1887

Chapter 18 : Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Other Tick-Borne Rickettsioses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Other Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816490/9781555812386_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816490/9781555812386_Chap18-2.gif

Abstract:

Rickettsioses are arthropod-borne infections caused by bacteria belonging to the genus within the family in the order . Most of these zoonoses are transmitted by ticks, but some are vectored by lice, fleas, or mites. Tick-borne rickettsioses have specific geographic distributions, directly dependent on the distribution of their vectors. These rickettsioses are among the oldest known arthropod-borne diseases. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) was first reported in 1899 by Maxcey; its vector, , was described in 1909. One year later, Conor and Bruch described Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Tunisia. Over the last 12 years, another 10 of these infections have been characterized, including Astrakhan fever, Flinders Island spotted fever (FISF), African tick-bite fever (ATBF), Japanese spotted fever (JSF), tick-borne lymphadenitis (TIBOLA), lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis (LAR) due to , and unnamed infections caused by , and “” Thus, many of the tick-borne rickettsioses are considered to be emerging infections. This chapter considers various aspects of tick-borne rickettsioses, including the description of rickettsiae, their vectors and the relationships between rickettsiae and ticks, an overview of the various diseases recognized to date, a description of rickettsiae of unknown pathogenicity, and a report on modern diagnostic tools and treatments used for tick-transmitted rickettsioses.

Citation: Fournier P, Raoult D. 2005. Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Other Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, p 302-327. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch18

Key Concept Ranking

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
0.5729438
Queensland Tick Typhus
0.45000902
Israeli Spotted Fever
0.44324198
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.42695346
0.5729438
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Phylogenetic organization of tick-transmitted rickettsiae based on the comparison of , , , and 4 (gene D) gene sequences by the parsimony method.

Citation: Fournier P, Raoult D. 2005. Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Other Tick-Borne Rickettsioses, p 302-327. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816490.chap18
1. Anacker, R. L.,, R. H. List,, R. E. Mann,, S. F. Hayes,, and L. A. Thomas. 1985. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies protecting mice against Rickettsia rickettsii. J. Infect. Dis. 151:10521060.
2. Anacker, R. L.,, R. E. Mann,, and C. Gonzales. 1987. Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii with spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:167171.
3. Anacker, R. L.,, G. A. McDonald,, R. H. List,, and R. E. Mann. 1987. Neutralizing activity of monoclonal antibodies to heat-sensitive and heat-resistant epitopes of Rickettsia rickettsii surface proteins. Infect. Immun. 55:825827.
4. Anderson, B. E.,, and T. Tzianabos. 1989. Comparative sequence analysis of a genus-common rickettsial antigen gene. J. Bacteriol. 171:51995201.
5. Anigstein, L.,, and D. Anigstein. 1975. A review of the evidence in retrospect for a rickettsial etiology in Bullis fever. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 33:201211.
6. Araki, M.,, K. Takatsuka,, J. Kawamura,, and Y. Kanno. 2002. Japanese spotted fever involving the central nervous system: two case reports and a literature review. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:38743876.
7. Babalis, T.,, Y. Tselentis,, V. Roux,, A. Psaroulaki,, and D. Raoult. 1994. Isolation and identification of a rickettsial strain related to Rickettsia massiliae in Greek ticks. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50:365372.
8. Bacellar, F.,, L. Beati,, A. Franca,, J. Pocas,, R. Regnery,, and A. Filipe. 1999. Israeli spotted fever rickettsia (Rickettsia conorii complex) associated with human disease in Portugal. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:835836.
9. Bacellar, F.,, R. L. Regnery,, M. S. Nuncio,, and A. R. Filipe. 1995. Genotypic evaluation of rickettsial isolates recovered from various species of ticks in Portugal. Epidemiol. Infect. 114:169178.
10. Baird, R. W.,, M. Lloyd,, J. Stenos,, B. C. Ross,, R. S. Stewart,, and B. Dwyer. 1992. Characterization and comparison of Australian human spotted fever group rickettsiae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:28962902.
11. Baird, R. W.,, J. Stenos,, R. Stewart,, B. Hudson,, M. Lloyd,, S. Aiuto,, and B. Dwyer. 1996. Genetic variation in Australian spotted fever group rickettsiae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 15261530.
12. Balayeva, N. M.,, M. E. Eremeeva,, H. Tissot-Dupont,, I. A. Zakharov,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Genotype characterization of the bacterium expressing the male-killing trait in the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata with specific rickettsial molecular tools. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:13411347.
13. Balayeva, N. M.,, and V. F. Ignatovich. 1991. Serological studies of patients with fever disease of unknown etiology in Astrakhan region with spotted fever group rickettsial antigens. Zh. Microbiol. Epidemiol. Immunol. 4:6971.
14. Beati, L.,, J. P. Finidori,, B. Gilot,, and D. Raoult. 1992. Comparison of serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein analysis, and genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of rickettsiae: characterization of two new rickettsial strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:19221930.
15. Beati, L.,, P. J. Kelly,, P. R. Mason,, and D. Raoult. 1994. Species-specific BALB/c mouse antibodies to rickettsiae studied by Western blotting. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 119:339344.
16. Beati, L.,, M. Meskini,, B. Thiers,, and D. Raoult. 1997. Rickettsia aeschlimannii sp. nov., a new spotted fever group rickettsia associated with Hyalomma marginatum ticks. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:548554.
17. Beati, L.,, O. Peter,, W. Burgdorfer,, A. Aeschlimann,, and D. Raoult. 1993. Confirmation that Rickettsia helvetica sp. nov. is a distinct species of the spotted fever group of rickettsiae. Int. J. Syst. Bact. 43:521526.
18. Beati, L.,, and L. Raoult. 1993. Rickettsia massiliae sp. nov., a new spotted fever group rickettsia. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:839840.
19. Beati, L.,, V. Roux,, A. Ortuno,, J. Castella,, F. Segura Porta,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from catalan Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:26882694.
20. Bell, E. J.,, G. M. Kohls,, H. G. Stoenner,, and D. B. Lackman. 1963. Nonpathogenic rickettsias related to the spotted fever group isolated from ticks, Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni from Eastern Montana. J. Immunol. 90: 770781.
21. Bell, E. J.,, and H. G. Stoenner. 1960. Immunologic relationships among the spotted fever group of rickettsias determined by toxin neutralisation tests in mice with convalescent animal serums. J. Immunol. 84:171182.
22. Bitsori, M.,, E. Galanakis,, C. E. Papadakis,, and S. Sbyrakis. 2001. Facial nerve palsy associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. Arch. Dis. Child. 85:5455.
23. Bouyer, D. H.,, J. Stenos,, P. Crocquet-Valdes,, C. Moron,, P. Vsevolod,, J. E. Zavala-Velasquez,, L. Foil,, D. Stothard,, A. Azad,, and D. Walker. 2001. Rickettsia felis: molecular characterization of a new member of the spotted fever group. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:339347.
