Chapter 29 : Genetics of Group Streptococci

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Genetics of Group Streptococci, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap29-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap29-2.gif


Historically, the characteristics of group organisms that have been most studied are competence for DNA-mediated transformation and adhesion to saliva-coated surfaces. With the recent completion of the genome sequence of Challis (CH1), and the recognition of streptococci as critical components in the development of oral biofilms, the main focus of this chapter is to consider the genomics, genetic control, and molecular mechanisms of processes associated with intercellular communication (mediated by peptide pheromones and quorum-sensing molecules), adhesion to surfaces, and host colonization. Upon gaining access to the blood stream, group streptococci can infect the heart valves and endocardium. Strains of group streptococci vary in their abilities to adhere to platelets and to induce platelet aggregation. Genetic studies of group streptococci have significantly advanced one's understanding of the processes involved in transformation, adhesion, and virulence. This knowledge will ultimately lead to new ways of controlling infections caused by these bacteria and by related streptococci. Paradoxically, it is conceivable that organisms such as may, in the future, be considered therapeutic products in novel strategies to combat other infectious diseases.

Citation: Jenkinson H, Vickerman M. 2006. Genetics of Group Streptococci, p 347-355. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch29

Key Concept Ranking

Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Alloing, G.,, B. Martin,, C. Granadel,, and J.-P. Claverys. 1998. Development of competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae: pheromone autoinduction and control of quorum sensing by the oligopeptide permease. Mol. Microbiol. 29: 7583.
2. Barnard, J. P.,, and M. W. Stinson. 1996. The alphahemolysin of Streptococcus gordonii is hydrogen peroxide. Infect. Immun. 64:38533857.
3. Bensing, B. A.,, and P. M. Sullam. 2002. An accessory sec locus of Streptococcus gordonii is required for export of the surface protein GspB and for normal levels of binding to human platelets. Mol. Microbiol. 44:10811094.
4. Blehert, D. S.,, R. J. Palmer, Jr.,, J. B. Xavier,, J. S. Almeida,, and P. E. Kolenbrander. 2003. Autoinducer 2 production by Streptococcus gordonii DL1 and the biofilm phenotype of a luxS mutant are influenced by nutritional conditions. J. Bacteriol. 185:48514860.
5. Bolken, T. C.,, C. A. Franke,, K. F. Jones,, G. O. Zeller,, C. H. Jones,, E. K. Dutton,, and D. E. Hruby. 2001. Inactivation of the srtA gene in Streptococcus gordonii inhibits cell wall anchoring of surface proteins and decreases in vitro and in vivo adhesion. Infect. Immun. 69:7580.
6. Burnette-Curley, D.,, V. Wells,, H. Viscount,, C. L. Munro,, J. C. Fenno,, P. Fives-Taylor,, and F. L. Macrina. 1995. FimA, a major virulence factor associated with Streptococcus parasanguis endocarditis. Infect. Immun. 63: 46694674.
7. Byrd, C. M.,, T. C. Bolken,, K. F. Jones,, T. K. Warren,, A. T. Vella,, J. McDonald,, D. King,, Z Blackwood,, and D. E. Hruby. 2002. Biological consequences of antigen and cytokine co-expression by recombinant Streptococcus gordonii vaccine vectors. Vaccine 20:21972205.
8. Chausssee, M.S.,, G.A. Somerville,, L Reitzer,, and J.M. Musser. 2003. Rgg coordinates virulence factor synthesis and metabolism in Streptococcus pyogenes. J. Bacteriol. 185: 60166024.
9. Christie, J.,, R. McNab,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 2002. Expression of fibronectin-binding protein FbpA modulates adhesion in Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology 148:16151625.
10. Cisar, J. O.,, A. L. Sandberg,, G. P. Reddy,, C. Abeygunawardana,, and C. A. Bush. 1997. Structural and antigenic types of cell wall polysaccharides from viridans group streptococci with receptors for oral actinomyces and streptococcal lectins. Infect. Immun. 65:50355041.
