Chapter 47 : Biology and Pathogenicity of Staphylococci Other than Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Biology and Pathogenicity of Staphylococci Other than Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap47-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap47-2.gif


This chapter focuses on species of non- species of staphylococci (NAS) selected for their pathogenic potential and those for which recent discoveries have had a significant outcome on the general knowledge of staphylococcal biology. is a human commensal more pathogenic than most other NAS, causing primary infections of the human. is known as a frequent cause of acute urinary tract infection among female outpatients. is regarded as an emerging nosocomial pathogen with a tendency to develop antibiotic resistance. is a rather genetically homogeneous species, since a very limited polymorphism is detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or plasmid analysis. was originally isolated from goat milk; it is the most prevalent NAS in mastitis-free goat milk and has not been isolated from cow or sheep milk. has the usual characteristics of the NAS and can cause significant infection both in the community and in the hospital. strains are phenotypically similar to strains, but a clear-cut distinction between these two species may be obtained by comparing their rRNA gene restriction patterns. has been isolated as a rare cause of human infection including urinary tract, wound, bone, and joint infections; vertebral osteomyelitis; septicemia; and native valve endocarditis. is the most important NAS that produces coagulase; it is, however, taxonomically distinct from . It is the predominant coagulase-positive staphylococcus in the mouth and in skin infections of dogs.

Citation: Tristan A, Lina G, Etienne J, Vandenesch F. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of Staphylococci Other than Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, p 572-586. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch47

