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Page 1. M. Chien,, I. Morozova,, S. Shi, et al., “The genomic sequence of the accidental pathogen Legionella pneumophila,” Science 305 (2004): 19661968. Describes the genomic sequence of Legionella and has many references to the outbreak. In addition, there is a website on Legionella: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidad/diseaseinfo/legionellosis_g.html.
Page 2. R. Hajjeh, et al., “Toxic shock syndrome in the United States: Surveillance update, 1979–1996,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 5 (1999): 807810; L. K. Altman,, Who Goes First? The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 195199; D. Davis et al., “Toxic shock syndrome: A case report of a postpartum female and a literature review,” Journal of Emerging Medicine 16 (1998): 607614.
Page 3. K. Tsang et al., “A cluster of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Canada,” New England Journal of Medicine 348 (2003): 19771985.
Page 4–10. L. Roberts, and J. Janovy,, Foundations of Parasitology, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000); B. Buckman, Human Wildlife: The Life That Lives on Us. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
Page 11–12. J. W. Leavitt, Typhoid Mary: Captive to the Public Health (Boston: Beacon Press, 1996).
Page 13. For an infection to persist in the population, each individual on average must transmit the infection to at least one other individual. The number of individuals each infected person infects at the beginning of an epidemic is given by R0; this is the basic reproductive ratio of the disease or, more simply, the multiplier of the disease. The multiplier helps to predict how fast a disease will spread through the population. The simplest way of obtaining a value for R0 is to multiply the average probability per contact per unit time (β) by the duration of infectiousness (D) by the number of contacts per unit time (c). See also Bioscience 46 (1996): 115; Journal of Theoretical Biology 169 (1994): 253.
Page 14. “SARS, lay epidemiology, and fear,” The Lancet 361 (2003): 1739; C. Dye, and N. Gray, “Modeling the SARS epidemic,” Science 300 (2003):18841885.
Page 14–15. Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues and History, chap. 6, p. 7379.
Page 15–16. A. Cliff, and P. Haggert,, “Island epidemics,” Scientific American 250 (1984): 138147; M. J. Keeling, “Modeling the persistence of measles,” Trends in Microbiology 5 (1997) 513518.
Page 17. The calculation uses the formula R0 = βDc, where β is the average probability of contact, D is the duration of infectiousness, and c is the number of contacts per unit time. For HIV, D = 0.5, c = 0.2, and, if R0 = 1, β = 10.
Page 17–18. R. Anderson, and R. May,, “Vaccination and herd immunity to infectious diseases,” Nature 318 (1985): 323329; R. Lenski, and R. May, “The evolution of virulence in pathogens,” Journal of Theoretical Biology 169 (1994): 253265.
Page 18–19. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 9.
Page 19. G. Dwyer,, S. Levin,, and L. Puttel,, “A simulation model of the population dynamics and evolution of myxomatosis,” Ecological Monographs 60 (1990): 423447; D. Ebert, and J. Bull, “Challenging the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence: is virulence management feasible?” Trends in Microbiology 11 (2003):1520.
Page 19. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 5051.
Page 20–21. P. Ewald,, Evolution of Infectious Diseases (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Nesse, and Williams, Why We Get Sick: The New Science of Darwinian Medicine (New York: Random House, 1994).
Page 23. I. Tattersall,, “Once we were not alone,” Scientific American 282 (2003): 5662; M. Leakey, and A. Walker, “Early hominid fossils,” Scientific American 276 (1997): 7479; Walking with Cavemen, video (BBC, 2003).
Page 24. D. Johanson, and B. Edgar,, From Lucy to Language (New York: Simon & Schuster,1996); R. Burenhalt,, ed., The Illustrated History of Human Kind (London: Harper Collins, 1993); R. Leakey, and R. Lewis, Origins Reconsidered (New York: Doubleday, 1992).
Page 26. R. N. Fiennes,, Zoonoses and the Origins and Ecology of Human Disease (London: Academic Press, 1978); R. Larnick, and R. Ciochon, “The African emergence and early Asian dispersal of the genus Homo,” American Scientist 84 (1996): 538551.
Page 26–27. S. Jones,, R. Martin,, and D. Pilbeam,, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992); R. Lewin, Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction, 4th ed. (London: Blackwell, 1999).
Page 28. E. Trinkaus, and P. Shipman,, The Neanderthals (New York: Knopf, 1993); C. Stringer, and C. Gamble,, In Search of the Neanderthals (London: Thames & Hudson, 1993); I. Tattersall, The Last Neanderthal (New York: Macmillan, 1995).