24. Bozeman, F. M.,, B. L. Elisberg,, J. W. Humphries,, K. Runcik,, and D. B. Palmer, Jr. 1970. Serologic evidence of Rickettsia canada infection of man. J. Infect. Dis. 121:367371.
25. Brouqui, P.,, J. R. Harle,, J. Delmont,, C. Frances,, P. J. Weiller,, and D. Raoult. 1997. African tick bite fever: an imported spotless rickettsiosis. Arch. Intern. Med. 157:119124.
26. Brumpt, E., 1922. Les spirochétoses, p. 491531. In H. Roger,, G. W. Vidal,, and P. Teissier (ed.), Nouveau Traité de médecine. Masson, Paris, France.
27. Brumpt, E. 1932. Longévité du virus de la fièvre boutonneuse (Rickettsia conorii n. sp.) chez la tique Rhipicephalus sanguineus. C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Fil. 110:11991209.
28. Burgdorfer, W. 1970. Hemolymph test. A technique for detection of rickettsiae in ticks. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19: 10101014.
29. Burgdorfer, W.,, A. Aeschlimann,, O. Peter,, S. F. Hayes,, and R. N. Philip. 1979. Ixodes ricinus: vector of a hitherto undescribed spotted fever group agent in Switzerland. Acta Trop. 36:357367.
30. Burgdorfer, W.,, R. L. Anacker,, R. G. Bird,, and D. S. Bertram. 1968. Intranuclear growth of Rickettsia rickettsii. J. Bacteriol. 96:14151418.
31. Burgdorfer, W.,, and L. P. Brinton. 1975. Mechanisms of transovarial infection of spotted fever Rickettsiae in ticks. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 266:6172.
32. Burgdorfer, W.,, L. P. Brinton,, W. L. Krinsky,, and R. N. Philip,. 1978. Rickettsia rhipicephali: a new spotted fever group rickettsia from the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, p. 307316. In J. Kazar,, R. A. Ormsbee,, and I. V. Tarasevich (ed.), Rickettsiae and Rickettsial Diseases. House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
33. Burgdorfer, W.,, R. A. Ormsbee,, M. L. Schmidt,, and H. Hoogstraal. 1973. A search for the epidemic typhus agent in Ethiopian ticks. Bull. W. H. O. 48:563569.
34. Burgdorfer, W.,, D. J. Sexton,, R. K. Gerloff,, R. L. Anacker,, R. N. Philip,, and L. A. Thomas. 1975. Rhipicephalus sanguineus: vector of a new spotted fever group rickettsia in the United States. Infect. Immun. 12:205210.
35. Burgdorfer, W.,, and M. G. R. Varma. 1967. Trans-stadial and transovarial development of disease agents in arthropods. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 12:347376.
36. Burridge, M. J.,, L. A. Simmons,, B. H. Simbi,, S. M. Mahan,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Introduction of the exotic tick Amblyomma hebraeum into Florida on a human host. J. Parasitol. 88:800801.
37. Burton, R. 1992. Bird Migration, p. 1160. Aurum Press Limited, London, England.
38. Campbell, R. W.,, and R. Domrow. 1974. Rickettsioses in Australia: isolation of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi and R. australis from naturally infected arthropods. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68:397402.
39. Cascio, A.,, C. Colomba,, D. Di Rosa,, L. Salsa,, L. di Martino,, and L. Titone. 2001. Efficacy and safety of clarithromycin as treatment for Mediterranean spotted fever in children: a randomized controlled trial. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:409411.
40. Chen, D. Q.,, B. C. Campbell,, and A. H. Purcell. 1996. A new rickettsia from a herbivorous insect, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Curr. Microbiol. 33:123128.
41. Chen, M.,, M. Y. Fan,, D. Z. Bi,, and J. Z. Zhang. 1998. Sequence analysis of PCR products amplified from five strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae with Rr with Rr 190.70p and Rr 190.602n primers. Acta Virol. 42:9193.
42. Cohen, J.,, Y. Lasri,, and Z. Landau. 1999. Mediterranean spotted fever in pregnancy. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 31:202203.
43. Conor, A.,, and A. Bruch. 1910. Une fièvre éruptive observée en Tunisie. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filial. 8:492496.
44. Cook, I.,, and R. W. Campbell. 1965. Rickettsiosis—North Queensland tick typhus. Rep. Queensland Inst. Med. Res. 20:4.
45. Cory, J.,, C. E. Yunker,, J. A. Howarth,, Y. Hokama,, L. E. Hughes,, L. A. Thomas,, and C. M. Clifford. 1975. Isolation of spotted fever group and Wolbachia-like agents from field-collected materials by means of plaque formation in mammalian and mosquito cells. Acta Virol. 19:443445.
46. de Galan, B. E.,, B. J. van Kasteren,, A. W. van den Wall Bake,, and G. Vreugdenhil. 1999. A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome due to infection with Rickettsia conorii. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:7980.
47. Drancourt, M.,, L. Beati,, I. V. Tarasevich,, and D. Raoult. 1992. Astrakhan fever rickettsia is identical to Israeli tick typhus rickettsia, a genotype of the Rickettsia conorii complex. J. Infect. Dis. 165:11671168.
48. Drancourt, M.,, P. Brouqui,, G. Chiche,, and D. Raoult. 1992. Acute pericarditis in Mediterranean spotted fever. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85:799.
49. Drancourt, M.,, P. J. Kelly,, R. L. Regnery,, and D. Raoult. 1992. Identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction and restriction-endonuclease length polymorphism analysis. Acta Virol. 36:16.
50. Drancourt, M.,, and D. Raoult. 1999. Characterization of mutations in the rpoB gene in naturally rifampin-resistant Rickettsia species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:24002403.
51. Drancourt, M.,, D. Raoult,, J. R. Harle,, H. Chaudet,, F. Janbon,, C. Charrel,, and H. Gallais. 1990. Biological variations in 412 patients with Mediterranean spotted fever. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 590:3950.
52. Dumler, J. S.,, W. R. Gage,, G. L. Pettis,, A. F. Azad,, and F. P. Kuhadja. 1990. Rapid immunoperoxydase demonstration of Rickettsia rickettsii in fixed cutaneous specimens from patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 93:410.
53. Dwyer, B. W.,, S. R. Graves,, M. I. McDonald,, A. P. Yung,, R. R. Doherty,, and J. K. McDonald. 1991. Spotted fever in East Gippsland, Victoria: a previously unrecognised focus of rickettsial infection. Med. J. Aust. 154:121125.
