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Chapter 2 : The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease

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Abstract:

Ticks are among the most important vectors of disease to humans throughout the world. Most ticks fall into two families: the hard ticks, or Ixodidae, and the soft ticks, or Argasidae. Among the diverse microbes transmitted by ticks to humans are several protozoan, viral, and bacterial (including rickettsial) pathogens. Important examples include Lyme disease (the most important vector-borne disease in North America and Europe), tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. This chapter describes the biological attributes of ticks, thereby providing a basis for understanding how ticks feed and survive in their natural environment and the physiological and biochemical factors that facilitate the transmission of disease-causing pathogens.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2

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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Scanning electron micrographs illustrating the mouthparts (capitulum) of a representative female ixodid tick, . (Left) Ventral aspect; (right) dorsal aspect.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Drawing illustrating internal anatomy of a representative female ixodid tick. The left side of figure shows internal organs minus the midgut. The right side of figure shows the midgut overlaying the internal organs. LG, longitudinal groove of the ovary; Mal. T, malpighian tubules; MD, midgut diverticulum; MS, midgut stomach; O, ovary; OV, oviduct; PnT, pedal nerve trunks; Rec. S, rectal sac; SGA, salivary gland zone of granular acini; SGG, salivary gland zone of granular acini; SD, salivary gland duct; Syn, synganglion; TAG, tubular accessory gland; TrT, tracheal trunks. Figure (illustration by M. Bloomfield) from , vol. 1, by Daniel E. Sonenshine, ©1991 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Drawing illustrating internal anatomy of a representative male ixodid tick. Acg, accessory gland; ED, ejaculatory duct; Mal. T, Malphighian tubule; MD, midgut diverticulum; MS, midgut stomach region; PnT, peripheral nerve trunks; Rec.S, rectal sac; SD, salivary gland duct; SGA, salivary gland alveolar acini; SGG, salivary gland granular acini; Spc, spermatogonial zone of testis; Syn, synganglion; T, testis; Tr, trachea; TrT, tracheal trunks; VD, vas deferens. Figure (illustration by M. Bloomfield) from , vol. 1, by Daniel E. Sonenshine, ©1991 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Antimicrobial peptides in hemolymph challenged with three different bacteria. Hemolymph collected 1 h after inoculation. Lanes: MW, molecular weight markers; 1, challenged with , 2.1 x 10 cells; 2, challenged with , 3 x 10 cells; 3, challenged with , 3.5 x 10 cells; 4, unstimulated; 5, sham inoculated with 3 µl of tick saline; 6, molecular weight markers. Lanes 1 to 5 were loaded with 200 µg of protein. Arrows indicate proteins expressed following challenge with different microbes: in lane 3, the arrow indicates defensin; in lane 5, the arrow indicates α/β-chain hemoglobin and putative lysozyme.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Electron micrograph illustrating granular hemocytes in the hemolymph of a female ixodid tick (). All of the hemocytes shown are granulocytes. Magnification, x16,800. Figure from , vol. 1, by Daniel E. Sonenshine, ©1991 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Photomicrograph illustrating the histological structure of the midgut from a feeding female tick (). He, hematin-filled digestive cells; L, lumen; Mu, muscle layer on external surface of midgut. Magnification, x400.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Electron micrograph illustrating the ultrastructure of the midgut of a feeding female tick (). Magnification, x11,400. Bl, basal lamina; L, lumen; M, microvilli bordering the luminal surface of the epithelial cells; Mu, muscle cell on external surface of midgut; N, nucleus. Bar, 2.5 µm.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 11
Figure 11

Diagram illustrating the life cycle of a representative three-host ixodid tick, the American dog tick ().

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 8
Figure 8

Scanning electron micrograph illustrating sensory sensilla in the Haller's organ on the dorsal surface of the foreleg of a female ixodid tick (). Ant. pit, anterior pit; Olf. sens., multiporose olfactosensory sensillum; Tps, tip of pore sensillum. Bar, 1 µm.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 9
Figure 9

Scanning electron micrograph showing a mating pair of ixodid ticks (). The mouthparts of the smaller male are inserted into the vulva of the greatly swollen, engorged female. Measurement bar, 1 mm. Image kindly provided by Volker Steger, Munich, Germany.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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Image of Figure 10
Figure 10

Drawing illustrating a hypothetical model of mating behavior in ixodid ticks. From D. E. Sonenshine, 1985, 30:1–28, with permission from Annual Reviews, Inc.

Citation: Sonenshine D. 2005. The Biology of Tick Vectors of Human Disease, p 12-36. In Goodman J, Dennis D, Sonenshine D, Tick-Borne Diseases of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816490.ch2
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References

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