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Chapter 43 : The Epidemiology of Infections

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Abstract:

This chapter describes some of the common illnesses caused by staphylococci, particularly . Colonization affords organisms, such as , the opportunity to gain access to skin sites, which, when infected, can serve as a source for more serious diseases, such as bacteremia, endocarditis, or toxemias. Approximately one-half of all skin infections are caused by . Infections include carbuncles, cellulitis, folliculitis, furuncles, hydradenitis suppurtiva, impetigo, mastitis, pyodermas, and pyomyositis. Staphylococcal osteomyelitis is classified as either acute or chronic. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually a disease of children, primarily neonates, in whom it affects the long bones of the lower extremity. Several staphylococcal diseases are mediated by toxins, including impetigo, food poisoning, necrotizing pneumonia, and toxic shock syndrome. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by is not common but does occur, often as a consequence of influenza. Staphylococci are among the most common causes of health care-associated infections, including bacteremia, surgical site infections (SSIs), and pneumonia. Several reports suggest that the prevalence of strains resistant to methicillin, oxacillin, or nafcillin is increasing in the United States and abroad and that such strains can cause outbreaks. Transmission of infection in health care settings requires three elements: a source of infecting microorganisms, a susceptible host, and a means of transmission for the microorganism. Contact transmission is the most important and frequent mode of transmission for . Several antimicrobial regimens have been used to eradicate carriage of .

Citation: Tenover F, Gorwitz R. 2006. The Epidemiology of Infections, p 526-534. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch43

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Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1
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FIGURE 1

NNIS system data showing percentage of MRSA isolates among all isolates causing infections in patients in U.S. intensive care units from 1995 to 2003 by patient age (CDC, unpublished data).

Citation: Tenover F, Gorwitz R. 2006. The Epidemiology of Infections, p 526-534. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch43
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