Page 30. A. Coale,, “The history of the human population,” Scientific American 231 (1974): 4151; E. S. Deevey, Jr., “The human population.” Scientific American 203 (1960): 195204.
Page 30–31. T. Malthus, An Essay on Population (London: Dent and Sons, 19271928).
Page 32–35. J. Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel (New York: Norton, 1997), 108, 111, 89, 90, 208.
Page 37. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 67.
Page 37–40. Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel. This discussion is based on chaps. 4, 5, and 6, p. 85113.
Page 44. E. V. Hulse, “Joshua's curse and the abandonment of ancient Jericho.” Medical History 15 (1971): 376386.
Page 46–47. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 39.
Page 47–52. W. D. Foster,, A History of Parasitology (Edinburgh: Livingstone, 1965); L. Roberts, and J. Janovy,, Foundations of Parasitology, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000); J. Farley, Bilharzia. A History of Imperial Tropical Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Page 53–55. F. Cartwright,, and M. Biddis,, Disease and History, 2nd ed. (Phoenix Mill, U.K.: Sutton, 2000) 57; M. Grmek, Diseases in the Ancient Greek World (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989).
Page 55. See the website http://www.archeology.org/online/news/kerameikos.html. It has been estimated that the population in Athens was 250,000 to 300,000, and the total number of deaths was between 65,000 and 78,000. See also P. Olsen et al., “The Thucydides syndrome: Ebola deja vu,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 2 (1996): 152153.
Page 55–56. Thucydides, Peloponnesian Wars, Book 2, chaps. 4752.
Page 56–59. A. Celli,, A History of the Roman Campagna (London: Bale, 1933); R. Sallares, Malaria and Rome (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). Before the Roman conquest of the Italian peninsula, the local population had a life expectancy of 28 to 42 years, and 5 to 15% of the children died during the first 10 years of life. After the conquest, life expectancy declined to ~27 years, and infant mortality increased to ~25%.
Page 60–61. Cartwright, Disease and History, 1921.
Page 61–64. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 104107, 108, 109114; “Logic, learning and experimental medicine,” Science 295 (2000): 800801.
Page 64. Most scientists accept that the plague of Justinian was bubonic plague; however, a recent book— S. Scott, and C. J. Duncan,, Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)—using epidemiological analyses contends that it was some other infectious disease, such as Ebola. See also J. Wood,, R. Ferrell,, and S. N. Dewitt-Avina, “The temporal dynamics of the 14th century black death: new evidence from ecclesiastical records,” Human Biology 75 (2003): 427448.
36. Bratto calculates that given an estimated population of ~290,000, about 115,000 would have contracted plague, and with a fatality rate of 20%, about 58,000 would have died. T. L. Bratto, “The identity of the Plague of Justinian (Part II),” Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia 3 (1981): 174180.
Page 65. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 137.
38. Bray, R. S., Armies of Pestilence. The Effects of Pandemics on History. Cambridge: Butterworth, 1996. Chaps. 6, 7, 8, and 9.
39. Defoe, D. A Journal of the Plague Year. New York: Oxford, 1969.
40. Drancourt, M.,, and Raoult, D. “Molecular insights into the history of plague.” Microbes and Infection 4 (2002):105109.
41. Gottfried, R. The Black Death. Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe. New York: The Free Press, 1983.
42. Gregg, C. Plague. An Ancient Disease in the 20th Century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1985.
43. Herlihy, D. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
44. McEvedy, C. “The bubonic plague.” Scientific American 258 (1988):118123.
45. Mee, C. L., Jr. “How a mysterious disease laid low Europe's masses.” Smithsonian (Feb. 1990):6775.
46. Porter, R. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
47. Slack, P. The Impact of Plague in Tudor and Stuart England. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985.
48. Tuchman, B. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Ballantine, 1978.
49. Twigg, G. The Black Death. A Biological Reappraisal. New York: Schocken, 1985.
50. Ziegler, P. The Black Death. New York: Harper, 1969.
Page 67. Herlihy, The Black Death, 84100.
Page 68–69. R. Browning, The Pied Piper, 1888.
Page 69–70. G. Boccaccio, The Decameron, quoted in Ziegler, The Black Death, 46.
Page 72–73. Ziegler, The Black Death, 58.
Page 73–74. Herlihy, 5982.
Page 74–75. Ziegler, 84109.
Page 75–76. Herlihy, 80.
