Chapter 49 : Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Listeria monocytogenes Infection

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap49-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap49-2.gif


Enhancement of organism specific virulence factors may play a role in epidemic disease, although all isolates of have the constitutive ability to produce all the virulence factors characteristic of the species. The current understanding of the epidemiology of human listeriosis suggests that the organism is a common contaminant of food products and that ingestion of small numbers of occurs frequently in human populations. A wide variety of clinical syndromes have been associated with infection in both animals and humans. The clinical syndromes associated with listeriosis in humans have been more recently elucidated. Autopsy findings in cases of early-onset listeriosis show significant chorioamnionitis in placental remnants and granulomas in multiple organs, particularly the liver and spleen, of infected infants. is an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. There are two major clinical presentations. The first is a typical subacute bacterial meningitis characterized by fever, headache, and neck stiffness. The second form of central nervous system listeriosis in adults is a rhombencephalitis that has features characteristic of the same illness in animals described as circling disease. , or bacteremia without central nervous system involvement, represents one-third of adult cases of invasive listeriosis. The chapter also talks about other clinical syndromes.

Citation: Schlech, III W. 2006. Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, p 601-608. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch49

Key Concept Ranking

Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cell-Mediated Immune Response
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebellum and midbrain of a 72-year-old, previously healthy man. Spinal fluid and blood cultures demonstrated . Wellformed microabscesses typical of listeriosis can be seen within the brain parenchyma.

