Chapter 46 : Biology and Pathogenicity of

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This chapter deals with the current knowledge about . It especially focuses on the pathogenicity of , the underlying biological properties, and how these properties contrast with those of . The brief overview of the disease spectrum is given to place the studies on pathogenesis in perspective. The last part of the chapter deals with one ecological aspect, lantibiotics, which are potentially important for bacterial interference on skin and mucous membranes. Non- staphylococci (NAS), particularly , are among the most frequently isolated microorganisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The most important step in the pathogenesis of foreign body-associated infectious diseases is the colonization of the polymer surface by the formation of multi-layered cell clusters, which are embedded in an amorphous extracellular material. The relationship of polysaccharide/adhesin (PS/A) to other polysaccharides of is discussed in the chapter. The establishment of an infection and the survival of the bacteria in the host depend on the ability to invade host tissues and to evade host defense systems, respectively. Although studied in more detail with , knowledge about the regulation of virulence factors has been increased significantly in recent years. Lantibiotics are antibiotic peptides that contain the rare thioether amino acid lanthionine and/or methyllanthionine. Improvement in the armamentarium of molecular methods will enable us to analyze not only the genome but also the proteome of in the future.

Citation: Heilmann C, Peters G. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of , p 560-571. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch46

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Image of FIGURE 1

Scanning electron micrograph of an early stage of biofilm formation by on a polyethylene surface. (Reprinted from reference , with permission.)

Citation: Heilmann C, Peters G. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of , p 560-571. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch46
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Image of FIGURE 2

Model of different phases of biofilm formation on a prosthetic polymer device and bacterial factors involved or potentially involved (?). Fbe/SdrG, fibrinogen-binding protein.

Citation: Heilmann C, Peters G. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of , p 560-571. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch46
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Generic image for table

NAS found in human specimens

Citation: Heilmann C, Peters G. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of , p 560-571. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch46
Generic image for table

Foreign body (polymer)-associated infections

CAPD, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid.

At least in some instances, the role of is very probable, but more data are needed.

Citation: Heilmann C, Peters G. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of , p 560-571. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch46

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