Page 75–76. Ziegler, 84109.
Page 76–78. Herlihy, 6872.
Page 78–81. Herlihy, 4652.
Page 81–82. E. Bender, “Alexandre Yersin: pursuer of plague,” Hospital Practice (March 30, 989): 121148.
Page 83. L. Gross, “How the plague bacillus and its transmission through fleas were discovered. Reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92 (1995): 76097611.
Page 83–85. E. Carniel, “Plague,” in Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 2nd ed., 3 (2000): 654661, quoted by Ziegler, p. 18.
Page 85. M. Achtman et al., “Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96 (1999): 1404314048.
66. Fan, H.,, R. Connor,, and L. Villareal. AIDS Science and Society, 4th ed. Sudbury Mass.: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.
67. Stine, G. AIDS Update 2005. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2005.
68. Alcamo, I. E. AIDS: The Biological Basis, 3rd ed. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett, 2003.
Page 89. Time 157 (February 12, 2001): 37.
Page 90. Stine, AIDS Update 2005.
Page 90–91. R. C. Gallo, “The AIDS virus,” Scientific American 256 (1987): 4756.
Page 92. G. Simpson,, C. Pittendrigh,, and L. Tiffany, Life (San Francisco: Harcourt Brace, 1957), p. 18.
Page 94. “A notable career in finding out: Peyton Rous, 1879–1970,” Rockefeller University Occasional Paper 16, 1971; H. Lechevalier, Three Centuries of Microbiology (New York: Dover, 1974), 282.
Page 95–96. G. M. Cooper,, R. G. Temin,, and B. Sugden, eds., The DNA Provirus. Howard Temin's Scientific Legacy (Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1995).
Page 96–97. Alcamo, AIDS.
Page 98–99. This view has been contested by A. Galvani, and M. Slatkin (“Evaluating plague and smallpox as historical selective pressures for the CCR-d32 HIV-resistance allele,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100 [2003]: 1527615279), who suggest that “smallpox alone can account for current frequencies of the HIV-1 resistance allele.”
Page 99–102. Alcamo, AIDS, 146147.
Page 103–104. P. Aggleton, et al., “Risking everything? Risk behavior, behavior change, and AIDS,” Science 265 (1994): 341345; J. M. Blower, and A. R. McLeary, “Prophylactic vaccines, risk behavior change, and probability of eradicating HIV in San Francisco,” Science 265 (1994): 14511454.
Page 105. B. Schwartlander et al., “Resource needs for HIV/AIDS,” Science 292 (2001): 24342436.
Page 105–111. J. Goudsmit,, Viral Sex. The Nature of AIDS (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997); J. Moore, “The puzzling origins of AIDS,” American Scientist 92 (2004): 540549.
Page 111–112. S. Darby, et al., “Mortality before and after HIV infection in the complete UK population by haemophiliacs,” Nature 377(1995): 7982; P. Duesberg,, Infectious AIDS (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1995); “The Duesberg phenomenon,” Science 266 (1994): 16421648; E. Hooper,, The River (New York: Little Brown, 1999); H. Poiner,, M. Kuch,, and S. Parks, “Molecular analyses of oral polio vaccine samples,” Science 292 (2004): 743744; EMBO Reports 4 (2003): S10S14.
Page 112–115. R. A. Weiss,, “HIV and AIDS in relation to other pandemics,” Science 304 (2004): 19321938; J. Cohen,, “Asia and Africa: on different trajectories,” Science 301 (2003): 16501663; “The next frontier for AIDS,” Nature Medicine 9 (2003); 839842; A. S. Fauci, “HIV and AIDS: 20 years of science,” Nature Medicine 9 (2003): 839843.
84. H. Zinsser, Rats, Lice and History (Boston: Little Brown, 1935).
Page 119–120. Cartwright, Disease and History, first ed., 82112.
Page 121. R. K. D. Peterson, “Insects, disease and military history,” American Entomologis (Fall 1995): 147160.
Page 122–123. L. Gross, “How Charles Nicolle of the Pasteur Institute discovered that epidemic typhus is transmitted by lice: Reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93 (1996): 1053910540.
Page 123. Lechevalier, Three Centuries of Microbiology, 325332.
Pages 123–125. J. W. Maunder, “The appreciation of lice,” Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain 55 (1983): 131.
Page 124. Zinsser, Rats, Lice and History.
Page 126–127, 132. D. Raoult, and V. Roux, “The body louse as a vector of reemerging human diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 29 (1999): 888911.
