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Chapter 3 : Chemical Disinfection

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Chemical Disinfection, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Chemical biocides are used for various applications due to their ability to inhibit or inactivate microorganisms. In this chapter, biocides are classified according to their general chemical types, including alcohols, aldehydes, antimicrobial metals, and halogens. For each chemical group, the major types of biocides used are described, with consideration of their applications, spectra of activity, advantages, disadvantages, and what is known about their modes of action. A table presents examples of various guidelines and standards on the use and application of chemical disinfectants. Various types and sources of essential oils and oxygen- and hydrogen peroxide-releasing compounds are also tabulated.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Inorganic Chemicals
0.69736457
Organic Chemicals
0.66537243
Inorganic Compounds
0.47583416
Type II Fatty Acid Synthase
0.47068128
0.69736457
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.1

Dissociation of benzoic acid. As the pH increases, the dissociation of the acid also increases.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.2

High-level disinfectants for medical-device disinfection based on 2.4% alkaline glutaralde-hyde and 0.55% OPA. Reproduced with permission from Advanced Sterilization Products, a Johnson & Johnson company.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.3

Examples of formaldehyde-releasing agents.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.4

Examples of an alcohol-based disinfectant (left) and an alcohol-based antiseptic (right).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.5

Aminoacridines commonly used as antiseptics.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.6

Examples of chlorhexidine-based antiseptics and disinfectants. Courtesy of Regent Medical Ltd.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.7

An example of an essential-oil-containing disinfectant.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.8

Simplified chemistry of iodine in water, demonstrating those species important for biocidal activity.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.9

The structure of PVPI. The polymer consists of repeating units of the base structure shown, with particle sizes of 90 to 140 μm.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.10

Various types of PVPI antiseptic products. Reproduced with permission from Purdue Products L. P.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.11

Simplified chemistry of chlorine in water, demonstrating those species important for biocidal activity.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.12

Examples of organic chloramines.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.13

Typical bromine-releasing agents. PSHB is an example of a water-insoluble polymeric -halamine.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.14

Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)-based disinfectant. A concentrate (which is diluted in water prior to use) is shown. Courtesy of The Clorox Sales Company.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.15

Silver sulfadiazine.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.16

A typical copper-silver ionization system. The electrode cell consists of copper and silver electrodes and a central titanium electrode. Reproduced by kind permission of Tarn-Pure.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.17

Structure of benzoyl peroxide.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.18

Example of the generation of PAA from sodium perborate and acetylsalicylic acid.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.19

Examples of the production of chlorine dioxide from chlorine.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.20

Examples of ozone generators. Courtesy of Absolute Systems (left) and Rentokil (right).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.21

Examples of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) generators. The example on the left shows a large generator connected to a flexible-walled isolator for decontamination. On the right is a smaller generator system. Generators can be mobile (as shown) or integrated into a facility. VHP is a registered trademark of STERIS Corporation.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.22

Typical room fumigation setup with a hydrogen peroxide gas generator. During fumigation, the air-handling system for the room is turned off and the gas is fed into the room. In the case shown, fumigation included the room, as well as the air-handling ductwork. Alternatively, the generator can be placed directly into the room.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.23
FIGURE 3.23

A range of chlorine dioxide-based liquid formulations for medical-device disinfection. Courtesy of The Tristel Co.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.24

A chlorine dioxide gas generator for liquid applications. Courtesy of CDG.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.25
FIGURE 3.25

A typical chlorine dioxide fumigation cycle. The biocide concentration is shown as a dashed line, and the humidity is shown as a solid line. The dotted line indicates the minimum concentration of chlorine dioxide required for activity, which depends on the application. As chlorine dioxide breaks down during the decontamination phase, the concentration can be increased by further injection of gas.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.26

The effect of temperature on the sporicidal efficacy of PAA. The average value (the time required to kill 1 log unit of test organisms in seconds) was determined for spores at 1,000 mg of PAA/liter in formulation at various test temperatures.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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FIGURE 3.27

Phenolic-based disinfectants. Both are formulation concentrates (which are diluted in water prior to use).

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.28
FIGURE 3.28

Typical bisphenolic structures.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.29
FIGURE 3.29

The modes of action of triclosan and hexachlorophene against enoyl reductases.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.30
FIGURE 3.30

Basic surfactant and micelle structures.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.31
FIGURE 3.31

The basic structure of QACs.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.32
FIGURE 3.32

QAC-based disinfectants. A ready-to-use spray formulation and an example of QACimpregnated wipes are shown. Photo of container of wipes courtesy of The Clorox Sales Company.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.33
FIGURE 3.33

Examples of chlorine-based -halamines.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.34
FIGURE 3.34

The enzymatic activity of lysozyme. The structure of peptidoglycan (see section 1.3.4.1) is cleaved at the glycosidic bonds between -acetylmuramic acid and -acetylglucosamine in the polymer.

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816445.ch03
1. Ascenzi, J. M. 1996. Handbook of Disinfectants and Antiseptics. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y.
2. Block, S. S. 1991. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 4th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa.
3. Block, S. S. 2001. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
4. Hoffman, P. N.,, C. Bradley, and, G. A. J. Ayliffe. 2004. Disinfection in Healthcare, 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Malden, Mass.
5. Izadpanah, A., and, R. L. Gallo. 2005. Antimicrobial peptides. J. Am.Acad. Dermatol. 52:381390.
6. McDonnell, G., and, A. D. Russell. 1999. Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action and resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:147179.
7. Russell, A. D.,, W. B. Hugo, and, G. A. J. Ayliffe. 1992. Principles and Practice of Disinfection, Preservation and Sterilization, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Mass.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 3.1

Examples of various guidelines and standards on the use and application of chemical disinfectants

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 3.2

Various types and sources of essential oils

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 3.3

Other oxygen- and hydrogen peroxide-releasing compounds

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 3.4

Comparison of sporicidal efficacies of liquid and gaseous hydrogen peroxide at 20 to 25°C against bacterial spores

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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TABLE 3.5

Hydrogen peroxide-based synergistic formulations and processes

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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TABLE 3.6

Various types of phenolic compounds

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
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TABLE 3.7

Classification of surfactants

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 3.8

Various biocides used on antimicrobial surfaces

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3
Generic image for table
TABLE 3.9

Various types of proteins, peptides, and enzymes used as biocides

Citation: McDonnell G. 2007. Chemical Disinfection, p 79-148. In Antisepsis, Disinfection, and Sterilization. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816445.ch3

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