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Chapter 5 : Central Nervous System Infections

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Abstract:

Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are infrequent compared with the other infections, but they are very important because of the high mortality rates and the serious sequelae associated with them, including learning, speech, and motor skills disorders; seizures; and hearing and sight loss. The most frequent CNS infections are meningitis, encephalitis, and abscess. There are two major forms of meningitis, septic and aseptic. Septic meningitis is typically caused by bacteria. Aseptic meningitis can be caused by viruses, fungi, or . The organisms most frequently associated with this type of bacterial meningitis are coagulase-negative staphylococci (especially in patients with CNS shunts or who have undergone neurosurgical procedures), , and . Viral meningitis is typically caused by the enteroviruses other than the polioviruses. Fungal meningitis is seen primarily, but not exclusively, in the immunocompromised. It is of particular importance in AIDS patients, in whom Cryptococcus neoformans is far and away the most important cause. Encephalitis due to infectious agents is due primarily to viruses. Herpes simplex virus causes probably the most common form of viral encephalitis encountered in the developed world. Parasites may also cause CNS infection. The most frequently encountered parasite causing CNS infections in the developed world is . Encephalitis due to this organism occurs primarily in AIDS patients and represents reactivation of latent infection.

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5

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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5
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Tables

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TABLE 5

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS

Citation: Gilligan P, Smiley M, Shapiro D. 2003. Central Nervous System Infections, p 241-298. In Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816353.ch5

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