Page 128–132. H. Markell, Quarantine! (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997).
Page 132. W. Szybalski,, “Maintenance of human-fed live lice in the laboratory and production of Weigl's exanthematic typhus vaccine,” in Maintenance of Human, Animal and Plant Pathogen Vectors, eds. K. Maramorosch, and F. Mahmood (Enfield, N.H.: Science Publishers, 1999), 161180.
Page 133. Zinsser, Rats, Lice and History.
Page 135. R. Kapuscinsk, Shadow of the Sun (New York: Vantage Books, 2002).
Page 135–136. I. Sherman,, “A brief history of malaria and discovery of the parasite life cycle,” in Malaria. Parasite Biology, Pathogenesis and Protection, ed. I. W. Sherman (Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1998), 310.
Page 137–143. R. Ross,, Memoirs (London: John Murray, 1923); E. R. Nye, and M. E. Gibson,, Ronald Ross: Malariologist and Polymath—A Biography (London: Macmillan, 1997); W. Bynum, and C. Ovary,, The Beast in the Mosquito: The Correspondence of Ronald Ross and Patrick Manson (Amsterdam: Editions Rudolphi, 1998); P. Russell,, Man's Mastery of Malaria (London: Oxford University Press, 1955); G. Harrison, Mosquitoes, Malaria and Man. A History of the Hostilities Since 1880 (New York: Dutton, 1978).
Page 144. de Kruif, Microbe Hunters, 256285.
Page 147–149. S. Meshnick, “From quinine to qinghaosu. Historical perspective,” in Sherman, 341354.
Page 150–152. A. Hill, and D. Weatherall, “Host genetic factors in resistance,” in Sherman, 445456.
Page 153–154. W. Trager, and J. Jensen, “Human malaria parasites in continuous culture,” Science 193 (1978): 673675.
Page 154–155. J. Barnwell, and M. Galinski, “Invasion of vertebrate cells: erythrocytes,” in Sherman, 93122.
Page 156. C. Beadle, and S. Hoffman, “History of malaria in the United States naval forces at war: World War I through the Vietnam Conflict,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 16 (1993): 320329.
104. Grob, G. N. The Deadly Truth. A History of Disease in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.
105. Rosenberg, C. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849 and 1866. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
Page 159. J. Franklin, and J. Sutherland, Guinea Pig Doctors (New York: Morrow, 1984), 181182.
Page 160. P. Johansen, et al. Cholera, Chloroform and the Science of Medicine. A Life of John Snow (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); J. Snow, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (London: Churchill, 1855). An excellent website is http://www.ph.ucla.edu/epi/snow.html.
Page 160. G. Bordenhave,, “Louis Pasteur,” Microbes and Infection 5(2003): 553555; P. Debre,, Louis Pasteur (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998); G. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995).
Page 161–162. Essays of Robert Koch, translated by K. C. Carter, (New York: Greenwood Press, 1987); T. D. Brock, and Robert Koch,, A Life in Medicine (Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1999); R. Munch, “R. Koch,” Microbes and Infection 5 (2003): 6974.
Page 162–165. I. W. Sherman, and V. Sherman,, Biology: A Human Approach (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983); de Kruif, Microbe Hunters, 396.
Page 165. Simpson et al., Life.
Page 166–167. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 231.
Page 167–170. D. Barua,, “History of cholera,” in Cholera, eds. D. Barua, and W. B. Greenough, (New York: Plenum, 1992), 124; G. C. Cook,, “The Asiatic cholera: an historical determinant of human genomic and social structure,” in Cholera and the Ecology of Vibrio cholerae, eds. B. Drasar, and B. D. Forest (London: Chapman and Hall, 1996), 1853.
Page 170–171. P. Quinton, “What is good about cystic fibrosis?Current Biology 4 (1994): 742743.
Page 171. E. Ryan, and S. Calderwood, “Cholera vaccines,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 31 (2001): 561565.
Page 172. R. Colwell,, “Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm,” Science 274 (1996): 20252031; C. Dold, “The cholera lesson,” Discover (Feb. 1999), 7175.
Page 173–175. M. Kaufman,, “Blue cholera,” The Lancet 340 (1992): 837; R. Guerrant,, B. Carneiro-Filho,, and R. Dilhingham, “Cholera, diarrhea and oral rehydration therapy: triumph and indictment,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 37 (2003): 398405.
Page 176–178. Cartwright, Disease and History, first ed., 157166.
Page 178. F. Cartwright, A Social History of Medicine (London: Longman, 1977).
