( 1988): 118 123; M. Drancourt, and D. Raoult,, Molecular insights into the history of plague, Microbes Infect. 4 ( 2002): 105 109; R. D. Perry, and J. D. Featherstone, Yersinia pestis: etiologic agent of plague, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10 ( 1997): 35 66.
Page 76. C. Cunha, and B. Cunha, Impact of plague on history, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 20 ( 2006): 253 272.
Page 77. R. Gani, and S. Leach, Epidemiologic determinants for modeling pneumonic plague outbreaks, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10 ( 2004): 608 614.
Page 77–78. E. Caniel,, Plague. Encyclopedia Microbiol. 3 ( 2000): 654 661; D. Zhou,, Y. Han,, Y. Sang,, P. Huang,, and R. Young,, Comparative and evolutionary genomics of Yersinia, Microbes Infect. 6 ( 2004): 1226 1234; N. C. Stenseth, et al., Plague dynamics are driven by climate variation, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 ( 2006): 13110 13115; M. Achtman et al., Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 ( 1999): 14043 14048.
Page 79. M. Wheelis, Biological warfare at the 1346 siege of Caffa, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8 ( 2002): 971 975.
Page 79. T. Inglesby et al., Plague as a biological weapon, JAMA 283 ( 200): 2281 2289.
Page 79–80. T. Inglesby,, R. Grossman,, and T. O' Toole, A plague on your city: observations from TOPOFF, Clin. Infect. Dis. 32 ( 2001): 436 445.
Page 81. Plague—worldwide incidence (Figure 8). Int. J. Health Geogr. 4 ( 2005): 1021; S. A. Berger, GIDEON: a comprehensive web-based resource for geographic medicine, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/plague/index.htm.
Page 82. W. Orent, Plague: The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World's Most Dangerous Disease ( New York: Free Press, 2004).
Page 83. Franklin and Sutherland, Guinea Pig Doctors, 2527.
Page 84. E. Tramont,, The impact of syphilis on humankind, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 18 ( 2004): 101 110; A. Singh, and B. Romanowski, Syphilis: review with emphasis on clinical, epidemiological and some biologic features, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12 ( 1999): 187 209.
Page 85. G. Anta,, S. Lukehart,, and A. Meheus, The endemic treponematoses, Microbes Infect. 4 ( 2002): 83 94.
Page 85–86. C. Fraser et al., Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete, Science 281 ( 1998): 375 388.
Page 86–87. C. Meyer,, C. Jung,, T. Kohl,, A. Poenicke,, A. Poppe,, and K. Alt, Syphilis 2001—a palaeopathological reappraisal, Homo 53 ( 2002): 39 58.
Page 87–89. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 265 266.
Page 89–90. E. Tramont, Syphilis in adults: from Christopher Columbus to Sir Alexander Fleming, Clin. Infect. Dis. 21 ( 1995): 1361 1371.
Page 90–91. T. G. Benedek, and J. Erlen, The scientific environment of the Tuskegee study of syphilis, 1920–1960, Perspect. Biol. Med. 43 ( 1999): 1 30.
Page 91–93. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 245 251, 258 259.
Page 96. R. Hare,, The Birth of Penicillin and the Disarming of Microbes ( London: Allen and Unwin, 1970); E. Lax, The Mould in Dr. Florey's Coat: the Remarkable True Story of Penicillin ( New York: Little, Brown, 2004).
Page 97. C. Amabile-Cuevas,, M. Cardenas-Garcia,, and M. Ludgar,, Antibiotic resistance, Am. Sci. 83 ( 1995): 320 329; S. Levy, and B. Marshall, Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses. Nat. Med. 10 ( 2004): S122 S127.
Page 98–101. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues, 268 270; http://www.who.int/docstore/hiv/GRSTI/index.htm; CDC, Primary and secondary syphilis—United States, 2003–2004. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55 ( 2006): 269 273; L. Ferguson, and J. Vanada, Syphilis: an old enemy still lurks, J. Am. Acad. Nurse Pract. 18 ( 2006): 49 55.
Page 101–103. A. Rompalo, Can syphilis be eradicated from the world? Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 14 ( 2001): 41 44.