Key Concept Ranking

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1
Bacterial Vaccines
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abgrall, S.,, P. Meimoun,, A. Buu-Hoi,, J. P. Couetil,, L. Gutmann,, and J. L. Mainardi. 2001. Early prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Staphylococcus warneri with negative blood culture. J. Infect. 42:166.
2. Adesiyun, A. A.,, S. R. Tatini,, and D. G. Hoover. 1984. Production of enterotoxin(s) by Staphylococcus hyicus. Vet. Microbiol. 9:487495.
3. Ahrens, P.,, and L. O. Andresen. 2004. Cloning and sequence analysis of genes encoding Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxin types A, B, C, and D. J. Bacteriol. 186:18331837.
4. Allaker, R. P.,, N. Garrett,, L. Kent,, W. C. Noble,, and D. H. Lloyd. 1993. Characterisation of Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from canine pyoderma and from healthy carriers by SDS-PAGE of exoproteins, immunoblotting and restriction endonuclease digest analysis. J. Med. Microbiol. 39:429433.
5. Allignet, J.,, S. Aubert,, K. G. Dyke,, and N. El Solh. 2001. Staphylococcus caprae strains carry determinants known to be involved in pathogenicity: a gene encoding an autolysin-binding fibronectin and the ica operon involved in biofilm formation. Infect. Immun. 69:712718.
6. Allignet, J.,, N. Liassine,, and N. El Solh. 1998. Characterization of a staphylococcal plasmid related to pUB110 and carrying two novel genes, vatC and vgbB, encoding resistance to streptogramins A and B and similar antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:17941798.
7. Almazan, J.,, R. de la Fuente,, E. Gomez-Lucia,, and G. Suarez. 1987. Enterotoxin production by strains of Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dog infections. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. A 264:2932.
8. Andresen, L. O. 1998. Differentiation and distribution of three types of exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs with exudative epidermitis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 20:301310.
9. Ayora, S.,, P. E. Lindgren,, and F. Gotz. 1994. Biochemical properties of a novel metalloprotease from Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus involved in extracellular lipase processing. J. Bacteriol. 176:32183223.
10. Barcs, I.,, and L. Janosi. 1992. Plasmids encoding for erythromycin ribosomal methylase of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 39:8592.
11. Barnham, M.,, R. Horton,, J. M. P. Smith,, J. Richardson,, R. R. Marples,, and S. Reith. 1996. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus simulans masquerading as MRSA in a nursing home. J. Hosp. Infect. 34:331337.
12. Barriere, C.,, R. Bruckner,, D. Centeno,, and R. Talon. 2002. Characterisation of the katA gene encoding a catalase and evidence for at least a second catalase activity in Staphylococcus xylosus, bacteria used in food fermentation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 216:277283.
13. Barriere, C.,, D. Centeno,, A. Lebert,, S. Leroy-Setrin,, J. L. Berdague,, and R. Talon. 2001. Roles of superoxide dismutase and catalase of Staphylococcus xylosus in the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 201:181185.
14. Bassias, J.,, and R. Bruckner. 1998. Regulation of lactose utilization genes in Staphylococcus xylosus. J. Bacteriol. 180:22732279.
15. Bautista, L.,, P. Gaya,, M. Medina,, and M. Nunez. 1988. A quantitative study of enterotoxin production by sheep milk staphylococci. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:566569.
16. Becker, K.,, B. Keller,, C. von Eiff,, M. Bruck,, G. Lubritz,, J. Etienne,, and G. Peters. 2001. Enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus intermedius. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:55515557.
17. Benito, Y.,, G. Lina,, T. Greenland,, J. Etienne,, and F. Vandenesch. 1998. trans-complementation of Staphylococcus aureus agr mutant by S. lugdunensis agr RNAIII. J. Bacteriol. 180:57805783.
18. Biberstein, E. L.,, S. Jang,, and D. C. Hirsh. 1984. Species distribution of coagulase-positive staphylococci in animals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19:610615.
19. Billot-Klein, D.,, L. Gutmann,, D. Bryant,, D. Bell,, J. Van Heijenoort,, J. Grewal,, and D. M. Shlaes. 1996. Peptidoglycan synthesis and structure in Staphylococcus haemolyticus expressing increasing levels of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics. J. Bacteriol. 178:46964703.
20. Burriel, A. R. 1998. In vivo presence of capsular polysaccharide in coagulase-negative staphylococci of ovine origin. New Microbiol. 21:4954.
21. Buttery, J. P.,, M. Easton,, S. R. Pearson,, and G. G. Hogg. 1997. Pediatric bacteremia due to Staphylococcus warneri: microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical features. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:21742177.
