1887

Chapter 1 : Introduction

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Introduction, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816445/9781555819019_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816445/9781555819019_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

Microorganisms play important roles in our lives. Of primary interest are those microorganisms that cause diseases under a variety of circumstances. Other issues include the economic aspects associated with microbial contamination, such as food spoilage, plant infections, and surface damage. This introductory chapter of provides a brief description of the various types of target microorganisms, as well as a discussion of some key considerations for biocidal applications, including the evaluation of efficacy, formulation effects, and the importance of cleaning. It offers brief insights of the topics discussed in each chapter in the book. A section presents definitions of the biocidal applications consistent with international consensus documents.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Bacterial Proteins
0.6127212
Bacterial Diseases
0.51565665
Chemicals
0.494745
Potato spindle tuber viroid
0.4920386
0.6127212
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1.1
FIGURE 1.1

A typical helminth life cycle (example: ).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.2
FIGURE 1.2

Typical fungal structures. (A) Filamentous fungus (mold). Hyphae are shown as long lines of unseparated cells, with the development of a fruiting body with attached spores. (B) Typical unicellular fungal (yeast) cells. The cells are generally polymorphic. In one case, a budding cell is shown.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.3
FIGURE 1.3

Simplified fungal cell envelope. The cross-linked cell wall is linked to the cell membrane. The cell wall usually consists of innermost fibrils of chitin or cellulose, with outer layers of amorphous, cross-linked glucans.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.4
FIGURE 1.4

Life cycle of

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.5
FIGURE 1.5

Simple representation of a mycoplasma cell surface structure.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.6
FIGURE 1.6

Basic structure of a bacterial cell, showing the cell surface in greater detail.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.7
FIGURE 1.7

Bacterial cell wall structures. The cell membranes are similar structures in all types. grampositive bacteria have a large peptidoglycan layer (shown as crossed lines) with associated polysaccharides and proteins. gramnegative bacteria have a smaller peptidoglycan layer linked to an outer membrane. The mycobacterial cell has a series of covalently linked layers, including the peptidoglycan-, arabinogalactan-, and mycolic acid-containing sections.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.8
FIGURE 1.8

Basic structure of peptidoglycan. Polysaccharides of repeating sugars are cross-linked by peptide bridges. Two different types of peptide bridges, which have been described in grampositive and gramnegative bacterial cell walls, are shown.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.9
FIGURE 1.9

Cells of Courtesy of Clifton Barry, NIAID.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.10
FIGURE 1.10

Basic viral structure.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.11
FIGURE 1.11

Typical viral life cycle. The stages include (1) attachment, (2) penetration into the cell, and (3) multiplication. Depending on the virus type, viral particles can be released by cell lysis (4a) or by budding (4b); alternatively, the virus can remain dormant in the cell (4c).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.12
FIGURE 1.12

bacteriophages. The T-phages are complex DNA viruses; MS2 and ϕ6 are RNA viruses, with ϕ6 enveloped.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.13
FIGURE 1.13

Theory of prions as infectious proteins. PrP is the normal form of the protein, and PrP the abnormal form.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.14
FIGURE 1.14

Representation of the proposed structural changes in PrP.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.15
FIGURE 1.15

The general structure of lipopolysaccharide. The lipid A component is integrated into the outer membrane of the gramnegative cell wall, with the polysaccharide portion extending to the outside of the cell.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.16
FIGURE 1.16

Typical fungal aflatoxin structure.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.17
FIGURE 1.17

General microbial resistance to biocides and biocidal processes. This classification can vary depending on the biocide or biocidal process under consideration.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.18
FIGURE 1.18

Typical time kill, or -value, determination. A known concentration of the test culture is exposed to the biocide, samples are withdrawn at various times and neutralized, and the population of survivors is determined by incubation on growth medium. The actual exposure can be conducted at various temperatures, in the presence or absence of test soils, or under other test conditions.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.19
FIGURE 1.19

Determination of the value on microbial exposure to a biocide.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.20
FIGURE 1.20

Typical survivor curves on biocide exposure. Curve 1 is concave downward, curve 2 is sigmoidal, and curve 3 is concave upward.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.21
FIGURE 1.21

Qualitative and semiquantitative population determinations.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.22
FIGURE 1.22

-value estimation using most probable number estimations.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.23
FIGURE 1.23

Example of a self-contained biological indicator. The 3M Attest 1292 Rapid Readout Biological Indicator is used to monitor steam sterilization cycles. Reproduced with permission of 3M Health Care.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.24
FIGURE 1.24

Example of a chemical-indicator color change.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.25
FIGURE 1.25

Rate of microbial inactivation on exposure to sterilization processes. In this case, the test microorganism (generally bacterial spores) at a starting population of 10 is exposed to the sterilizing agent under two conditions (A and B). The number of microorganisms can be determined over contact time or dose using a combination of direct-enumeration and fraction-negative methods (solid lines). In process A, “tailing” is observed, which may not allow the extrapolation of the kill curve to a defined probability of survival (known as an SAL). In process B, the kill curve is linear, allowing extrapolation (dotted line) to an SAL of 10.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.26
FIGURE 1.26

