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Chapter 8 : Prophage Arsenal of Serovar Typhimurium

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Abstract:

The emergence in the last two decades of new epidemic strains with enhanced virulence traits is indicative of the fast pace of the evolutionary process. This chapter reviews the evidence pointing to a central role played by temperate phages in the dissemination of virulence determinants in the complex. The lysogenic condition of most strains was recognized prior to an understanding of the genetic bases of lysogeny. Early studies also indicated that some genes of certain prophages escape lysogenic repression and express functions that modify the host bacterium. Since phage and chromosomal sequences near the attachment sites of most prophages are conserved, PCR can be used to assess the phage occupancy of these sites. This approach is particularly attractive because the reaction can be designed in such a way as to always give a signal, and the presence or absence of the prophage can be deduced from the size of the amplified fragment. Preliminary analyses confirmed that the sequences of the three prophages diverge considerably in the portion corresponding to the immunity module. serovar Typhimurium expresses a second periplasmic [Cu, Zn] superoxide dismutase, SodC2, which is encoded by a chromosomal gene. A disruption of the locus was shown to render serovar Typhimurium more virulent in mice.

Citation: Bossi L, Figueroa-Bossi N. 2005. Prophage Arsenal of Serovar Typhimurium, p 165-186. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch8

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FIGURE 1

Schematic diagram showing the prophages in the serovar Typhimurium chromosome.The prophage left-right orientation (L/R) is shown according to the convention used for the prophage map of bacteriophage lambda ( ). Genetic symbols specify the genes flanking the insertion sites, with arrows indicating their orientations. An asterisk on the left or right side of the symbol indicates that the gene is truncated at its 5′ end or its 3′ end, respectively.

Citation: Bossi L, Figueroa-Bossi N. 2005. Prophage Arsenal of Serovar Typhimurium, p 165-186. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Immunity relationships among Gifsy phages from three representative strains of serovar Typhimurium. Phages isolated from the indicated strains were used to infect strains that carried or lacked their resident Gifsy prophages. Open circles, phage forms plaques on the strain carrying the specified prophage; closed circles, phage does not form plaques unless the strain is cured of the specified prophage. Phage Gifsy-2 could not be obtained from strains LT2 and SL1344.

Citation: Bossi L, Figueroa-Bossi N. 2005. Prophage Arsenal of Serovar Typhimurium, p 165-186. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch8
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

prophage genes that can be linked to pathogenicity

Citation: Bossi L, Figueroa-Bossi N. 2005. Prophage Arsenal of Serovar Typhimurium, p 165-186. In Waldor M, Friedman D, Adhya S (ed), Phages. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816506.ch8

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