22. Center, K. J.,, A. C. Reboli,, R. Hubler,, G. L. Rodgers,, and S. S. Long. 2003. Decreased vancomycin susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci in a neonatal intensive care unit: evidence of spread of Staphylococcus warneri. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:46604665.
23. Chaouni, L.,, T. Greenland,, J. Etienne,, and F. Vandenesch. 1996. Nucleic acid sequence and affiliation of pLUG10, a novel cadmium resistance plasmid from Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Plasmid 36:18.
24. Chesneau, O.,, A. Morvan,, F. Grimont,, H. Labischinski,, and N. El Solh. 1993. Staphylococcus pasteuri sp. nov., isolated from human, animal, and food specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43:237244.
25. Cintas, L. M.,, P. Casaus,, H. Holo,, P. E. Hernandez,, I. F. Nes,, and L. S. Havarstein. 1998. Enterocins L50A and L50B, two novel bacteriocins from Enterococcus faecium L50, are related to staphylococcal hemolysins. J. Bacteriol. 180:19881994.
26. Climo, M. W.,, R. L. Patron,, B. P. Goldstein,, and G. L. Archer. 1998. Lysostaphin treatment of experimental methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:13551360.
27. Dacosta, A.,, H. Lelièvre,, G. Kirkorian,, M. Célard,, P. Chevalier,, F. Vandenesch,, J. Etienne,, and P. Touboul. 1998. Role of the preaxillary flora in pacemaker infections. A prospective study. Circulation 97:17911795.
28. De Hondt, G.,, M. Ieven,, C. Vandermersch,, and J. Colaert. 1997. Destructive endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Case report and review of the literature. Acta Clin. Belg. 52:2730.
29. Donvito, B.,, J. Etienne,, L. Denoroy,, T. Greenland,, Y. Benito,, and F. Vandenesch. 1997. Synergistic hemolytic activity of Staphylococcus lugdunensis is mediated by three peptides encoded by a non-agr genetic locus. Infect. Immun. 65:95100.
30. Donvito, B.,, J. Etienne,, T. Greenland,, C. Mouren,, V. Delorme,, and F. Vandenesch. 1997. Distribution of the synergistic haemolysin genes hld and slush with respect to agr in human staphylococci. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 151:139144.
31. Dziewanowska, K.,, V. M. Edwards,, J. R. Deringer,, G. A. Bohach,, and D. J. Guerra. 1996. Comparison of the beta-toxins from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 335:102108.
32. Edwards, V. M.,, J. R. Deringer,, S. D. Callantine,, C. F. Deobald,, P. H. Berger,, V. Kapur,, C. V. Stauffacher,, and G. A. Bohach. 1997. Characterization of the canine type C enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus intermedius pyoderma isolates. Infect. Immun. 65:23462352.
33. Fiegler, H.,, and R. Bruckner. 1997. Identification of the serine acetyltransferase gene of Staphylococcus xylosus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 148:181187.
34. Fthenakis, G. C.,, R. R. Marples,, J. F. Richardson,, and J. E. Jones. 1994. Some properties of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of ovine mastitis. Epidemiol. Infect. 112:171176.
35. Gatermann, S.,, and R. Marre. 1989. Cloning and expression of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urease gene sequences in Staphylococcus carnosus and contribution of the enzyme to virulence. Infect. Immun. 57:29983002.
36. Gatermann, S. G.,, and K. B. Crossley,. 1997. Urinary tract infections, p. 493508. In K. B. Crosssley, and G. L. Archer (ed.), The Staphylococci in Human Disease. Churchill Livingstone, Inc., New York, N.Y.
37. Gerstadt, K.,, J. S. Daly,, M. Mitchell,, M. Wessolossky,, and S. H. Cheeseman. 1999. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius pneumonia following coronary artery bypass grafting. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:218219.
38. Giovanetti, E.,, F. Biavasco,, A. Pugnaloni,, R. Lupidi,, G. Biagini,, and P. E. Varaldo. 1996. An electron microscopic study of clinical and laboratory-derived strains of teicoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Microb. Drug Resist. 2:239243.
39. Gotz, F.,, H. M. Verheij,, and R. Rosenstein. 1998. Staphylococcal lipases: molecular characterisation, secretion, and processing. Chem. Phys. Lipids 93:1525.
40. Greene, R. T.,, and C. Lammler. 1992. Isolation and characterization of immunoglobulin binding proteins from Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus hyicus. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. B 39:519525.
41. Hajek, V.,, H. Meugnier,, M. Bes,, Y. Brun,, F. Fiedler,, Z. Chmela,, Y. Lasne,, J. Fleurette,, and J. Freney. 1996. Staphylococcus saprophyticus subsp. bovis subsp. nov., isolated from bovine nostrils. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:792796.
42. Hébert, G. A. 1990. Hemolysins and other characteristics that help differentiate and biotype Staphylococcus lugdunensis and Staphylococcus schleiferi. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:24252431.