Basic structures of surfactants and soaps and micelles (a water-in-oil micelle is shown).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.27
FIGURE 1.27

Examples of single (left)- and multiple (right)-chamber washer and washer-disinfector machines. Washer-disinfectors can come in a variety of shapes and sizes, depending on their required uses.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 1.28
FIGURE 1.28

Various types of cleaning chemical formulations.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816445.ch01
1. American National Standards Institute. 2006. Sterilization of Health Care Products—Vocabulary. ISO/TS 11139:2006. American National Standards Institute, Washington, D.C.
2. American National Standards Institute. 2000. Sterilization of Health Care Products—General Requirements for Characterization of a Sterilizing Agent and the Development, Validation and Routine Control of a Sterilization Process for Medical Devices. ISO 14937:2000. American National Standards Institute, Washington, D.C.
3. Ascenzi, J. M. 1996. Handbook of Disinfectants and Antiseptics. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
4. Block, S. S. 2001. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
5. Collier, L., and, J. Oxford. 2000. Human Virology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
6. Flick, E. W. 1999. Advanced Cleaning Product Formulations, vol. 5. Noyes Publications, Norwich, N.Y.
7. Fraise, A. P.,, P. A. Lambert, and, J.-Y. Maillard. 2004. Russell, Hugo and Ayliffe’s Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization, 4th ed. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Mass.
8. Greenwood, D.,, R. Slack, and , J. Peutherer. 2002. Medical Microbiology, a Guide to Microbial Infections: Pathogenesis, Immunity, Laboratory Diagnosis and Control. Churchill Livingstone, New York, N.Y.
9. Holt, J. G.,, N. R. Krieg,, P. H. A. Sneath,, J. T. Staley, and, S. T. Williams (ed.). 1994. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
10. Hurst, C. J.,, R. L. Crawford,, J. L. Garland,, D. A. Lipson,, A. L. Mills, and, L. D. Stetzenbach (ed.). 2007. Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
11. International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering. 2001. Baseline Guide, vol. 4. Water and Steam Systems. International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering, Tampa, Fla.
12. Kanegsberg, B., and, E. Kanegsberg. 2001. Handbook for Critical Cleaning: Aqueous, Solvent, Advanced Processes, Surface Preparation, and Contamination Control. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
13. Kohn, W. G.,, A. S. Collins,, J. L. Cleveland,, J. A. Harte,, K. J. Eklund, and, D. M. Malvitz. 2003. Guidelines for infection control in dental healthcare settings. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52 (RR-17): 161.
14. LeBlanc, D. A. 2000. Validated Cleaning Technologies for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing. Interpharm Press, Denver, Colo.
15. Madigan, M. T.,, J. M. Martinko, and, J. Parker. 2003. Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 10th ed. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, N. J.
16. Montville, T. J., and, K. R. Matthews. 2005. Food Microbiology: an Introduction. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
17. Murray, P. R.,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Ten-over, and, R. H. Yolken (ed.). 2003. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
18. Prusiner, S. B. 2004. Prion Biology and Diseases, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Woodbury, N.Y.
19. Russell, A. D.,, W. B. Hugo, and, G. A. J. Ayliffe. 1992. Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Mass.
20. Sehulster, L., and, R.Y.W. Chinn. 2003. Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52 (RR-10):142.
21. van Doorne, H. 2004. A Basic Primer on Pharmaceutical Microbiology. PDA, Bethesda, Md.
22. Von Rheinbaben, F., and, M. H. Wolff. 2002. Hand-buch der viruswirksamen Desinfektionen. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1.1

Examples of various types of microorganisms

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.2

Some advantages and disadvantages of microorganisms

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.3

Comparison of general prokaryotic and eukaryotic structures

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.4

Helminths associated with disease

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.5

Examples of common fungi

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.6

Classification of protozoa, based on their motility mechanisms and microscopic morphologies

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.7

Examples of pathogenic mycoplasmas

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.8

General differentiation of types of bacteria based on their microscopic morphologies and reactions to Gram staining

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.9

Examples of grampositive bacteria

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.10

Examples of gramnegative bacteria

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.11

Cell wall structures in mycobacteria and related organisms

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.12

Examples of extremophile archaea

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.13

Viral families, with examples of classifications, including size, presence of a lipophilic envelope, and nucleic acid type

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.14

Examples of viral diseases

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.15

Examples of bacterial, fungal, and algal toxins

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.16

Common examples of bacterial exotoxins

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.17

Examples of surrogate microorganisms used to test and verify antimicrobial activities of biocides, products, and processes

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.18

Examples of standardized suspension tests

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.19

Examples of standardized carrier tests

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.20

Examples of simulated-use and/or in-use tests and/or guidelines

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.21

Bacterial-endospore species used to monitor and validate sterilization processes

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.22

Examples of biological-indicator standards

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.23

A typical classification of chemical indicators

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.24

Examples of chemical-indicator standards

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.25

Examples of standards and guidelines for antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.26

Various constituents of formulated biocidal products

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.27

Examples of process variables in various disinfection/sterilization techniques

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.28

Various components of cleaning formulations

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 1.29

Examples of common water contaminants and their effects

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Introduction, p 1-54. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error