11. Cvitkovitch, D. G.,, L. Ynug-Hua,, and R. P. Ellen. 2003. Quorum sensing and biofilm formation in streptococcal infections. J. Clin. Investig. 112:16261632.
12. Dagkessamanskaia, A.,, M. Moscoso,, V. Henard,, S. Guiral,, K. Overweg,, M. Reuter,, B. Martin,, J. Wells,, and J. P. Claverys. 2004. Interconnection of competence, stress and CiaR regulons in Streptococcus pneumoniae: competence triggers stationary phase autolysis of ciaR mutant cells. Mol. Microbiol. 51:10711086.
13. Demuth, D. R.,, Y. Duan,, W. Brooks,, A. R. Holmes,, R. McNab,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 1996. Tandem genes encode cell-surface polypeptides SspA and SspB which mediate adhesion of the oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii to human and bacterial receptors. Mol. Microbiol. 20:403413.
14. Egland, P. G.,, L. D. Du,, and P. E. Kolenbrander. 2001. Identification of independent Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB functions in coaggregation with Actinomyces naeslundii. Infect. Immun. 69:75127516.
15. Elliott, D.,, E. Harrison,, P. S. Handley,, S. K. Ford,, E. Jaffray,, N. Mordan,, and R. McNab. 2003. Prevalence of Csh-like fibrillar surface proteins among mitis group oral streptococci. Oral. Microbiol. Immunol. 18:114120.
16. Erickson, P. R.,, and M. C. Herzberg. 1993. The Streptococcus sanguis platelet aggregation-associated protein. Identification and characterization of the minimal platelet-interactive domain. J. Biol. Chem. 268:16461649.
17. Facklam, R. 2002. What happened to the streptococci: overview of taxonomic and nomenclature changes. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15:613630.
18. Federle, M. J.,, and B. L. Bassler. 2003. Interspecies communication in bacteria. J. Clin. Investig. 112:12911299.
19. Fenno, J. C.,, A. Shaikh,, and P. Fives-Taylor. 1993. Characterization of allelic replacement in Streptococcus parasanguis: transformation and homologous recombination in a “nontransformable” streptococcus. Gene 130:8190.
20. Giomarelli, B.,, R. Provvedi,, F. Meacci,, D. Medaglini,, G. Pozzi,, T. Mori,, J. B. McMahon,, R. Gardella,, and M. R. Boyd. 2002. The microbicide cyanovirin-N expressed on the surface of commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii captures HIV-1. AIDS 16:13511356.
21. Handley, P. S.,, P. L. Carter,, J. E. Wyatt,, and L. M. Hesketh. 1985. Surface structures (peritrichous fibrils and tufts of fibrils) found on Streptococcus sanguis strains may be related to their ability to coaggregate with other oral genera. Infect. Immun. 47:217227.
22. Håvarstein, L. S.,, G. Coomaraswamy,, and D. A. Morrison. 1995. An unmodified hexadecapeptide pheromone induces competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:1114011144.
23. Håvarstein, L. S.,, P. Gaustaud,, I. F. Nes,, and D. A. Morrison. 1996. Identification of the streptococcal competence- pheromone receptor. Mol. Microbiol. 21:863869.
24. Heddle, C.,, A. H. Nobbs,, N. S. Jakubovics,, M. Gal,, J. P. Mansell,, D. Dymock,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 2003. Host collagen signal induces antigen I/II adhesin and invasion gene expression in oral Streptococcus gordonii. Mol. Microbiol. 50:597607.
25. Hoskins, J.,, W. E. Alborn, Jr.,, J. Arnold,, L. C. Blaszczak,, S. Burgett,, B. S. DeHoff,, S. T. Estrem,, L. Fritz,, D. J. Fu,, W. Fuller,, C. Geringer,, R. Gilmour,, J. S. Glass,, H. Khoja,, A. R. Kraft,, R. E. Lagace,, D. J. LeBlanc,, L. N. Lee,, E. J. Lefkowitz,, J. Lu,, P. Matsushima,, S. M. McAhren,, M. McHenney,, K. McLeaster,, C. W. Mundy,, T. I. Nicas,, F. H. Norris,, M. O’Gara,, R. B. Peery,, G T. Robertson,, P. Rockey,, P. M. Sun,, M. E. Winkler,, Y. Yang,, M. Young-Bellido,, G. Zhao,, C. A. Zook,, R. H. Baltz,, S. R. Jaskunas,, P. R. Rosteck, Jr.,, P. L. Skatrud,, and J. I. Glass. 2001. Genome of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae strain R6. J. Bacteriol. 183:57095717.