43. Hébert, G. A.,, C. G. Crowder,, G. A. Hancock,, W. R. Jarvis,, and C. Thornsberry. 1988. Characteristics of coagulase-negative staphylococci that help differentiate these species and other members of the family Micrococcaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:19391949.
44. Hell, W.,, T. Kern,, and M. Klouche. 1999. Staphylococcus saprophyticus as an unusual agent of nosocomial pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:685686.
45. Hell, W.,, H. G. Meyer,, and S. G. Gatermann. 1998. Cloning of aas, a gene encoding a Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface protein with adhesive and autolytic properties. Mol. Microbiol. 29:871881.
46. Hernandez, J. L.,, J. Calvo,, R. Sota,, J. Aguero,, J. D. Garcia-Palomo,, and M. C. Farinas. 2001. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of 28 patients with Staphylococcus schleiferi infection. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20:153158.
47. Hirooka, E. Y.,, E. E. Muller,, J. C. Freitas,, E. Vicente,, Y. Yoshimoto,, and M. S. Bergdoll. 1988. Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus intermedius of canine origin. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 7:185191.
48. Igimi, S.,, E. Takahashi,, and T. Mitsuoka. 1990. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans subsp. nov., isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs with external ear otitis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:409411.
49. Jansen, B.,, F. Schumacher-Perdreau,, G. Peters,, G. Reinhold,, and J. Schonemann. 1992. Native valve endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus simulans. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11:268269.
50. Ji, G.,, R. Beavis,, and R. P. Novick. 1997. Bacterial interference caused by autoinducing peptide variants. Science 276:20272030.
51. Jones, R. M.,, M. A. Jackson,, C. Ong,, and G. K. Lofland. 2002. Endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:265268.
52. Jose, J.,, S. Christians,, R. Rosenstein,, F. Gotz,, and H. Kaltwasser. 1991. Cloning and expression of various staphylococcal genes encoding urease in Staphylococcus carnosus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 64:277281.
53. Katayama, Y.,, T. Ito,, and K. Hiramatsu. 2001. Genetic organization of the chromosome region surrounding mecA in clinical staphylococcal strains: role of IS431-mediated mecI deletion in expression of resistance in mecA-carrying, low-level methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:19551963.
54. Katayama, Y.,, F. Takeuchi,, T. Ito,, X. X. Ma,, Y. Ui- Mizutani,, I. Kobayashi,, and K. Hiramatsu. 2003. Identification in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus hominis of an active primordial mobile genetic element for the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 185: 27112722.
55. Kazembe, P.,, A. E. Simor,, A. E. Swarney,, L. G. Yap,, B. Kreiswirth,, J. Ng,, and D. E. Low. 1993. A study of the epidemiology of an endemic strain of Staphylococcus haemolyticus (TOR-35) in a neonatal intensive care unit. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 25:507513.
56. Kerr, D. E.,, K. Plaut,, A. J. Bramley,, C. M. Williamson,, A. J. Lax,, K. Moore,, K. D. Wells,, and R. J. Wall. 2001. Lysostaphin expression in mammary glands confers protection against staphylococcal infection in transgenic mice. Nat. Biotechnol. 19:6670.
57. Khambarty, F. M.,, R. W. Bennett,, and D. B. Shah. 1994. Application of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to the epidemiological characterization of Staphylococcus intermedius implicated in a food-related outbreak. Epidemiol. Infect. 113:7581.
58. Kiri, N.,, G. Archer,, and M. W. Climo. 2002. Combinations of lysostaphin with beta-lactams are synergistic against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:20172020.
59. Kloos, W. E., 1986. Ecology of human skin, p. 3750. In P. A. Mardh, and K. H. Schleifer (ed.), Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci. Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm, Sweden.
60. Kloos, W. E.,, D. N. Ballard,, J. A. Webster,, R. J. Hubner,, A. Tomasz,, I. Couto,, G. L. Sloan,, H. P. Dehart,, F. Fiedler,, K. Schubert,, H. de Lencastre,, I. S. Sanches,, H. E. Heath,, P. A. Leblanc,, and A. Ljungh. 1997. Ribotype delineation and description of Staphylococcus sciuri subspecies and their potential as reservoirs of methicillin resistance and staphylolytic enzyme genes. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:313323.
61. Kloos, W. E.,, and T. L. Bannerman. 1994. Update on clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:117140.
