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Chapter 3 : Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

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Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This section talks about gastrointestinal tract infections and presents case studies relating to this subject. The major clinical manifestation of infections affecting the gastrointestinal tract is diarrhea. Diarrheal pathogens have two basic mechanisms by which they produce diarrhea. One is by the production of toxins called enterotoxins. , which produces the enterotoxin cholera toxin, is a classic example of a diarrheal pathogen which produces a secretory diarrhea due to the action of an enterotoxin. The other major mechanism of diarrheal disease is by damage to the intestinal epithelium. Organisms may also produce toxins that directly damage the intestinal epithelium. The protozoan produces such a cytotoxin. A number of gastrointestinal pathogens, including spp., spp., and are capable of invading the intestinal epithelium. Diarrheal diseases are almost always spread by the fecal-oral route. Since the major pathophysiologic effect of diarrhea is dehydration due to fluid and electrolyte loss, the most important treatment is rehydration. In addition to diarrheal disease, hepatitis is an important infection in the gastrointestinal system. The epidemiology of hepatitis A and E viruses is the same as that of diarrheal pathogens. They are usually obtained by ingestion of raw shellfish taken from water contaminated by human sewage or from food handled by infected people with poor personal hygiene, i.e., individuals who fail to wash their hands after a bowel movement. Hepatitis B, C, and D are spread by contaminated blood.

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3

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Traveler's Diarrhea
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Serologic and clinical patterns observed during acute HBV infection. SGPT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase. (Reprinted from , 7th ed., ©1999 ASM Press, with permission.)

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Typical sequence of serologic markers in patients with acute hepatitis B who develop persistent infection after exposure to HBV. (Reprinted from , 7th ed., ©1999 ASM Press, with permission.)

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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Tables

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TABLE 3

SELECTED GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT PATHOGENS

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3
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TABLE

INTERPRETATION OF HEPATITIS B SEROLOGIC STUDIES

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Gastrointestinal Tract Infections, p 143-200. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch3

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