54. Eremeeva, M.,, N. M. Balayeva,, V. Roux,, V. Ignatovich,, M. Kotsinjan,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Genomic and proteinic characterization of strain S, a rickettsia isolated from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in Armenia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:27382744.
55. Eremeeva, M. E.,, N. M. Balayeva,, V. F. Ignatovich,, and D. Raoult. 1993. Proteinic and genomic identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in the former USSR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:26252633.
56. Eremeeva, M. E.,, N. M. Balayeva,, V. F. Ignatovich,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Serologic response to rickettsial antigens in patients with Astrakhan fever. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 11:383387.
57. Eremeeva, M. E.,, L. Beati,, V. A. Makarova,, N. F. Fetisova,, I. V. Tarasevich,, N. M. Balayeva,, and D. Raoult. 1994. Astrakhan fever rickettsiae: antigenic and genotypic of isolates obtained from human and Rhipicephalus pumilio ticks. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 51:697706.
58. Eremeeva, M. E.,, X. Yu,, and D. Raoult. 1994. Differentiation among spotted fever group rickettsiae species by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:803810.
59. Espejo-Arenas, E.,, and D. Raoult. 1989. First isolates of Rickettsia conorii in Spain using a centrifugation-shell vial assay. J. Infect. Dis. 159:11581159.
60. Fan, M. Y.,, D. H. Walker,, S. R. Yu,, and Q. H. Liu. 1987. Epidemiology and ecology of rickettsial diseases in the People’s Republic of China. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9:823840.
61. Fan, M. Y.,, J. Z. Zhang,, M. Chen,, and X. J. Yu,. 1999. Spotted fever group rickettsioses in China, p. 247257. In D. Raoult, and P. Brouqui (ed.), Rickettsiae and Rickettsial Diseases at the Turn of the Third Millennium. Elsevier, Paris, France.
62. Fenollar, F.,, and D. Raoult. 1999. Diagnosis of rickettsial diseases using samples dried on blotting paper. Clin. Diag. Lab. Immunol. 6:483488.
63. Font-Creus, B.,, F. Bella-Cueto,, E. Espejo-Arenas,, R. Vidal- Sanahuja,, T. Munoz-Espin,, M. Nolla-Salas,, A. Casagran-Borrell,, J. Mercade-Cuesta,, and F. Segura-Porta. 1985. Mediterranean spotted fever: a cooperative study of 227 cases. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:635642.
63a. Fournier, P. E.,, F. Gouriet,, P. Brouqui,, F. Lucht,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Gene sequence-based criteria for identification of new Rickettsia isolates and description of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:54565465.
64. Fournier, P. E.,, J. P. Durand,, J. M. Rolain,, J. L. Camicas,, H. Tolou,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Detection of Astrakhan fever rickettsia from ticks in Kosovo. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990:158161.
65. Fournier, P. E.,, H. Fujita,, N. Takada,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Genetic identification of rickettsiae isolated from ticks in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:21762181.
65a. Fournier, P. E.,, J. S. Dumler,, G. Greub,, J. Zhang,, Y. Wu,, and D. Raoult. Lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis (LAR), a new rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolotimonae. Seven new cases and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis., in press.
66. Fournier, P. E.,, F. Gunnenberger,, B. Jaulhac,, G. Gastinger,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Evidence of Rickettsia helvetica infection in humans, Eastern France. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:389392.
67. Fournier, P. E.,, M. Jensenius,, H. Laferl,, S. Vene,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Kinetics of antibody responses in Rickettsia africae and Rickettsia conorii infections. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 9:324328.
67a. Fournier, P. E.,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Suicide PCR on skin biopsy specimens for diagnosis of rickettsiosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:34283434.
68. Fournier, P. E.,, V. Roux,, E. Caumes,, M. Donzel,, and D. Raoult. 1998. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race from South Africa. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:316323.
69. Fournier, P. E.,, V. Roux,, and D. Raoult. 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae by study of the outer surface protein rOmpA. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:839849.
70. Fournier, P. E.,, H. Tissot-Dupont,, H. Gallais,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Rickettsia mongolotimonae: a rare pathogen in France. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 6:290292.
71. Fournier, P. E.,, B. Xeridat,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Isolation of a rickettsia from a patient in Chad which is related to Astrakhan fever rickettsia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990:152157.
71a. Fournier, P. E.,, Y. Zhu,, H. Ogata,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Use of highly variable intergenic spacer sequences for multispacer typing of Rickettsia conorii strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 57575766.
72. Gage, K.,, M. E. Schrumpf,, R. H. Karstens,, W. Burgdorfer,, and T. G. Schwan. 1994. DNA typing of rickettsiae in naturally infected ticks using a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism system. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 50:247260.
73. Gage, K. L.,, R. D. Gilmore,, R. H. Karstens,, and T. G. Schwan. 1992. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in saliva, hemolymph and triturated tissues of infected Dermacentor andersoni ticks by polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Cell. Probes 6:333341.
74. Gear, J. H. S. 1938. South African typhus. S. Afr. J. Med. Sci. 3:134160.
75. Gear, J. H. S. 1939. Complications in tick-bite fever. A survey of fifty cases. S. Afr. Med. J. 13:3538.
76. George, F.,, C. Brisson,, P. Poncelet,, J. C. Laurent,, O. Massot,, D. Arnoux,, P. Ambrosi,, C. Klein-Soyer,, J. P. Cazenave,, and J. Sampol. 1992. Rapid isolation of human endothelial cells from whole blood using S-Endo 1 monoclonal antibody coupled to immuno-magnetic beads: demonstration of endothelial injury after angioplasty. Thromb. Haemost. 67:147153.
77. George, F.,, P. Brouqui,, M. C. Boffa,, M. Mutin,, M. Drancourt,, C. Brisson,, D. Raoult,, and J. Sampol. 1993. Demonstration of Rickettsia conorii-induced endothelial injury in vivo by measuring circulating endothelial cells, thrombomodulin and Von Willebrand factor in patients with mediterranean spotted fever. Blood 82:21092116.
78. Gilmore, R. D.,, W. Cieplak,, P. F. Policastro,, and T. Hackstadt. 1991. The 120 kilodalton outer membrane protein (rOmpB) of Rickettsia rickettsii is encoded by an unusually long open reading frame. Evidence for protein processing from a large precursor. Mol. Microbiol. 5:23612370.
79. Gilot, B.,, M. L. Laforge,, J. Pichot,, and D. Raoult. 1990. Relationships between the Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex ecology and Mediterranean spotted fever epidemiology in France. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 6:357362.
80. Gilot, B.,, and M. Marjolet. 1982. Contribution à l’étude du parasitisme humain par les tiques (Ixodidae et Argasidae), plus particulièrement dans le sud-est de la France. Med. Mal. Infect. 12:340351.