62. Kloos, W. E.,, C. G. George,, J. S. Olgiate,, P. L. Van,, M. L. McKinnon,, B. L. Zimmer,, E. Muller,, M. P. Weinstein,, and S. Mirrett. 1998. Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus subsp. nov., a novel trehalose- and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-negative, novobiocin- and multiple-antibiotic-resistant subspecies isolated from human blood cultures. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.3:799812.
63. Kloos, W. E.,, and J. F. Wolfshohl. 1979. Evidence of desoxyribonucleotide sequence divergence between staphylococci living on human and other primate skin. Curr. Microbiol. 3:167172.
64. Kloos, W. E.,, and J. F. Wolfshohl. 1991. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies: Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii subsp. nov. and Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41:284289.
65. Kluytmans, J.,, H. Berg,, P. Steegh,, F. Vandenesch,, J. Etienne,, and A. van Belkum. 1998. Outbreak of Staphylococcus schleiferi wound infections: strain characterization by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, PCR ribotyping, conventional ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:22142219.
66. Kokai-Kun, J. F.,, S. M. Walsh,, T. Chanturiya,, and J. J. Mond. 2003. Lysostaphin cream eradicates Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in a cotton rat model. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:15891597.
67. Krzeminski, Z.,, and A. Raczynska. 1990. Elastolytic activity of staphylococci isolated from human oral cavity. Med. Dosw. Mikrobiol. 42:14.
68. Lambe, D. W.,, K. P. Fergusson,, J. L. Keplinger,, C. G. Gemmell,, and J. H. Kalbfleisch. 1990. Pathogenicity of Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, and three other coagulase-negative staphylococci in a mouse model and possible virulence factors. Can. J. Microbiol. 36:455463.
69. Latorre, M.,, P. M. Rojo,, R. Franco,, and R. Cisterna. 1993. Endocarditis due to Staphylococcus capitis subspecies ureolyticus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:343344.
70. Lee, J. 1994. Staphylococcus intermedius isolated from dog-bite wounds. J. Infect. 29:105118.
71. Liljeqvist, S.,, P. Samuelson,, M. Hansson,, T. N. Nguyen,, H. Binz,, and S. Stahl. 1997. Surface display of the cholera toxin B subunit on Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:24812488.
72. Linehan, D.,, J. Etienne,, and D. Sheehan. 2003. Relationship between haemolytic and sphingomyelinase activities in a partially purified beta-like toxin from Staphylococcus schleiferi. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 36:95102.
73. Long, J. P.,, J. Hart,, W. Albers,, and F. A. Kapral. 1992. The production of fatty acid modifying enzyme (FAME) and lipase by various staphylococcal species. J. Med. Microbiol. 37:232234.
74. Mahoudeau, I.,, X. Delabranche,, G. Prevost,, H. Monteil,, and Y. Piemont. 1997. Frequency of isolation of Staphylococcus intermedius from humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:21532154.
75. Marsou, R.,, M. Bes,, M. Boudouma,, Y. Brun,, H. Meugnier,, J. Freney,, F. Vandenesch,, and J. Etienne. 1999. Distribution of Staphylococcus sciuri subspecies among human clinical specimens, and profile of antibiotic resistance. Res. Microbiol. 150:531541.
76. Miedzobrodzki, J.,, A. S. Naidu,, J. L. Watts,, P. Ciborowski,, K. Palm,, and T. Wadstrom. 1989. Effect of milk on fibronectin and collagen type I binding to Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:540544.
77. Minhas, T.,, H. A. Ludlam,, M. Wilks,, and S. Tabaqchali. 1995. Detection by PCR and analysis of the distribution of a fibronectin-binding protein gene (fbn) among staphylococcal isolates. J. Med. Microbiol. 42:96101.
78. Nilsson, M.,, J. Bjerketorp,, A. Wiebensjo,, A. Ljungh,, L. Frykberg,, and B. Guss. 2004. A von Willebrand factor-binding protein from Staphylococcus lugdunensis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 234:155161.
79. Oh, B.,, H. Kim,, J. Lee,, S. Kang,, and T. Oh. 1999. Staphylococcus haemolyticus lipase: biochemical properties, substrate specificity and gene cloning. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 179:385392.
80. Olszewski, W. L.,, S. Jamal,, G. Manokaran,, S. Pani,, V. Kumaraswami,, U. Kubicka,, B. Lukomska,, F. M. Tripathi,, E. Swoboda,, F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk,, E. Stelmach,, and M. Zaleska. 1999. Bacteriological studies of blood, tissue fluid, lymph and lymph nodes in patients with acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (DLA) in course of ‘filarial’ lymphedema. Acta Trop. 73:217224.
81. Orden, J. A.,, J. Goyache,, J. Hernandez,, A. Domenech,, G. Suarez,, and E. Gomez-Lucia. 1992. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1 by coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from ruminant mastitis. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. B 39:144148.