26. Ibrahim, Y. M.,, A. R. Kerr,, J. McCluskey,, and T. J. Mitchell. 2004. Control of virulence by the two-component system Ciar/H is mediated via HtrA, a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol. 186: 52585266.
27. Jakubovics, N. S.,, A. W. Smith,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 2000. Expression of the virulence-related Sca (Mn2+) permease in Streptococcus gordonii is regulated by a diphtheria toxin metallorepressor-like protein ScaR. Mol. Microbiol. 38:140153.
28. Jakubovics, N. S.,, A. W. Smith,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 2002. Oxidative stress tolerance is manganese (Mn2+) regulated in Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology 148:32553263.
29. Jenkinson, H. F.,, R. A. Baker,, and G. W. Tannock. 1996. A binding-lipoprotein-dependent oligopeptide transport system in Streptococcus gordonii essential for uptake of hexa- and heptapeptides. J. Bacteriol. 178:6877.
30. Jenkinson, H. F.,, and D. R. Demuth. 1997. Structure, function and immunogenicity of streptococcal antigen I/II polypeptides. Mol. Microbiol. 23:183190.
31. Jones, G. W.,, D. B. Clewell,, L. G. Charles,, and M. M. Vickerman. 1996. Multiple phase variation in haemolytic, adhesive and antigenic properties of Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology 142:181189.
32. Kawamura, Y.,, X. G. Hou,, F. Sultana,, H. Miura,, and T. Ezaki. 1995. Determination of 16S rRNA sequences of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus gordonii and phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Streptococcus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:406408.
33. Kilian, M.,, L. Mikkelsen,, and J. Henrichsen. 1989. Taxonomic study of viridans streptococci: description of Streptococcus gordonii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of Streptococcus sanguis (White and Niven 1946), Streptococcus oralis (Bridge and Sneath 1982), and Streptococcus mitis (Andrewes and Horder 1906). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 471484.
34. Knutsen, E.,, O. Ween,, and L. S. Håvarstein. 2004. Two separate quorum-sensing systems upregulate transcription of the same ABC transporter in Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol. 186:30783085.
35. Kolenbrander, P. E.,, R. N. Andersen,, D. S. Blehert,, P. G. Egland,, J. S. Foster,, and R. J. Palmer, Jr. 2002. Communication among oral bacteria. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 66:485505.
36. Lamont, R. J.,, A. El-Sabaeny,, Y. Park,, G. S. Cook,, J. W. Costerton,, and D. R. Demuth. 2002. Role of the Streptococcus gordonii SspB protein in the development of Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms on streptococcal substrates. Microbiology 148:16271636.
37. Lamont, R. J.,, and H. F. Jenkinson,. 2000. Adhesion as an ecological determinant in the oral cavity, p. 131168. In H. K. Kuramitsu, and R. P. Ellen (ed.), Oral Bacterial Ecology: The Molecular Basis. Horizon Scientific Press, Wymondham, United Kingdom.
38. Leonard, G. C. 1973. Early events in development of streptococcal competence. J. Bacteriol. 114:11981205.
39. Loo, C. Y.,, K. Mitrakul,, I. B. Voss,, C. V. Hughes,, and N. Ganeshkumar. 2003. Involvement of an inducible fructose phosphotransferase operon in Streptococcus gordonii biofilm formation. J. Bacteriol. 185:62416254.
40. Lunsford, R. D. 1998. Streptococcal transformation: essential features and applications of a natural gene exchange system. Plasmid 39:1020.
41. Luo, P.,, H. Li,, and D. A. Morrison. 2003. ComX is a unique link between multiple quorum sensing outputs and competence in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mol. Microbiol. 50:623633.
42. Maggi, T.,, M. Spinosa,, S. Ricci,, D. Medaglini,, G. Pozzi,, and M. R. Oggioni. 2002. Genetic engineering of Streptococcus gordonii for the simultaneous display of two heterologous proteins at the bacterial surface. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 210:135141.
