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Chapter 17 : Pneumococcal Phages

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Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of our current knowledge of pneumococcal phages. Pneumococcal phages comprise four families with varied morphologies, including both lytic and temperate phages. Several relevant physicochemical characteristics of the DNAs of pneumococcal phages and of some of their derived proteins are summarized in the chapter. DNA isolated from mature phage particles possessed a covalently bound protein, as reported for the pneumococcal phages Cp-1, HB-3, and their relatives. The attachment site of EJ-1 is located immediately downstream of the gene encoding the phage lytic enzyme. It has been well established that methylases (methyltransferases) provide functions that are beneficial to bacterial cells. Molecular characterizations of the lysis cassettes of the EJ-1, Cp-1, and MM1 phages were performed by cloning and expression of the two genes involved in the release of phage progeny into the medium, and the findings have been summarized. The interchange of phage and bacterial genes coding for lytic enzymes has been well documented for the pneumococcal system, as reported in this chapter, but autolysis has not yet been examined within the context of multicellular bacterial biofilm development.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17

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DNA Polymerase III
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Bacterial Cell Wall
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Linear Double-Stranded DNA
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Electron micrographs of negatively stained preparations of purified bacteriophages. (A) Dp-1; (B) Cp-1; (C) HB-3; (D) EJ-1. Bar, 100 nm. Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher. (E) An ethanolamine-grown pneumococcus was pulsed with 8 ng of Ch chloride/ml, and Dp-1 was added after 5 min. The phage is exclusively attached to the equatorial zone, where Ch is incorporated. Bar, 0.5 μm. Reprinted from reference with permission.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic representations of the genomes of three pneumococcal bacteriophages, MM1, Dp-1, and Cp-1. Genes are drawn as arrows that indicate the direction of transcription. White arrows correspond to ORFs that do not have any significant similarity with those included in databases. For MM1, the ends of the genome correspond to those of the prophage. The putative functions of the gene products correspond to the different types of shading, as indicated at the bottom.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Repeating structure of the antireceptor protein (gp55) of phage Dp-1. The different motifs are highlighted with different types of shading. Numbers indicate amino acid positions.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Model for Ejh holin function. Putative transmembrane regions of Ejh are depicted as solid and open cylinders. (Bottom left) Atomic force microscopy image of Ejh-L1M1 incorporated into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl--glycero-3-phosphoglycerol bilayers and fused onto mica. The drawing is courtesy of M. Gasset.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Comparison of lytic enzymes from phages infecting low G+C content gram-positive bacteria. The lysins, grouped by predicted enzymatic activity, are depicted as bars showing different domains and repeats. Similar regions are indicated by identical shading. The designations of the different functional motifs are shown below the dotted line. The accession number of each enzyme is shown in Table 2 .

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Characteristics of pneumococcal bacteriophages

DS, linear double-stranded DNA.

ND, not determined.

Modified from reference 34 with permission of the publisher.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Proposed functions for some Dp-1 gene products

On the basis of sequence comparisons by BLASTP (http://www. Ncbi. Nlm. Nih. Gov).

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 3a

Characteristics of lysins from phages infecting gram-positive bacteria

Bac, Bacillus; Bam, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Ban, Bacillus anthracis; Bce, Bacillus cereus; Bsu, Bacillus subtilis; Lac, Lactobacillus; Lca, Lactobacillus casei; Lde, Lactobacillus delbrueckii; Lga, Lactobacillus gasseri; Ljo, Lactobacillus johnsonii; Lla, Lactococcus lactis; Lmo, Listeria monocytogenes; Ooe, Oenococcus oeni; Sag, Streptococcus agalactiae; Sau, Staphylococcus aureus; Seq, Streptococcus equi; Smi, Streptococcus mitis; Spn, Streptococcus pneumoniae; Spy, Streptococcus pyogenes; Sth, Streptococcus thermophilus.

M, Myoviridae; P, Podoviridae; S, Siphoviridae.

Experimentally determined.

HP, hypothetical protein.

Partial sequence.

Unpublished results.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 3b

Characteristics of lysins from phages infecting gram-positive bacteria

Bac, Bacillus; Bam, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Ban, Bacillus anthracis; Bce, Bacillus cereus; Bsu, Bacillus subtilis; Lac, Lactobacillus; Lca, Lactobacillus casei; Lde, Lactobacillus delbrueckii; Lga, Lactobacillus gasseri; Ljo, Lactobacillus johnsonii; Lla, Lactococcus lactis; Lmo, Listeria monocytogenes; Ooe, Oenococcus oeni; Sag, Streptococcus agalactiae; Sau, Staphylococcus aureus; Seq, Streptococcus equi; Smi, Streptococcus mitis; Spn, Streptococcus pneumoniae; Spy, Streptococcus pyogenes; Sth, Streptococcus thermophilus.

M, Myoviridae; P, Podoviridae; S, Siphoviridae.

Experimentally determined.

HP, hypothetical protein.

Partial sequence.

Unpublished results.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 3c

Characteristics of lysins from phages infecting gram-positive bacteria

Bac, Bacillus; Bam, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Ban, Bacillus anthracis; Bce, Bacillus cereus; Bsu, Bacillus subtilis; Lac, Lactobacillus; Lca, Lactobacillus casei; Lde, Lactobacillus delbrueckii; Lga, Lactobacillus gasseri; Ljo, Lactobacillus johnsonii; Lla, Lactococcus lactis; Lmo, Listeria monocytogenes; Ooe, Oenococcus oeni; Sag, Streptococcus agalactiae; Sau, Staphylococcus aureus; Seq, Streptococcus equi; Smi, Streptococcus mitis; Spn, Streptococcus pneumoniae; Spy, Streptococcus pyogenes; Sth, Streptococcus thermophilus.

M, Myoviridae; P, Podoviridae; S, Siphoviridae.

Experimentally determined.

HP, hypothetical protein.

Partial sequence.

Unpublished results.

Citation: García P, García J, López R, García E. 2005. Pneumococcal Phages, p 335-361. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch17

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