81. Gimenez, D. F. 1964. Staining rickettsiae in yolk-sac cultures. Stain Technol. 39:135140.
82. Giroud, P. 1973. Syndromes cliniques non classiques provoqués par des rickettsies et des agents proches. Med. Mal. Infect. 3:241245.
83. Goldwasser, R. A.,, M. A. Klingberg,, W. Klingberg,, Y. Steiman,, and T. A. Swartz. 1974. Laboratory and epidemiologic studies of rickettsial spotted fever in Israel, p. 270275. In Frontiers of Internal Medicine. 12th International Congress of Internal Medicine, Tel Aviv. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.
84. Goldwasser, R. A.,, and C. C. Shepard. 1959. Fluorescent antibody methods in the differentiation of murine and epidemic typhus fever: specific changes resulting from previous immunization. J. Immunol. 82:373380.
85. Goldwasser, R. A.,, Y. Steiman,, W. Klingberg,, T. A. Swartz,, and M. A. Klingberg. 1974. The isolation of strains of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in Israel and their differentiation from other members of the group by immunofluorescence methods. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 6:5362.
86. Gross, E. M.,, and P. Yagupsky. 1987. Israeli rickettsial spotted fever in children. A review of 54 cases. Acta Trop. 44: 9196.
87. Guardia, J.,, J. M. Martinez-Vazquez,, A. Moragas,, C. Rey,, J. Vilaseca,, J. Tornos,, M. Beltran,, and R. Bacardi. 1974. The liver in boutonneuse fever. Gut 15:549551.
88. Hackstadt, T.,, R. Messer,, W. Cieplak,, and M. G. Peacock. 1992. Evidence for proteolytic cleavage of the 120-kilodalton outer membrane protein of rickettsiae: identification of an avirulent mutant deficient in processing. Infect. Immun. 60: 159165.
89. Halle, S.,, G. A. Dasch,, and E. Weiss. 1977. Sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against typhus rickettsiae, Rickettsia prowazekii and Rickettsia typhi. J. Clin. Microbiol. 6:101110.
90. Hamilton, J. G. C. 1992. The role of pheromones in tick biology. Parasitol. Today 8:130133.
91. Hattwick, M. A.,, R. J. O’Brien,, and B. F. Hanson. 1976. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: epidemiology of an increasing problem. Ann. Intern. Med. 84:732739.
92. Hayes, S. F.,, W. Burgdorfer,, and A. Aeschlimann. 1980. Sexual transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae by infected male ticks: detection of rickettsiae in immature spermatozoa of Ixodes ricinus. Infect. Immun. 27:638642.
93. Hechemy, K. E.,, R. L. Anacker,, N. L. Carlo,, J. A. Fox,, and H. A. Gaafar. 1983. Absorption of Rickettsia rickettsii antibodies by Rickettsia rickettsii antigens in four diagnostic tests. J. Clin. Microbiol. 17:445449.
94. Hechemy, K. E.,, J. A. Fox,, D. H. M. Groschel,, F. G. Fayden,, and R. P. Wenzel. 1991. Immunoblot studies to analyse antibody to the Rickettsia typhi group antigen in sera from patients with acute febrile cerebrovasculitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:25592565.
95. Hechemy, K. E.,, D. Raoult,, C. Eisemann,, Y. S. Han,, and J. A. Fox. 1986. Detection of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii with a latex agglutination test in patients with Mediterranean spotted fever. J. Infect. Dis. 153:132135.
96. Hechemy, K. E.,, D. Raoult,, J. Fox,, Y. Han,, L. B. Elliott,, and J. Rawlings. 1989. Cross-reaction of immune sera from patients with rickettsial diseases. J. Med. Microbiol. 29:199202.
97. Heinzen, R. A.,, S. F. Hayes,, M. G. Peacock,, and T. Hackstad. 1993. Directional actin polymerization associated with spotted fever group rickettsia infection of Vero cells. Infect. Immun. 61:19261935.
98. Helmick, C. G.,, K. W. Bernard,, and L. J. D’Angelo. 1984. Rocky mountain spotted fever: clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features of 262 cases. J. Infect. Dis. 150:480488.
99. Higgins, J. A.,, and A. F. Azad. 1995. Use of polymerase chain reaction to detect bacteria in arthropods: a review. J. Med. Entomol. 32:213222.
100. Holman, R. C.,, C. D. Paddock,, A. T. Curns,, J. W. Krebs,, J. H. McQuiston,, and J. E. Childs. 2001. Analysis of risk factors for fatal rocky mountain spotted fever: evidence for superiority of tetracyclines for therapy. J. Infect. Dis. 184:14371444.
101. Hoogstraal, H. 1985. Advances in Parasitology, p. 135239. Academic Press, Inc., London, England.
102. Houpikian, P.,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Diagnostic methods current best practices and guidelines for identification of difficult-to-culture pathogens in infective endocarditis. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 16:377392.
103. Huebner, R. J.,, W. L. Jellison,, and C. Pomerantz. 1946. Rickettsialpox—a newly recognized rickettsial disease. IV. Isolation of a rickettsia apparently identical with the causative agent of rickettsialpox from Allodermanyssus sanguineus, a rodent mite. Public Health Rep. 61:16771682.
104. Hugues, L. E.,, C. M. Clifford,, R. Gresbrink,, L. A. Thomas,, and J. E. Keirans. 1976. Isolation of a spotted fever group rickettsia from the pacific coast tick, Ixodes pacificus, in Oregon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 25:513516.
105. Ignatovich, V. F. 1977. Antigenic relations of Rickettsia prowazekii and Rickettsia canada, established in the study of sera of patients with Brill’s disease. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 21:5560.
106. Ishikura, M.,, H. Fujita,, S. Ando,, K. Matsuura,, and M. Watanabe. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated from ticks in Japan. Microbiol. Immunol. 46:241247.
106a. Jensenius, M.,, P. E. Fournier,, S. Vene,, T. Hoel,, G. Hasle,, A. Z. Henriksen,, K. B. Hellum,, D. Raoult,, B. Myrvang, and the Norwegian African Tick Bite Fever Study Group. 2003. African tick bite fever in travelers to rural sub-Equatorial Africa. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:14111417.
107. Jensenius, M.,, T. Hoel,, D. Raoult,, P. E. Fournier,, H. Kjelshus,, A. L. Bruu,, and B. Myrvang. 2002. Seroepidemiology of Rickettsia africae infection in Norwegian travellers to rural Africa. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 34:9396.
108. Kelly, D. J.,, G. A. Dasch,, B. L. Smoak,, B. McClain,, J. F. Brundage,, L. Broadhurst,, C. T. Chan,, and R. N. Miller. 1992. Etiology of a rickettsial disease outbreak in US troops returning from deployment to Bostwana, p. 3. In Program and Abstracts of 10th Sequi-Annual Meeting of the American Society for Rickettsiology and Rickettsial Diseases. Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, Mont.