Page 178–180. G. Gill,, S. Burrell,, and J. Brown, “Fear and frustration—the Liverpool cholera riots of 1832,” The Lancet 358 (2001): 233237.
Page 180–181. Cartwright,, A Social History of Medicine; S. Finer,, The Life and Times of Edwin Chadwick (London: Methuen, 1952); C. Hamlin, Public Health and Social Justice in the Age of Chadwick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Page 181–182. J. Snow, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (London: John Churchill, 1885).
Page 182–184. E. Huxley,, Florence Nightingale (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1975). More critical views of Florence Nightingale can be found in Eminent Victorians. Lytton Strachey (London: Continuum, 2002); H. Small,, Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel (London: Constable, 1998); and F. B. Smith, Florence Nightingale: Reputation and Power (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982).
Page 191. J. L. Carrell,, The Speckled Monster. A Historical Tale of Battling Smallpox (New York: Dutton, 2003); Cartwright, and Biddis,, Disease and History, 2nd ed., 6382; Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel, 157175.
Page 191–192. J. N. Shurkin,, The Invisible Fire. The Story of Mankind's Victory Over the Ancient Scourge of Smallpox (New York: Putnam, 1979); H. J. Parish, Victory with Vaccines. The Story of Immunization (Edinburgh: Livingstone, 1968).
Page 192–195. Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues and History, 2744.
Page 195–202. D. R. Hopkins,, Princes and Peasants (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983); C. W. Dixon,, Smallpox (London: Churchill, 1962); I. Glynn, and J. Glynn,, The Life and Death of Smallpox (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); F. Fenner,, D. Henderson,, I. Arita,, Z. Jezek,, and I. Ladnyi,, Smallpox and Its Eradication (Geneva, World Health Organization, 1988); J. Eyler,, “Smallpox in history,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 142 (2003): 216220; D. Baxby,, Jenner's Smallpox Vaccine (London: Heineman, 1981); H. Bazin, The Eradication of Smallpox (San Diego: Academic Press, 2000).
Page 196–197. R. Preston, The Demon in the Freezer (New York: Random House, 2002).
Page 202–203. S. Bernstein, “Smallpox and variolation: their historical significance in the American colonies,” Journal of Mount Sinai Hospital 18 (1951): 228244.
Page 204. P. J. Read, “Benjamin Jesty: new light in the dawn of vaccination,” The Lancet 362 (2003): 21042109.
Page 207. P. Berche,, “The threat of smallpox and bioterrorism,” Trends in Microbiology 9 (2001): 1518; C. McClain,, “A new look at an old disease: smallpox and biotechnology,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 38 (1994): 624639; T. O'Toole, “Smallpox: an attack scenario,” Emerging Infectious Diseases 5 (1999): 540546.
Page 205–208. Oldstone, Viruses, Plagues and History, 2744.
Page 202, 209. M. Albert,, K. Ostheimer,, and J. Bremen,, “The last smallpox epidemic in Boston and the vaccination controversy, 1901–03,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 375379; J. Farrell,, Invisible Enemies. Stories of Infectious Disease (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1998); J. Duffy,, Epidemics in Colonial America (Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1953); H. N. Simpson, Invisible Armies: The Impact of Disease on American History (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1980).
Page 211, 218–220. W. R. Clark, At War Within: The Double-Edged Sword of Immunity (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
Page 212–213. R. Goldsby et al., Immunology, 5th ed. (New York: Freeman, 2003).
Page 213. A. Tauber,, “Metchnikoff and the phagocytosis theory,” Nature Reviews/Molecular Cell Biology 4 (2003): 897; de Kruif, Microbe Hunters, 190212.
Page 213–217. A. M. Silverstein,, A History of Immunology (San Diego, Academic Press, 1989); A. M. Silverstein, Milestones in Immunology. A Historical Exploration (Madison: Science Tech Publishers, 1988).
Page 213–217. Pier, G.,, J. Lyczak,, and L. M. Wetzler. Immunology, Infection and Immunity (Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2004).
Page 217–219, 224–226. C. Mims,, The War Within Us: Everyman's Guide to Infection and Immunity (San Diego: Academic Press, 2000); P. J. Delver, and I. Roitt,, “The immune system,” New England Journal of Medicine 343 (July 6, 2000): 3749, and 343 (July 13, 2000): 106115; R. Medzhitov, and C. Janeway, “Innate immunity,” New England Journal of Medicine 343 (2000): 338343.
