Chapter 42 : —Eukaryotic Cell Interactions

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The pathogen causes a diversity of diseases that range from minor skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening systemic infections. -endothelial cell interactions have been the most extensively studied and are among the most important events in the pathogenesis of invasive systemic disease. While this chapter primarily focuses on -endothelial cell interactions as a model of staphylococcal interaction with eukaryotic cells, reference is also made to more recent publications describing staphylococcal interactions with other cell types. adherence to endothelial cells is the critical first step in the invasion process. It was demonstrated that staphylococci adhere to endovascular tissue and endothelial cells grown in tissue culture more avidly than do other bacterial species. In general, the bacterial species most commonly associated with acute bacterial endocarditis were also the most adherent. Variation in endothelial cell growth conditions altered adherence of staphylococci to endothelial cells. A variety of cellular changes occurs as a result of invasion. Surface expression of proteins, such as Fc receptors and adhesion molecules, as well as secretion of cytokines, all occur in response to staphylococcal invasion. A prevailing concern regarding the in vitro observations of invasion of eukaryotic cells has been the limited amount of supporting clinical and experimental in vivo data. appears able to partially modulate the host cell-mediated immune response by eliciting or inhibiting its inflammatory response, which could account for differences in the outcomes of the infective process.

Citation: Arrecubieta C, Lowy F. 2006. —Eukaryotic Cell Interactions, p 517-525. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch42

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Image of FIGURE 1

Demonstration of endothelial cell phagocytosis of in vitro. (Left) Staphylococci incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells in tissue culture (30 min). The bacteria are phagocytized, enclosed within a membrane-bound vacuole, and transported into the cell. Bar, 0.5 μm. (Right) Section of rabbit aorta incubated with staphylococci (bacteria incubated with tissue for 30 min, then replaced with medium for a 5.5-h incubation). The endothelial cell contains a large number of bacteria enclosed within vacuoles. The cell has ruptured, releasing bacteria into the medium. Bar, 1.0 μm. (Reprinted from the [ ] with the permission of Academic Press.)

Citation: Arrecubieta C, Lowy F. 2006. —Eukaryotic Cell Interactions, p 517-525. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch42
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Image of FIGURE 2

Model for –endothelial cell interactions. Staphylococci adhere using fibronectin (Fn) as a bridging ligand to host cell integrin α5β1 and Hsp60. This process elicits endothelial cell-mediated phagocytosis of and the subsequent phagolysosomal fusion. escapes the endosome through the action of unidentified toxins. Staphylococci in the cytosol can induce host cell apoptosis via a variety of pathways involving among other components alphatoxin, host cell caspases and Jun amino-terminal kinase. cells induce expression of a wide range of both secreted and host cell surface factors. Some of these molecules are in turn involved in pathogenetic processes that include recruitment of PMN leukocytes and monocytes to sites of infection with migration across the endovascular tissue and the ECM to sites of inflammation. cells also elaborate a variety of proteolytic enzymes that facilitate their translocation across the ECM to adjacent tissues.

Citation: Arrecubieta C, Lowy F. 2006. —Eukaryotic Cell Interactions, p 517-525. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch42
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