Page 104. L. Hutchinson, and M. Hutchinson,, Opera, Desire and Death ( Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996); S. Sontag, Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors ( New York: Anchor, 1989).
Page 105–109. R. Dubos, and J. Dubos,, The White Plague ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1952); T. Dormandy,, The White Death: a History of Tuberculosis ( London: Hambledon, 1999); T. M. Daniel,, Captain of Death: the Story of Tuberculosis ( Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 1997); F. Haas, and S. Haas,, The origins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the notion of its contagiousness, in W. Rom, and S. Garay (ed.), Tuberculosis ( Boston: Little Brown, 1996), 3 34.
Page 106–107. S. Grzbowski, and E. Allen, History and importance of scrofula, Lancet 346 ( 1995): 1472 1474.
Page 109. D. Morens, At the deathbed of consumptive art, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8 ( 2002): 1353 1358.
Page 110. Ancient tuberculosis identified? Science 286 ( 1999): 1071; M. Caldwell,, The Last Crusade: the War on Consumption 1862–1954 ( New York: Atheneum, 1988); T. Garnier, et al., The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 ( 2003): 7877 7882; S. T. Cole et al., Deciphering the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the complete genome sequence. Nature 393 ( 1998): 537 544.
Page 111. G. N. Grob, The Deadly Truth: a History of Disease in America ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002).
Page 111–112. A. M. Kraut,, Plagues and prejudice, in D. Rosner (ed.), Hives of Sickness ( Rutgers: Rutgers University Press, 1995), 65 90.
Page 112–120. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues, 286 293; D. E. Hammerschmidt,, Bovine tuberculosis: still a world health problem, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 141 ( 2003): 359; S. Blower et al., The intrinsic transmission dynamics of tuberculosis epidemics, Nat. Med. 1 ( 1995): 815 821.
Page 121–124. F. Ryan, The Forgotten Plague: How the Battle against Tuberculosis Was Won—and Lost ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1993).
Page 124–126. P. Small, and P. Fujiwara,, Management of tuberculosis in the United States, N. Engl. J. Med. 345 ( 2001): 189 200; T. Frieden, et al., Tuberculosis, Lancet 362 ( 2003): 887 897; Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 297 299.
Page 125. Treatment of Latent TB Infection—2003, City and County of San Francisco Department of Health, TB Control Section, 4; http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250101.htm.
Page 126–127. T. Doherty, Progress and hindrances in tuberculosis vaccine development, Lancet 367 ( 2006): 947 949.
Page 127–129. C. Dye,, Global epidemiology of tuberculosis, Lancet 367 ( 2006): 938 940; E. Corbett, et al., Tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: opportunities, challenges and change in the era of antiretroviral treatment, Lancet 367 ( 2006): 926 937; S. Sharma, and J. Liu,, Progress of DOTS in global transmission control, Lancet 367 ( 2006): 951 954; CDC, Trends in tuberculosis—United States, 2005, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55 ( 2006): 305 308; M. Gandy, and A. Zumla (ed.), The Return of the White Plague ( London: Verso, 2003).
Page 130–132. A Fictional Account Based on the Writings of Ronald Ross, Memoirs ( London: John Murray, 1923).
Page 132–134. I. W. Sherman,. A brief history of malaria and the discovery of the parasite life cycle, in I. W. Sherman (ed.), Malaria: Parasite Biology, Pathogenesis, and Protection ( Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1998), 3 10.
Page 135. R. Kupuscinsk, Shadow of the Sun ( New York: Vantage, 2002).
Page 136. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 145 146, 156.
Page 136–138. G. Harrison,, Mosquitoes, Malaria and Man: a History of the Hostilities since 1880 ( New York: Dutton, 1978); W. Bynum, and C. Ovary, The Beast in the Mosquito: the Correspondence of Ronald Ross and Patrick Manson ( Amsterdam: Editions Rudolphi, 1998).
Page 137. P. deKruif, Microbe Hunters ( San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1926), 256 285.
Page 138. R. Ross, Memoirs ( London: John Murray, 1923).
Page 138–141. B. Greenwood et al., Malaria. Lancet 365 ( 2005): 1487 1498.