Page 220–223. L. O'Neill, “Immunity's early-warning system,” Scientific American 292 (Jan. 2005); 3643.
Page 223. G. Stollerman, “Rheumatic fever in the 21st century,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 33 (2001): 804812.
Page 231–232. A. Lyons, and R. Petrucelli, Medicine. An Illustrated History (New York:Abradale, 1987).
Page 235–239. O. W. Holmes,, The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever. The Harvard Classics (New York: P. F. Collier & Son, 1909–14); M. Thompson,, The Cry and the Covenant (New York: Doubleday, 1949); S. B. Nuland,, The Doctors' Plague: Germs, Childbed Fever and the Strange Story of Ignac Semmelweiss (New York: Norton, 2003); F. G. Slaughter, Immortal Magyar (New York: Schuman, 1950).
Page 239–240. Porter, Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine, 202245.
Page 240. H. W. Haggard. The Doctor in History (New York, Dorset Press, 1989).
Page 240–245. V. S. Thatcher, History of Anesthesia (New York: Garland, 1984).
Page 246–247. J. J. Beer,, The Emergence of the German Dye Industry (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1959); W. M. Gardner,, ed., The British Coal Tar Industry (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1915); J. Drews,, “Drug discovery: a historical perspective,” Science 287 (2000): 19601964; M. Marquardt, Paul Ehrlich (New York: Schumann. 1951).
Page 247–249. A. S. Travis, The Rainbow Makers (Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 1993).
Page 250–251. C. Walsh,, Antibiotics: Actions, Origins and Resistance (Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2003); R. Hare,, The Birth of Penicillin and the Disarming of Microbes (London: Allen & Unwin); E. Lax, The Mold in Dr. Florey's Coat: The Story of the Penicillin Miracle (New York: Holt, 2004).
Page 255. T. G. Benedek, and J. Erlen,, “The scientific environment of the Tuskegee study of syphilis, 1920–1960,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 43 (1999) 128; J. Jones, Bad Blood (New York: Free Press, 1981).
Page 256–259. D. S. Jones,, “Syphilis, historical,” in Encyclopedia of Microbiology 4: 538544 (San Diego: Academic Press. 2000); E. Tramont,, Treponema pallidum (syphilis),” in Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th ed., eds. J. Mandell,, J. Bennett,, and R. Dolin, (New York, Churchill Livingstone, 2000), 24742490; Cartwright,, Disease and History, first ed., 5481; C. Quetel, History of Syphilis (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).
Page 260. Secrets of the Dead, The Syphilis Enigma, video (PBS, 2001).
Page 261–262. Franklin, and Sutherland,, Guinea Pig Doctors, 2557. This claim is refuted by R. Murley. R. Murley, “Guilty of perpetuating the myth that John Hunter suffered from syphilis after inoculating himself from a chancre,” World J. Surg. 18 (1994): 290.
Page 262–263. Tramont, “Treponema pallidum (syphilis).”
Page 263–264. T. Rosebury, Microbes and Morals (New York: Viking, 1971).
Page 265–266. R. Desowitz,, Who Gave Pinta to the Santa Maria? (New York: Norton, 1997); E. Tramont,, “Syphilis in adults: from Christopher Columbus to Sir Alexander Fleming to AIDS,” Clinical Infectious Diseases 21 (1995): 13611371; B. Rothschild, and C. Rothschild,, “Treponemal disease in the New World,” Current Anthropology 37 (1996): 555561; A. W. Crosby,, The Columbian Exchange. Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988), 122164; G. Antal,, S. Lukehart,, and A. Meheus,, “The endemic treponematoses,” Microbes and Infection 4 (2002): 8394; C. Fraser et al., “Complete genome sequence of the syphilis spirochete,” Science 281 (1998): 375388.
Page 266–267. Cartwright, Disease and History, first ed., 5481.
Page 267. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, 227.
Page 267–268. Tramont, “Treponema pallidum (syphilis).”
Page 268. F. Winau,, O. Westphal,, and R. Winau,, “Paul Ehrlich—in search of the magic bullet,” Microbes and Infection 6 (2004): 786789; de Kruif, Microbe Hunters, 308330.
Page 268–270. Rosebury,, Microbes and Morals; T. Parran, Shadow on the Land: Syphilis (NewYork: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1937).
Page 268–271. Jones, “Syphilis, historical.”
Page 270–271. N. Grassly,, C. Fraser,, and G. Garrett, “Host immunity and synchronized epidemicsof syphilis across the United States,” Nature 433 (2005): 417425.
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