82. Ottenwalder, B.,, T. Kupke,, S. Brecht,, V. Gnau,, J. Metzger,, G. Jung,, and F. Gotz. 1995. Isolation and characterization of genetically engineered gallidermin and epidermin analogs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:38943903.
83. Paulsonn, M.,, C. Petersson,, and A. Ljungh. 1993. Serum and tissue protein binding and cell surface properties of Staphylococcus lugdunensis. J. Med. Microbiol. 38:96102.
84. Paulsson, M.,, A. Ljungh,, and T. Wadstrom. 1992. Rapid identification of fibronectin, vitronectin, laminin, and collagen cell surface binding proteins on coagulase-negative staphylococci by particle agglutination assays. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:20062012.
85. Peacock, S. J.,, G. Lina,, J. Etienne,, and T. J. Foster. 1999. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi expresses a fibronectin-binding protein. Infect. Immun. 67:42724275.
86. Prevost, G.,, T. Bouakham,, Y. Piemont,, and H. Monteil. 1995. Characterisation of a synergohymenotropic toxin produced by Staphylococcus intermedius. FEBS Lett. 376:135140.
87. Raimundo, O.,, H. Heussler,, J. B. Bruhn,, S. Suntrarachun,, N. Kelly,, M. A. Deighton,, and S. M. Garland. 2002. Molecular epidemiology of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteraemia in a newborn intensive care unit. J. Hosp. Infect. 51:3342.
88. Raus, J.,, and D. N. Love. 1990. Comparison of the staphylocoagulase activities of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius on Chromozym-TH. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:207210.
89. Razonable, R. R.,, D. G. Lewallen,, R. Patel,, and D. R. Osmon. 2001. Vertebral osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection due to Staphylococcus simulans. Mayo Clin. Proc. 76:10671070.
90. Sandoe, J. A.,, K. G. Kerr,, G. W. Reynolds,, and S. Jain. 1999. Staphylococcus capitis endocarditis: two cases and review of the literature. Heart 82:e1.
91. Sato, H.,, K. Hirose,, R. Terauchi,, S. Abe,, I. Moromizato,, S. Kurokawa,, and N. Maehara. 2004. Purification and characterization of a novel Staphylococcus chromogenes exfoliative toxin. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health 51:116122.
92. Schleifer, K. H., 1986. Gram-positive cocci, p. 9991103. In P. H. A. Sneath,, N. S. Mair,, M. E. Sharpe,, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md.
93. Schwarz, S.,, C. Kehrenberg,, and K. K. Ojo. 2002. Staphylococcus sciuri gene erm(33), encoding inducible resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B antibiotics, is a product of recombination between erm(C) and erm(A). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:36213623.
94. Schwarz, S.,, C. Werckenthin,, and C. Kehrenberg. 2000. Identification of a plasmid-borne chloramphenicolflorfenicol resistance gene in Staphylococcus sciuri. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:25302533.
95. Shimizu, A.,, H. A. Berkhoff,, W. E. Kloos,, C. G. George,, and D. N. Ballard. 1996. Genomic DNA fingerprinting, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, of Staphylococcus intermedius isolated from dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57:14581462.
96. Shuttleworth, R.,, R. J. Behme,, A. McNabb,, and W. D. Colby. 1997. Human isolates of Staphylococcus caprae: association with bone and joint infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:25372541.
97. Stepanovic, S.,, D. Vukovicc,, V. Trajkovic,, T. Samardzic,, M. Cupic,, and M. Svabic-Vlahovic. 2001. Possible virulence factors of Staphylococcus sciuri. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 199:4753.
98. Stout, R. D.,, Y. Li,, A. R. Miller,, and D. W. Lambe. 1994. Staphylococcal glycocalyx activates macrophage prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 production and modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha and nitric oxide production. Infect. Immun. 62:41604166.
99. Sugai, M.,, T. Fujiwara,, K. Ohta,, H. Komatsuzawa,, M. Ohara,, and H. Suginaka. 1997. epr, which encodes glycylglycine endopeptidase resistance, is homologous to femAB and affects serine content of peptidoglycan cross bridges in Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 179:43114318.
100. Tabe, Y.,, A. Nakamura,, and J. Igari. 2001. Glycopeptide susceptibility profiles of nosocomial multiresistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates. J. Infect. Chemother. 7:142147.
101. Talon, R.,, N. Dublet,, M. C. Montel,, and M. Cantonnet. 1995. Purification and characterization of extracellular Staphylococcus warneri lipase. Curr. Microbiol. 30:1116.
102. Tee, W. S.,, S. Y. Soh,, R. Lin,, and L. H. Loo. 2003. Staphylococcus lugdunensis carrying the mecA gene causes catheter-associated bloodstream infection in premature neonate. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:519520.