109. Kelly, P. J.,, L. Beati,, P. R. Mason,, L. A. Matthewman,, V. Roux,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Rickettsia africae sp. nov., the etiological agent of African tick bite fever. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:611614.
110. Kelly, P. J.,, L. Beati,, L. A. Matthewman,, P. R. Mason,, G. A. Dasch,, and D. Raoult. 1994. A new pathogenic spotted fever group rickettsia from Africa. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97:129137.
111. Kelly, P. J.,, and P. R. Mason. 1990. Serological typing of spotted fever group rickettsia isolates from Zimbabwe. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:23022304.
112. Kelly, P. J.,, P. R. Mason,, L. A. Matthewman,, and D. Raoult. 1991. Seroepidemiology of spotted fever group rickettsial infections in humans in Zimbabwe. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94:304309.
113. Kelly, P. J.,, L. A. Matthewman,, L. Beati,, D. Raoult,, P. Mason,, M. Dreary,, and R. Makombe. 1992. African tick-bite fever: a new spotted fever group rickettsiosis under an old name. Lancet 340:982983.
114. Kelly, P. J.,, D. Raoult,, and P. R. Mason. 1991. Isolation of spotted fever group rickettsias from triturated ticks using a modification of the centrifugation-shell vial technique. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85:397398.
115. Lackman, D. B.,, E. J. Bell,, H. G. Stoenner,, and E. G. Pickens. 1965. The Rocky mountain spotted fever group of rickettsiae. Health Lab. Sci. 2:135.
116. Lakos, A. 1997. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy—a new rickettsial disease? Lancet 350:1006.
117. Landau, Z.,, S. Feld,, S. Kunichezly,, M. Grinspan,, and M. Gorbacz. 1992. Thrombosis of the mesenteric vein as a complication of mediterranean spotted fever. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:10701071.
118. La Scola, B.,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever by cultivation of Rickettsia conorii from blood and skin samples using the centrifugation-shell vial technique and by detection of R. conorii in circulating endothelial cells: a 6-year follow-up. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:27222727.
119. La Scola, B.,, and D. Raoult. 1997. Laboratory diagnosis of rickettsioses: current approaches to the diagnosis of old and new rickettsial diseases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:27152727.
120. LeGac, P. 1972. Multiple sclerosis and zoonoses. Importance of the role of the bovine abortion virus (pararickettsia X-14) in the etiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 275:147148. (In French.)
121. Leitner, M.,, S. R. S. Yitzhaki,, and A. Keysary. 2002. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever in serum and tissue samples. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67:166169.
122. Li, H.,, and D. H. Walker. 1992. Characterization of rickettsial attachment to host cells by flow cytometry. Infect. Immun. 60:20302035.
123. Linnemann, C. C., Jr.,, C. I. Pretzman,, and E. D. Peterson. 1989. Acute febrile cerebrovasculitis. A non-spotted fever group rickettsial disease. Arch. Intern. Med. 149:16821684.
124. Lou, D.,, Y. M. Wu,, B. Wang,, W. Wang,, Z. Zhang,, and X. W. Zhang. 1989. Confirmation of patients with tickborne spotted fever caused by Rickettsia heilongjiangi. Chin. J. Epidemiol. 10:128132.
125. Lyskovtsev, M. M. 1968. Tickborne rickettsiosis. Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am. 6:42140.
126. Macaluso, K. R.,, D. E. Sonenshine,, S. M. Ceraul,, and A. F. Azad. 2001. Infection and transovarial transmission of rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis ticks acquired by artificial feeding. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 1:4553.
127. Macaluso, K. R.,, D. E. Sonenshine,, S. M. Ceraul,, and A. F. Azad. 2002. Rickettsial infection in Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) inhibits transovarial transmission of a second rickettsia. J. Med. Entomol. 39:809813.
128. Mahara, F. 1984. Three Weil-Felix reaction OX2 positive cases with skin eruptions and high fever. J. Anan Med. Assoc. 68:47.
129. Mahara, F. 1987. Japanese spotted fever a new disease named for spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Japan. Annu. Rep. Ohara Hosp. 30:8389.
130. Mahara, F. 1997. Japanese spotted fever: report of 31 cases and review of the literature. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:105111.
131. Mahara, F.,, K. Koga,, S. Sawada,, T. Taniguchi,, F. Shigemi,, T. Suto,, Y. Tsuboi,, A. Ooya,, H. Koyama,, T. Uchiyama,, and T. Uchida. 1985. The first report of the rickettsial infections of spotted fever group in Japan; three clinical cases. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 59:11651172. (In Japanese.)
132. Maiden, M. C. J.,, J. A. Bygraves,, E. Feil,, G. Morelli,, J. E. Russel,, R. Urwin,, Q. Zhang,, J. Zhou,, K. Zurth,, D. A. Caugant,, I. M. Feavers,, M. Achtman,, and B. G. Spratt. 1998. Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:31403145.
133. Mansueto, S.,, G. Tringali,, and D. H. Walker. 1986. Widespread, simultaneous increase in the incidence of spotted fever group rickettsiosis. J. Infect. Dis. 154:539540.
134. Marrero, M.,, and D. Raoult. 1989. Centrifugation-shell vial technique for rapid detection of Mediterranean spotted fever rickettsia in blood culture. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40:197199.
135. Maurin, M.,, and D. Raoult. 1997. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of levofloxacin against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, “Israeli spotted fever group rickettsia” and Coxiella burnetii. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 39:725730.
136. McDade, J. 1990. Evidence supporting the hypothesis that rickettsial virulence factors determine the severity of spotted fever and typhus group infections. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 590:2026.
137. McDade, J. E.,, C. M. Black,, L. F. Roumillat,, M. A. Redus,, and C. L. Spruill. 1988. Addition of monoclonal antibodies specific for Rickettsia akari to the rickettsial diagnostic panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:22212223.
138. McKiel, Y. A.,, E. J. Bell,, and D. B. Lackman. 1967. Rickettsia canada: a new member of the typhus group of rickettsiae isolated from Haemaphylasis leporispalustris ticks in Canada. Can. J. Microbiol. 13:503510.
138a. Mediannikov, O.Y.,, Y. Sidelnikov,, L. Ivanov,, E. Mokretsova,, P. E. Fournier,, I. Tarasevich,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Acute tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia heilongjiangensis in Russian Far East. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:810817.
139. Montenegro, M. R.,, S. Mansueto,, B. C. Hegarty,, and D. H. Walker. 1983. The histology of “tâches noires” of boutonneuse fever and demonstration of Rickettsia conorii in them by immunofluorescence. Virchows. Arch. A Pathol. Anat. Histopathol. 400:309317.
