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Chapter 2 : Respiratory Tract Infections

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Abstract:

This section focuses on the two types of respiratory tract infections: upper and lower tract infections. The most common form of upper respiratory tract infection is pharyngitis. Pharyngitis is seen most frequently in children from 2 years of age through adolescence. The most common etiologic agents of pharyngitis are viruses, particularly adenoviruses, and group A streptococci. Pharyngitis due to group A streptococci predisposes individuals to the development of the poststreptococcal sequelae rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. Otitis media is a common infectious problem in infants and young children. The most frequently encountered agents of this infection are the bacteria , , and . These along with adenoviruses, and are the common etiologic agents of conjunctivitis. Viruses play an important role in upper respiratory tract infections. The common syndrome of cough and “runny” nose is usually due to rhinoviruses. More severe upper respiratory infections such as the “croup” are due to respiratory syncytial virus and influenza and parainfluenza viruses. When discussing lower respiratory tract infections, it is important to look at four different groups of patients: patients with community-acquired infections; patients with nosocomial infections; patients with underlying lung disease; and immunocompromised individuals, especially those with AIDS. Common agents of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections include ; , especially in alcoholics; , especially in school-age students through young adulthood; , especially in individuals born in countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis; respiratory syncytial virus in infants and young children: and influenza A virus.

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
0.57678586
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
0.5613939
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
0.4311476
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.40714294
Immune Systems
0.40673903
0.57678586
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2
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Influenza test: top well, influenza A;bottom well, influenza B.

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2
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Tables

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TABLE 2

SELECTED RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOGENS

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Respiratory Tract Infections, p 55-142. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch2

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