Page 143. deKruif. Microbe Hunters , 286 287.
Page 144. Franklin, and Sutherland, Guinea Pig Doctors, 205 206.
Page 144–145, 147–148. M. Oldstone,, Viruses, Plagues and History ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 45 72; Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 340 342, 344 345.
Page 146–147. E. T. Savitt, and J. Young (ed.), Disease and Distinctiveness in the American South ( Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988).
Page 149–153. Quoted in Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues and History, 47; L. K. Altman,, Who Goes First? ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 129 158; Franklin, and Sutherland,, Guinea Pig Doctors, 183 226; deKruif, Microbe Hunters, 286 307.
Page 155–156. T. P. Monath,, Yellow fever: an update. Lancet Infect. Dis. 1 ( 2001): 11 20; M. Theiler, The Development of Vaccines against Yellow Fever, Nobel Lecture, 11 December 1951.
Page 156. C. Soares, Turning yellow: making the yellow fever vaccine fight other germs, Sci. Am. Apr. 2006, 22 23.
Page 158–159, 165–167. J. M. Barry, The Great Influenza: the Epic Story of the 1918 Pandemic ( New York: Viking, 2004).
Page 159–160, 167. Oldstone,, Viruses, Plagues and History; M. Specter, Nature's bioterrorist. New Yorker, 28 Feb. 2005, 51 61.
Page 160–163, 172–173. R. Webster, and E. Walker,, Influenza, Am. Sci. 91 ( 2003): 122 129; K. Nicholson,, J. Wood,, and M. Zambon,, Influenza, Lancet 362 ( 2003): 1733 1745; P. Palese,, Influenza: old and new threats, Nat. Med. 10 ( 2004): S82 S87; W. Laver,, N. Biscofberger,, and R. Webster, Disarming flu viruses, Sci. Am. Jan. 1999, 78 87.
Page 163–164. E. D. Kilbourne,, Influenza pandemics of the 20th century, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 ( 2006): 9 13; G. Neumann, and Y. Kawaoka, Host range restriction and pathogenicity in the context of the influenza pandemic, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 ( 2006): 881 886.
Page 164–165. J. C. Obenauer et al., Large-scale analysis of avian influenza isolates, Science 311 ( 2006): 1576 1580.
Page 164–165. C. S. Smith,, French farmers shudder as flu keeps chickens from ranging free, New York Times 1 Mar. 2006; J. Taubenberger, and D. Morens, 1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 ( 2006): 15 22.
Page 168–169, 170–171. Sherman, The Power of Plagues, 17 18, 398 399.
Page 169–170. D. M. Bell and the WHO Working Group, Nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, international measures, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 ( 2006): 81 87.
Page 171–172. I. Longini, et al., Containing pandemic influenza at the source, Science 309 ( 2005): 1083 1087; D. M. Bell, and the WHO Working Group, Nonpharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, national and community measures, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 ( 2006): 88 94; R. Webster,, M. Peiris,, H. Chen,, and Y. Guen, H5N1 outbreaks and enzootic influenza, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12 ( 2006): 3 13.
Page 175–179, 181–185, 187–191. Sherman,, The Power of Plagues, 92 105, 112 115; A. Galvani, and M. Slatkin, Evaluating plague and smallpox as historical selective pressures for the CCR-δ32 HIV-resistance allele, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 ( 2003): 15276 15279.
Page 186–187. W. Koff, et al., HIV vaccine design: insights from the live attenuated SIV vaccines, Nat. Immunol. 7 ( 2006): 19 23; P. Spearman,, Current progress in the development of HIV vaccines, Curr. Pharm. Des. 12 ( 2006): 1 21; M. Girard,, S. D. Osmanov,, and M. Kiery, A review of vaccine research and development: the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Vaccine 24 ( 2006): 4062 4081.
Page 195–196. C. W. Dugger, and D. G. Mc Neill, Jr., Rumor, fear and fatigue hinder final push to end polio, New York Times 20 Mar. 2006.
Page 196–197. C. Dugger, Mothers of Nepal vanquish a killer of children, New York Times 30 Apr. 2006.

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