140. Myers, W. F.,, and C. L. Wisseman, Jr., 1981. The taxonomic relationship of Rickettsia canada to the typhus and spotted fever groups of the genus Rickettsia, p. 313325. In W. Burgdorfer, and R. L. Anacker (ed.), Rickettsiae and Rickettsial Diseases. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.
141. Niebylski, M. L.,, M. E. Schrumpf,, W. Burgdorfer,, E. R. Fischer,, K. L. Gage,, and T. G. Schwan. 1997. Rickettsia peacockii sp. nov., a new species infecting wood ticks, Dermacentor andersoni, in Western Montana. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:446452.
142. Nilsson, K.,, T. G. T. Jaenson,, I. Uhnoo,, O. Lindquist,, B. Pettersson,, M. Uhlen,, G. Friman,, and C. Pahlson. 1997. Characterization of a spotted fever group rickettsia from Ixodes ricinus ticks in Sweden. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:243247.
143. Nilsson, K.,, O. Lindquist,, and C. Pahlson. 1999. Association of Rickettsia helvetica with chronic perimyocarditis in sudden cardiac death. Lancet 354:11691173.
144. Nilsson, K.,, C. Pahlson,, A. Lukinius,, L. Eriksson,, L. Nilsson,, and O. Lindquist. 2002. Presence of Rickettsia helvetica in granulomatous tissue from patients with sarcoidosis. J. Infect. Dis. 185:11281138.
145. Obijeski, J. R.,, E. L. Palmer,, and T. Tzianabos. 1974. Proteins of purified rickettsiae. Microbios 11:6176.
146. Ogata, H.,, S. Audic,, C. Abergel,, P. E. Fournier,, and J. M. Claverie. 2002. Protein coding palindromes are a unique but recurrent feature in Rickettsia. Genome Res. 12:808816.
147. Ogata, H.,, S. Audic,, V. Barbe,, F. Artiguenave,, P. E. Fournier,, D. Raoult,, and J. M. Claverie. 2000. Selfish DNA in protein-coding genes of Rickettsia. Science 290:347350.
148. Ogata, H.,, S. Audic,, P. Renesto-Audiffren,, P. E. Fournier,, V. Barbe,, D. Samson,, V. Roux,, P. Cossart,, J. Weissenbach,, J. M. Claverie,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Mechanisms of evolution in Rickettsia conorii and R. prowazekii. Science 293:20932098.
149. Olmer, D. 1925. Sur une infection épidémique, avec exanthème de nature indéterminée. Mars. Méd. 22:12911293.
150. Oteo, J. A.,, and V. Ibarra. 2002. DEBONEL (dermacentor-borne- necrosis-erythemalymphadenopathy). A new tick-borne disease? Enferm. Infect. Microbiol. Clin. 20:5152.
150a. Paddock, C. D.,, J. W. Sumner,, J. A. Comer,, S. R. Zaki,, C. S. Goldsmith,, J. Goddard,, S. L. F. McLellan,, C. L. Tamminga,, and C. A. Ohl. 2004. Rickettsia parkeri: a newly recognized cause of spotted fever in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:805811.
151. Parker, R. R.,, G. M. Kohls,, G. W. Cox,, and G. E. Davis. 1939. Observations on an infectious agent from Amblyomma maculatum. Public Health Rep. 54:14821484.
152. Parker, R. R.,, and R. R. Spencer. 1926. Rocky mountain spotted fever. A study of the relationship between the presence of rickettsia-like organisms in tick smears and the infectiveness of the same ticks. Public Health Rep. 41:461469.
153. Parola, P.,, L. Beati,, M. Cambon,, and D. Raoult. 1998. First isolation of Rickettsia helvetica from Ixodes ricinus ticks in France. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17:95100.
154. Parola, P.,, F. Fenollar,, S. Badiaga,, P. Brouqui,, and D. Raoult. 2001. First documentation of Rickettsia conorii infection (strain Indian tick typhus) in a traveller. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:909910.
155. Parola, P.,, H. Inokuma,, J. L. Camicas,, P. Brouqui,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Detection and identification of spotted fever group Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in African ticks. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:10141017.
156. Parola, P.,, J. Jourdan,, and D. Raoult. 1998. Tick-borne infection caused by Rickettsia africae in the West Indies. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:1391.
157. Pavis, C.,, and N. Barré. 1993. Kinetics of male pheromone production by Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 30:961965.
158. Pedersen, C. E. Jr.,, and V. D. Walters. 1978. Comparative electrophoresis of spotted fever group rickettsial proteins. Life Sci. 22:583587.
159. Peter, O.,, D. Raoult,, and B. Gilot. 1990. Isolation by a sensitive centrifugation cell culture system of 52 strains of spotted fever group rickettsiae from ticks collected in France. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:15971599.
160. Philip, C. B., 1950. Miscellaneous human rickettsioses, p. 781788. In R. L. Pullen (ed.), Communicable Diseases. Lea and Febiger Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
161. Philip, C. B. 1959. Some epidemiological considerations in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Public Health Rep. 74:595600.
162. Philip, C. B.,, and L. E. Hugues. 1953. Disease agents found in the rabbit tick, Dermacentor parumapertus, in the southwestern United States, p. 541. In Atti del VI Congreso Internazionale di Microbiologia Roma, Rome, Italy.
163. Philip, C. B.,, and R. R. Parker. 1933. Rocky mountain spotted fever. Investigation of sexual transmission in the wood tick Dermacentor andersoni. Public Health Rep. 48:266272.
164. Philip, R. N.,, E. A. Casper,, R. L. Anacker,, J. Cory,, S. F. Hayes,, W. Burgdorfer,, and E. Yunker. 1983. Rickettsia bellii sp. nov.: a tick-borne rickettsia, widely distributed in the United States, that is distinct from the spotted fever and typhus biogroups. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33:94106.
165. Philip, R. N.,, E. A. Casper,, W. Burgdorfer,, R. K. Gerloff,, L. E. Hugues,, and E. J. Bell. 1978. Serologic typing of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group by microimmunofluorescence. J. Immunol. 121:19611968.
166. Pijper, A. 1934. Tick-bite fever—a clinical lecture. S. Afr. Med. J. 11:551556.
167. Pijper, A. 1936. Etude expérimentale comparée de la fièvre boutonneuse et de la tick-bite-fever. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis 25:388401.
168. Piras, M. A.,, G. Calia,, F. Saba,, C. Gakis,, and G. Andreoni. 1983. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in male patients with Mediterranean spotted fever in Sardinia. J. Infect. Dis. 147:607608.
169. Plotz, H.,, R. L. Reagan,, and K. Wertman. 1944. Differentiation between “Fièvre boutonneuse” and Rocky Mountain spotted fever by means of complement fixation. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 55:173176.
170. Plotz, H.,, J. E. Smadel,, and B. I. Bennet. 1946. North Queensland tick typhus: studies of the aetiological agent and its relation to other rickettsial diseases. Med. J. Aust. 2:263268.
