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Chapter 37 : Staphylococcal Capsule

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Staphylococcal Capsule, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on major advances in staphylococcal capsule research. The 5 and 8 genes required for the synthesis of CP5 and CP8, respectively, have been cloned and characterized. The 5(8) locus was replaced by IS in a small subset of bovine isolates of from Argentina. Several findings reveal that lack of capsule expression in nontypeable (NT) can be explained by multiple mechanisms, and these data argue against the existence of capsule serotypes other than 1, 2, 5, and 8. The system has been shown to be a key regulator of autolysis and the synthesis of several extracellular virulence factors. SigB is an alternative stress sigma factor that regulates many staphylococcal genes, including some involved in bacterial virulence. A 5O mutation created in Reynolds rendered the bacterium negative for CP5; capsule expression was restored when 5O was provided to the mutant in trans. Staphylococcal adherence to the damaged heart valve is critical to initiate infection in the endocarditis model of infection. The conjugate vaccines were highly immunogenic in mice and humans and induced antibodies that opsonized encapsulated for phagocytosis.

Citation: Lee C, Lee J. 2006. Staphylococcal Capsule, p 456-463. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch37
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Figures

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Figure 1

Structures of staphylococcal capsules. Abbreviations: GalNAcA, -acetyl-galactosaminuronic acid; GlcNAcA, -acetyl-glucosaminuronic acid; O Ac, O-acetyl.

Citation: Lee C, Lee J. 2006. Staphylococcal Capsule, p 456-463. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch37
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Transmission electron micrographs of producing CP5 (A), CP8 (B), or no capsule (C). Prior to dehydration and embedding, the bacteria were incubated with capsular antibodies to stabilize and visualize the capsule.

Citation: Lee C, Lee J. 2006. Staphylococcal Capsule, p 456-463. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch37
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Comparison of and gene clusters. Gene designations are shown in boxes. Percent identity indicates the amino acid identity of the deduced proteins between the two clusters. The genes are transcribed from left to right.

Citation: Lee C, Lee J. 2006. Staphylococcal Capsule, p 456-463. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch37
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of CP5. The gene products for which functions have been experimentally confirmed are shown in boxes.

Citation: Lee C, Lee J. 2006. Staphylococcal Capsule, p 456-463. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch37
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