43. McNab, R.,, H. Forbes,, P. S. Handley,, D. M. Loach,, G. W. Tannock,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 1999. Cell wall-anchored CshA polypeptide (259 kilodaltons) in Streptococcus gordonii forms surface fibrils that confer hydrophobic and adhesive properties. J. Bacteriol. 181:30873095.
44. McNab, R.,, S. K. Ford,, A. El-Sabaeny,, B. Barbieri,, G. S. Cook,, and R. J. Lamont. 2003. Lux-S based signaling in Streptococcus gordonii: autoinducer 2 controls carbohydrate metabolism and biofilm formation with Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 185:274284.
45. McNab, R.,, A. R. Holmes,, J. M. Clarke,, G. W. Tannock,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 1996. Cell surface polypeptide CshA mediates binding of Streptococcus gordonii to other oral bacteria and to immobilized fibronectin. Infect. Immun. 64:42044210.
46. McNab, R.,, and H. F. Jenkinson. 1998. Altered adherence properties of a Streptococcus gordonii hppA (oligopeptide permease) mutant result from transcriptional effects on cshA adhesin gene expression. Microbiology 144:127136.
47. Medaglini, D.,, G. Pozzi,, T. P. King,, and V. A. Fischetti. 1995. Mucosal and systemic immune responses to a recombinant protein expressed on the surface of the oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii after oral colonization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:68686872.
48. Palmer, R. J., Jr.,, S. M. Gordon,, J. O. Cisar,, and P. E. Kolenbrander. 2003. Coaggregation-mediated interactions of streptococci and actinomyces detected in initial human dental plaque. J. Bacteriol. 185:34003409.
49. Peterson, S. N.,, C. K. Sung,, R. Cline,, B. V. Desai,, E. C. Snesrud,, P. Luo,, J. Walling,, H. Li,, M. Mintz,, G. Tsegaye,, P. C. Burr,, Y. Do,, S. Ahn,, J. Gilbert,, R. D. Fleischmann,, and D. A. Morrison. 2004. Identification of competence pheromone responsive genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of DNA microarrays. Mol. Microbiol. 51:10511070.
50. Poulsen, K.,, J. Reinholdt,, C. Jespersgaard,, K. Boye,, T. A. Brown,, M. Hauge,, and M. Kilian. 1998. A comprehensive genetic study of streptococcal immunoglobulin A1 proteases: evidence for recombination within and between species. Infect. Immun. 66:181190.
51. Prakobphol, A.,, F. Xu,, V. M. Hoang,, T. Larsson,, J. Bergstrom,, I. Johansson,, L. Frangsmyr,, U. Holmskov,, H. Leffler,, C. Nilsson,, T. Boren,, J. R. Wright,, N. Strömberg,, and S. J. Fisher. 2000. Salivary agglutinin, which binds Streptococcus mutans and Helicobacter pylori, is the lung scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein gp-340. J. Biol. Chem. 275:39803986.
52. Ricci, S.,, G. Macchia,, P. Ruggiero,, P. Bossu,, L. Xu,, D. Medaglini,, A. Tagliabue,, L. Hammarstrom,, G. Pozzi,, and D. Boraschi. 2003. In vivo mucosal delivery of bioactive human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist produced by Streptococcus gordonii. BMC Biotechnol. 3:15.
53. Stinson, M. W.,, S. Alder,, and S. Kumar. 1998. Invasion and killing of human endothelial cells by viridans group streptococci. Infect. Immun. 71:23652372.
54. Stinson, M. W.,, R. McLaughlin,, S. H. Choi,, Z. E. Juarez,, and J. Barnard. 1998. Streptococcal histone-like protein: primary structure of hlpA and protein binding to lipoteichoic acid and epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 66: 259265.
55. Sulavik, M. C.,, G. Tardif,, and D. B. Clewell. 1992. Identification of a gene, rgg, which regulates expression of glucosyltransferase and influences the Spp phenotype of Streptococcus gordonii Challis. J. Bacteriol. 174:35773586.
56. Takahashi, Y.,, K. Konishi,, J. O. Cisar,, and M. Yoshikawa. 2002. Identification and characterization of hsa, the gene encoding the sialic acid-binding adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii DL1. Infect. Immun. 70:12091218.
57. Takamatsu, D.,, B. A. Bensing,, and P. M. Sullam. 2004. Genes in the accessory sec locus of Streptococcus gordonii have three functionally distinct effects on the expression of the platelet-binding protein GspB. Mol. Microbiol. 52: 189203.