103. Tegmark, K.,, E. Morfeldt,, and S. Arvidson. 1998. Regulation of agr-dependent virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus by RNAIII from coagulase-negative staphylococci. J. Bacteriol. 180:31813186.
104. Terauchi, R.,, H. Sato,, T. Hasegawa,, T. Yamaguchi,, C. Aizawa,, and N. Maehara. 2003. Isolation of exfoliative toxin from Staphylococcus intermedius and its local toxicity in dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 94:1929.
105. Thumm, G.,, and F. Gotz. 1997. Studies on prolysostaphin processing and characterization of the lysostaphin immunity factor (Lif) of Staphylococcus simulans biovar staphylolyticus. Mol. Microbiol. 23:12511265.
106. Valle, J.,, E. Gomez-Lucia,, S. Piriz,, J. Goyache,, J. A. Orden,, and S. Vadillo. 1990. Enterotoxin production by staphylococci isolated from healthy goats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:13231326.
107. Vandenesch, F.,, S. J. Eykyn,, M. Bes,, H. Meugnier,, J. Fleurette,, and J. Etienne. 1995. Identification and ribotypes of Staphylococcus caprae isolates isolated as human pathogens and from goat milk. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:888892.
108. Vandenesch, F.,, S. J. Eykyn,, J. Etienne,, and J. Lemozy. 1995. Skin and post-surgical wound infections due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 1:7374.
109. Vandenesch, F.,, S. J. Eykyn,, and J. Etienne. 1995. Infections caused by newly-described species of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 6:94100.
110. Vandenesch, F.,, C. Lebeau,, M. Bes,, G. Lina,, B. Lina,, T. Greenland,, Y. Benito,, Y. Brun,, J. Fleurette,, and J. Etienne. 1994. Clotting activity in Staphylococcus schleiferi subspecies from human patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:388392.
111. Vandenesch, F.,, S. Projan,, B. Kreiswirth,, J. Etienne,, and R. P. Novick. 1993. agr related sequences in Staphylococcus lugdunensis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 111:115122.
112. Vandenesch, F.,, M. J. Storrs,, F. Poitevin-Later,, J. Etienne,, P. Courvalin,, and J. Fleurette. 1991. Delta-like haemolysin produced by Staphylococcus lugdunensis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 78:6568.
113. van der Mee-Marquet, N.,, A. Achard,, L. Mereghetti,, A. Danton,, M. Minier,, and R. Quentin. 2003. Staphylococcus lugdunensis infections: high frequency of inguinal area carriage. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:14041409.
114. Van Der Zwet, W. C.,, Y. J. Debets-Ossenkopp,, E. Reinders,, M. Kapi,, P. H. Savelkoul,, R. M. Van Elburg,, K. Hiramatsu,, and C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls. 2002. Nosocomial spread of a Staphylococcus capitis strain with heteroresistance to vancomycin in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:25202525.
115. van Kampen, M.,, J. W. Simons,, N. Dekker,, M. R. Egmond,, and H. M. Verheij. 1998. The phospholipase activity of Staphylococcus hyicus lipase strongly depends on a single Ser to Val mutation. Chem. Phys. Lipids 93:3945.
116. van Kampen, M. D.,, R. Rosenstein,, F. Gotz,, and M. R. Egmond. 2001. Cloning, purification and characterisation of Staphylococcus warneri lipase 2. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1544:229241.
117. Vannuffel, P.,, M. Heusterspreute,, M. Bouyer,, B. Vandercam,, M. Philippe,, and J. L. Gala. 1999. Molecular characterization of femA from Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and femA-based discrimination of staphylococcal species. Res. Microbiol. 150:129141.
118. Vernozy-Rozand, C.,, C. Mazuy,, G. Prevost,, C. Lapeyre,, M. Bes,, Y. Brun,, and J. Fleurette. 1996. Enterotoxin production by coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from goats’ milk and cheese. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 30:271280.
119. Wagner, E.,, J. Doskar,, and F. Gotz. 1998. Physical and genetic map of the genome of Staphylococcus carnosus TM300. Microbiology 144:509517.
120. Watson, D. C.,, M. Yaguchi,, J. G. Bisaillon,, R. Beaudet,, and R. Morosoli. 1988. The amino acid sequence of a gonococcal growth inhibitor from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Biochem. J. 252:8793.
121. Weiss, K.,, D. Rouleau,, and M. Laverdiere. 1996. Cystitis due to vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus saprophyticus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:10391040.
122. Wu, S.,, H. de Lencastre,, and A. Tomasz. 1998. Genetic organization of the mecA region in methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus sciuri. J. Bacteriol. 180:236242.
123. Wu, S. W.,, H. de Lencastre,, and A. Tomasz. 2001. Recruitment of the mecA gene homologue of Staphylococcus sciuri into a resistance determinant and expression of the resistant phenotype in Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 183:24172424.