171. Popivanova, N.,, D. Hristova,, and E. Hadjipetrova. 1998. Guillain-Barré polyneuropathy associated with mediterranean spotted fever: case report. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:1549.
172. Pretorius, A. M.,, and R. J. Birtles. 2002. Rickettsia aeschlimannii: a new pathogenetic spotted fever group rickettsia, South Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:874.
172a. Pretorius, A. M.,, and R. J. Birtles. 2004. Rickettsia mongolotimonae infection in South Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:125126
173. Pretzman, C.,, D. R. Stothard,, D. Ralph,, and A. Fuerst. 1994. A new Rickettsia isolated from the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Ixodidae), p. 24. In 11th Sesqui-annual Meeting of the American Society for Rickettsiology and Rickettsial Diseases, St. Simons Island, Ga.
174. Purvis, J. J.,, and M. S. Edwards. 2001. Doxycycline use for rickettsial disease in pediatric patients. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:871874.
175. Radulovic, S.,, J. A. Higgins,, D. C. Jaworski,, G. A. Dasch,, and A. F. Azad. 1995. Isolation, cultivation, and partial characterization of the ELB agent associated with cat fleas. Infect. Immun. 63:48264829.
176. Raoult, D.,, G. Aboudharam,, E. Crubezy,, G. Larrouy,, B. Ludes,, and M. Drancourt. 2000. Molecular identification by “suicide PCR” of Yersinia pestis as the agent of medieval black death. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1280012803.
177. Raoult, D.,, P. Berbis,, V. Roux,, W. B. Xu,, and M. Maurin. 1997. A new tick-transmitted disease due to Rickettsia slovaca. Lancet 350:112113.
178. Raoult, D.,, P. Brouqui,, and V. Roux. 1996. A new spotted-fever- group rickettsiosis. Lancet 348:412.
179. Raoult, D.,, and G. A. Dasch. 1989. Line blot and western blot immunoassays for diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:20732079.
180. Raoult, D.,, and G. A. Dasch. 1995. Immunoblot cross-reactions among Rickettsia, Proteus spp. and Legionella spp. in patients with Mediterranean spotted fever. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 11:1318.
181. Raoult, D.,, P. E. Fournier,, P. Abboud,, and F. Caron. 2002. First documented human Rickettsia aeschlimannii infection. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:748749.
182. Raoult, D.,, P. E. Fournier,, F. Fenollar,, M. Jensenius,, T. Prioe,, J. J. de Pina,, G. Caruso,, N. Jones,, H. Laferl,, J. E. Rosenblatt,, and T. J. Marrie. 2001. Rickettsia africae, a tick-borne pathogen in travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. N. Engl. J. Med. 344:15041510.
183. Raoult, D.,, B. La Scola,, M. Enea,, P. E. Fournier,, V. Roux,, F. Fenollar,, M. A. M. Galvao,, and X. De Lamballerie. 2001. A flea-associated rickettsia pathogenic for humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:7381.
184. Raoult, D.,, A. Lakos,, F. Fenollar,, J. Beytout,, P. Brouqui,, and P. E. Fournier. 2002. Spotless rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia slovaca and associated with Dermacentor ticks. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:13311336.
185. Raoult, D.,, P. Roussellier,, G. Vestris,, and J. Tamalet. 1987. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii: plaque assay and microplaque colorimetric assay. J. Infect. Dis. 155:10591062.
186. Raoult, D.,, and V. Roux. 1997. Rickettsioses as paradigms of new or emerging infectious diseases. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:694719.
187. Raoult, D.,, V. Roux,, J. B. Ndihokubwaho,, G. Bise,, D. Baudon,, G. Martet,, and R. J. Birtles. 1997. Jail fever (epidemic typhus) outbreak in Burundi. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:357360.
188. Raoult, D.,, H. Tissot-Dupont,, P. Caraco,, P. Brouqui,, M. Drancourt,, and C. Charrel. 1992. Mediterranean spotted fever in Marseille: descriptive epidemiology and the influence climatic factors. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 8:192197.
189. Raoult, D.,, H. Tissot-Dupont,, C. Chicheportiche,, O. Peter,, B. Gilot,, and M. Drancourt. 1993. Mediterranean spotted fever in Marseille, France: correlation between prevalence of hospitalized patients, seroepidemiology, and prevalence of infected ticks in three different areas. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 48:249256.
190. Raoult, D.,, P. J. Weiller,, A. Chagnon,, H. Chaudet,, H. Gallais,, and P. Casanova. 1986. Mediterranean spotted fever: clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features of 199 cases. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 35:845850.
191. Raoult, D.,, P. J. Weiller,, I. Juhan-Vague,, M. Finaud,, and M. Mongin. 1985. Platelet antibodies in Mediterranean tick typhus. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 79:699.
192. Raoult, D.,, P. Zuchelli,, P. J. Weiller,, C. Charrel,, J. L. San Marco,, H. Gallais,, and P. Casanova. 1986. Incidence, clinical observations and risk factors in the severe form of Mediterranean spotted fever among patients admitted to hospital in Marseille 1983-1984. J. Infect. 12:111116.
193. Regev-Yochay, G.,, E. Segal,, and E. Rubinstein. 2000. Glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: possible determinant for a fulminant course of Israeli spotted fever. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 2:781782.
194. Regnery, R. L.,, C. L. Spruill,, and B. D. Plikaytis. 1991. Genotypic identification of rickettsiae and estimation of intraspecies sequence divergence for portions of two rickettsial genes. J. Bacteriol. 173:15761589.
195. Rehacek, J. 1984. Rickettsia slovaca, the organism and its ecology. Acta SC. Nat. Brno 18:150.
196. Rehacek, J.,, and I. V. Tarasevich. 1988. Acari-borne rickettsiae and rickettsioses in Eurasia, p. 128145. Veda, Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
197. Richter, J.,, P. E. Fournier,, J. Petridou,, D. Häussinger,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Rickettsia felis infection acquired in Europe and documented by polymerase chain reaction. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:207208.
198. Ricketts, H. T. 1909. Some aspects of Rocky Mountain spotted fever as shown by recent investigations. Med. Rec. 16:843855.
199. Robertson, R. G.,, C. L. Wiseman, Jr.,, and R. Traub. 1970. Tick-borne rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in west Pakistan. I. Isolation of strains from ticks in different habitats. Am. J. Epidemiol. 92:382394.
200. Robertson, R. G.,, and C. L. Wisseman, Jr. 1973. Tick-borne rickettsiae of the spotted fever group in west Pakistan. II. Serological classification of isolates from west Pakistan and Thailand: evidence for two new species. Am. J. Epidemiol. 97:5564.
201. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Maurin,, A. Bryskier,, and D. Raoult. 2000. In vitro activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:13911393.