58. Tanzer, J. M.,, L. Grant,, A. Thompson,, L. Li,, J. D. Rogers,, E. M. Haase,, and F. A. Scannapieco. 2003. Amylase-binding proteins A (AbpA) and B (AbpB) differentially affect colonization of rats’ teeth by Streptococcus gordonii. Microbiology 149:26532660.
59. Tao, L.,, D. J. LeBlanc,, and J. J. Ferretti. 1992. Novel streptococcal-integration shuttle vectors for gene cloning and inactivation. Gene 120:105110.
60. Tettelin, H.,, K. E. Nelson,, I. T. Paulsen,, J. A. Eisen,, T. D. Read,, S. Peterson,, J. Heidelberg,, R. T. DeBoy,, D. H. Haft,, R. J. Dodson,, A. S. Durkin,, M. Gwinn,, J. F. Kolonay,, W. C. Nelson,, J. D. Peterson,, L. A. Umayam,, O. White,, S. L. Salzberg,, M. R. Lewis,, D. Radune,, E. Holtzapple,, H. Khouri,, A. M. Wolf,, T. R. Utterback,, C. L. Hansen,, L. A. McDonald,, T. V. Feldblyum,, S. Angiuoli,, T. Dickinson,, E. K. Hickey,, I. E. Holt,, B. J. Loftus,, F. Yang,, H. O. Smith,, J. C. Venter,, B. A. Dougherty,, D. A. Morrison,, S. K. Hollingshead,, and C. M. Fraser. 2001. Complete genome sequence of a virulent isolate of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Science 293:498506.
61. Troffer-Charlier, N.,, J. Ogier,, D. Mopras,, and J. Cavarelli. 2002. Crystal structure of the V-region of Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II at 2.4 Å resolution suggests a sugar performed binding site. J. Mol. Biol. 318:179188.
62. Ton-That, H.,, L. A. Marraffini,, and O. Schneewind. 2004. Sortases and pilin elements involved in pilus assembly of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol. Microbiol. 53: 251261.
63. Vickerman, M. M.,, M. Wang,, and L. J. Baker. 2003. An amino acid change near the carboxyl terminus of the Streptococcus gordonii regulatory protein Rgg affects its abilities to bind DNA and influence expression of the glucosyltransferase gene gtfG. Microbiology 149:399406.
64. Whatmore, A. M.,, V. A. Barcus,, and C. G. Dowson. 1999. Genetic diversity of the streptococcal competence (com) gene locus. J. Bacteriol. 181:31443154.
65. Ween, O.,, S. Teigen,, P. Gaustad,, M. Kilian,, and L. S. Håvarstein. 2002. Competence without a competence pheromone in a natural isolate of Streptococcus infantis. J. Bacteriol. 184:34263432.
66. Wu, H.,, and P. M. Fives-Taylor. 1999. Identification of dipeptide repeats and a cell wall sorting signal in the fimbriae-associated adhesin, Fap1, of Streptococcus parasanguis. Mol. Microbiol. 34:10701081.
67. Xu, D. Q.,, J. Thompson,, and J. O. Cisar. 2003. Genetic loci for coaggregation receptor polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus gordonii 38. J. Bacteriol. 185:54195430.
68. Zhang, Y.,, Y. Lei,, A. Khammanivong,, and M. C. Herzberg. 2004. Identification of a novel two-component system in Streptococcus gordonii V288 involved in biofilm formation. Infect. Immun. 72:34893494.


Generic image for table

Summary of oral streptococcal genomes

Data for and are estimates based on unfinished genome sequences from The Institute for Genomic Research (www.tigr.org). Each has been assembled into a pseudomolecule from six to eight times sequence coverage

Citation: Jenkinson H, Vickerman M. 2006. Genetics of Group Streptococci, p 347-355. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch29
Generic image for table

Polypeptide adhesion and colonization factors of

Precursor polypeptide, data from GenBank entries and from genomic sequence available at www.tigr.org.

CWA, cell wall-anchored; SA, cell surface-associated; EP, extracellular (released) protein; LPP, lipoprotein.

Species in which orthologs identified, but not necessarily expressed by all strains.

Strains of carry either the or allele (N. S. Jakubovics, unpublished data).

Citation: Jenkinson H, Vickerman M. 2006. Genetics of Group Streptococci, p 347-355. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch29

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error