Generic image for table

Other extracellular factors produced by species other than S. and S.

SHT, synergohymenotropic toxin; NT, not tested; SCET, S. exfoliative toxin; ExhA, exfoliative toxin A from S. SHETA, S. exfoliative toxin A; SIET, S. exfoliative toxin.

Citation: Tristan A, Lina G, Etienne J, Vandenesch F. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of Staphylococci Other than Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, p 572-586. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch47
Generic image for table

Binding of various species to extracellular matrix proteins

NT, not tested; PAA, particule agglutination assays; I-PBA, iodine-labeled protein-binding assays; PCR, PCR amplification of -like genes using primers based on conserved sequences of and ; WLAB, Western ligand affinity blotting; Fn, fibronectin; Vn, vitronectin; Lm, laminin; Cn, collagen; Fg, fibrinogen; *, low-affinity binding.

Citation: Tristan A, Lina G, Etienne J, Vandenesch F. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of Staphylococci Other than Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, p 572-586. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch47
Generic image for table

Synergistic hemolysis and detection of , , and genes in species

NT, not tested.

Citation: Tristan A, Lina G, Etienne J, Vandenesch F. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of Staphylococci Other than Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, p 572-586. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch47
Generic image for table

Superantigenic toxins produced by species other than and

NT, not tested.

Citation: Tristan A, Lina G, Etienne J, Vandenesch F. 2006. Biology and Pathogenicity of Staphylococci Other than Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, p 572-586. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch47

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error