202. Rolain, J. M.,, M. Maurin,, G. Vestris,, and D. Raoult. 1998. In vitro susceptibilities of 27 rickettsiae to 13 antimicrobials. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:15371541.
203. Rolain, J. M.,, L. Sthul,, M. Maurin,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of three Rickettsial species including Rickettsia felis by a quantitative PCR DNA assay. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:27472751.
204. Roux, V.,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 1996. Differentiation of spotted fever group rickettsiae by sequencing and analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA of the gene encoding the protein rOmpA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:20582065.
205. Roux, V.,, and D. Raoult. 1993. Genotypic identification and phylogenetic analysis of the spotted fever group rickettsiae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Bacteriol. 175:48954904.
206. Roux, V.,, and D. Raoult. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Rickettsia by 16S rDNA sequencing. Res. Microbiol. 146:385396.
207. Roux, V.,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the genus Rickettsia using the gene encoding the outer-membrane protein rOmpB (ompB). Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50:14491455.
208. Roux, V.,, E. Rydkina,, M. Eremeeva,, and D. Raoult. 1997. Citrate synthase gene comparison, a new tool for phylogenetic analysis, and its application for the rickettsiae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:252261.
209. Ruiz, R.,, J. I. Herrero,, A. M. Martin,, F. Sanz,, A. Mateos,, A. Hernandez,, R. Querol,, and J. Portugal. 1984. Vascular permeability in boutonneuse fever. J. Infect. Dis. 149:1036. (Letter.)
210. Rydkina, E.,, V. Roux,, N. Fetisova,, N. Rudakov,, M. Gafarova,, I. Tarasevich,, and D. Raoult. 1999. New Rickettsiae in ticks collected in territories of the former Soviet Union. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:811814.
211. Sarov, B.,, A. Galil,, E. Sikuler,, P. Yagupsky,, A. Saah,, A. Gilad,, L. Naggan,, and I. Sarov. 1990. Prospective study on symptomatic versus asymptomatic infections and serological response to spotted fever group rickettsiae in two rural sites in the Negev (southern Israel). Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 590: 243245.
212. Schriefer, M. E.,, J. B. Sacci, Jr.,, J. P. Taylor,, J. A. Higgins,, and A. F. Azad. 1994. Murine typhus: updated roles of multiple urban components and a second typhuslike rickettsia. J. Med. Entomol. 31:681685.
213. Segura, F.,, and E. Anton. 2002. Clarithromycin for the treatment of Mediterranean spotted fever. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:560.
214. Sekeyova, Z.,, P. E. Fournier,, J. Rehacek,, and D. Raoult. 2000. Characterization of a new spotted fever group Rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) collected in Slovakia. J. Med. Entomol. 37:707713.
215. Sekeyova, Z.,, V. Roux,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Phylogeny of Rickettsia spp. inferred by comparing sequences of ‘gene D,’ which encodes an intracytoplasmic protein. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:13531360.
216. Sekeyova, Z.,, V. Roux,, W. B. Xu,, J. Rehacek,, and D. Raoult. 1998. Rickettsia slovaca sp. nov., a member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:14551462.
217. Sekeyoya, Z.,, E. Kovacova,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Isolation and characterization of a new rickettsia from Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Slovakia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990:5456.
218. Sexton, D. J.,, J. Banks,, S. Graves,, K. Hughes,, and B. W. Dwyer. 1991. Prevalence of antibodies to spotted fever group rickettsiae in dogs from southeasthern Australia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 45:243248.
219. Sexton, D. J.,, B. W. Dwyer,, R. Kemp,, and S. Graves. 1991. Spotted fever group rickettsial infections in Australia. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:876886.
220. Sexton, D. J.,, G. King,, and B. W. Dwyer. 1990. Fatal Queensland tick typhus. J. Infect. Dis. 162:779780.
221. Shpynov, S.,, P. E. Fournier,, N. Rudakov,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae” in Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in various territories of Russia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990:162172.
222. Shpynov, S.,, P. Parola,, N. Rudakov,, I. Samoilenko,, M. Tankibaev,, I. Tarasevich,, and D. Raoult. 2001. Detection and identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae in Dermatocentor ticks from Russia and central Kazakhstan. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20:903905.
223. Simser, J. A.,, A. T. Palmer,, V. Fingerle,, B. Wilske,, T. J. Kurtti,, and U. G. Munderloh. 2002. Rickettsia monacensis sp. nov., a spotted fever group rickettsia, from ticks (Ixodes ricinus) collected in a European city park. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:45594566.
224. Spencer, R. R.,, and R. R. Parker. 1923. Rocky mountain spotted fever: infectivity of fasting and recently fed ticks. Public Health Rep. 38:333339.
225. Stackebrandt, E.,, W. Frederiksen,, G. M. Garrity,, P. A. D. Grimont,, P. Kampfer,, M. C. J. Maiden,, X. Nesme,, R. Rossello-Mora,, J. Swings,, H. G. Truper,, L. Vauterin,, A. C. Ward,, and W. B. Whitman. 2002. Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:10431047.
226. Stein, A.,, and D. Raoult. 1992. A simple method for amplification of DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues. Nucleic Acids Res. 20:52375238.
227. Stenos, J.,, V. Roux,, D. Walker,, and D. Raoult. 1998. Rickettsia honei sp. nov., the aetiological agent of Flinders Island spotted fever in Australia. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48:13991404.
228. Stewart, R. S. 1991. Flinders Island spotted fever: a newly recognized endemic focus of tick typhus in Bass Strait. I. Clinical and epidemiologiocal features. Med. J. Aust. 154:9499.
229. Stoenner, H. G.,, R. Holdenreid,, D. Lackman,, and J. S. Orsborn, Jr. 1959. The occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Brucella and other pathogens among fauna of the Great Lake desert in Utah. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 8:590.
230. Stothard, D. R.,, and P. A. Fuerst. 1995. Evolutionary analysis of the spotted fever and typhus groups of Rickettsia using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 18:5261.
231. Takada, N.,, H. Fujita,, Y. Yano,, Y. Tsuboi,, and F. Mahara. 1994. First isolation of a rickettsia closely related to Japanese spotted fever pathogen from a tick in Japan. J. Med. Entomol. 31:183185.
232. Tamura, A.,, N. Ohashi,, H. Urakami,, and S. Miyamura. 1995. Classification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in a new genus, Orientia gen. nov, as Orientia tsutsugamushi comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:589591.
233. Tarasevich, I. V.,, V. Makarova,, N. F. Fetisova,, A. Stepanov,, E. Mistkarova,, N. M. Balayeva,, and D. Raoult. 1991. Astrakhan fever: a new spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Lancet 337:172173.
234. Tarasevich, I. V.,, V. A. Makarova,, N. F. Fetisova,