Citation: Schlech, III W. 2006. Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, p 601-608. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch49
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Armstrong, R. W.,, and P. C. Fung. 1993. Brainstem encephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:689702.
2. Aureli, P.,, G. C. Fiorucci,, D. Caroli,, G. Marchiaro,, O. Novaro,, L. Leone,, and S. Salmaso. 2000. An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with corn contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes N. Engl. J. Med. 342:12361241.
3. Backman, A.,, P.-G. Lantz,, P. Radstrom,, and P. Olcen. 1999. Evaluation of an extended diagnostic PCR assay for detection and verification of the commonest causes of bacterial meningitis in CSF and other biological samples. Mol. Cell. Probes 13:4960.
4. Baltimore, R. S.,, S. M. Huie,, J. I. Meek,, A. Schuchat, and Katherine O’Brien. 2001. Early onset neonatal sepsis in the era of group B streptococcal prevention. Pediatrics 108:10941098.
5. Berche, P.,, K. A. Reich,, M. Bonnichon,, J. L. Beretti,, C. Geoffroy,, J. Raveneau,, P. Cossart,, J. L. Gaillard,, P. Geslin,, H. Kreis,, and M. Veron. 1990. Detection of antilisteriolysin O for serodiagnosis of human listeriosis. Lancet 335:624627.
6. Bourgeois, N.,, F. Jacobs,, M. L. Tavares,, F. Rickaert,, C. Deprez,, C. Liesnard,, F. Moonens,, J. Van de Stadt,, M. Gelin,, and M. Adler. 1993. Listeria monocytogenes hepatitis in a liver transplant recipient: a case report and review of the literature. J. Hepatol. 18:284289.
7. Braun, T. I.,, D. Travis,, R. R. Dee,, and R. E. Nieman. 1993. Liver abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:267269.
8. Bronnimann, S.,, H. U. Baer,, R. Malinverni,, and M. W. Buchler. 1998. Listeria monocytogenes causing solitary liver abscess: case report and review of the literature. Dig. Surg. 15:364368.
9. Buchanan, R. L.,, and R. C. Whiting. 1998. Risk assessment: a means for linking HACCP plans and public health. J. Food Prot. 61:15311534.
10. Bula, C. J.,, J. Bille,, and M. P. Glauser. 1995. An epidemic of food-borne listeriosis in western Switzerland: description of 57 cases involving adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:6672.
11. Carrique-Mas, J. J.,, I. Hokeberg,, Y. Andersson,, M. Arneborn,, W. Tham,, M. L. Danielsson-Tham,, B. Osterman,, M. Leffler,, M. Steen,, E. Eriksson,, G. Hedin,, and J. Giesecke. 2003. Febrile gastroenteritis after eating on-farm manufactured fresh cheese—an outbreak of listeriosis? Epidemiol. Infect. 130:7986.
12.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001. Outbreak of listeriosis associated with homemade Mexicanstyle cheese—-North Carolina, October 2000-January 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50:560562.
13.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Public health dispatch: outbreak of listeriosis—northeastern United States, 2002. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:950951.
14.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—selected sites, United States, 2003. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 53:338343.
15. Dalton, C. B.,, C. C. Austin,, J. Sobel,, P. S. Hayes,, W. F. Bibb,, L. M. Graves,, B. Swaminathan,, M. E. Proctor,, and P. M. Griffin. 1997. An outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever due to Listeria monocytogenes in milk. N. Engl. J. Med. 336:100105.
16. Dawson, K. G.,, J. C. Emerson,, and J. L. Burns. 1999. Fifteen years of experience with bacterial meningitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 18:816822.
17. deValk, H.,, V. Vaillant,, C. Jacquet,, J. Rocourt,, F. Le Querrec,, F. Stainer,, N. Quelquejeu,, O. Pierre,, V. Pierre,, J.-C. Desenclos,, and V. Goulet. 2001. Two consecutive nationwide outbreaks of listeriosis in France, October 1999-February 2000. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154:944950.
18. Donnelly, C. W. 2001. Listeria monocytogenes: a continuing challenge. Nutr. Rev. 59:183194.
19. Eckburg, P. B.,, J. G. Montoya,, and K. L. Vosti. 2001. Brain abscess due to Listeria monocytogenes: five cases and a review of the literature. Medicine 80:223235.
20. Evans, J. R.,, A. C. Allen,, D. A. Stinson,, R. Bortolussi,, and L. J. Peddle. 1985. Perinatal listeriosis: report of an outbreak. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 4:237241.
21. Ewert, D. P.,, L. Lieb,, P. S. Hayes,, M. W. Reeves,, and L. Mascola. 1995. Listeria monocytogenes infection and serotype distribution among HIV-infected persons in Los Angeles County, 1985-1992. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 8:461465.
22. Fernandez Guerrero, M. L.,, P. Rivas,, R. Rabago,, A. Nunez,, M. deGorgolas,, and J. Martinell. 2004. Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Listeria monocytogenes. Report of two cases and reviews. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 8:97102.
23. Fleming, D. W.,, S. L. Cochi,, K. L. MacDonald,, J. Brondum,, P. S. Hayes,, B. D. Plikaytis,, M. B. Holmes,, A. Auduria,, C. V. Broome,, and A. L. Reingold. 1985. Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listerosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 312:404407.
24. Frye, D. M.,, R. Zweig,, J. Sturgeon,, M. Tormey,, M. LeCavalier,, I. Lee,, L. Lawani,, and L. Mascola. 2002. An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with delicatessen meat contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:943949.
25. Gautoar, A. R.,, L. A. Cone,, D. R. Woodard,, R. J. Mahler,, R. D. Lynch,, and D. H. Stoltzman. 1992. Arterial infections due to Listeria monocytogenes: report of four cases and review of world literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:2328.
26. Gill, D. A. 1937. Ovine bacterial encephalitis (circling disease) and the bacterial genus Listerella. Aust. Vet. J. 13:4656.
27. Goulet, V.,, and P. Marchetti. 1996. Listeriosis in 225 nonpregnant patients in 1992. Clinical aspects and outcome in relationship to predisposing conditions. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 28:367374.
28. Goulet, V.,, H. de Valk,, O. Pierre,, F. Stainer,, J. Rocourt,, V. Vaillant,, C. Jacquet,, and J.-C. Desenclos. 2001. Effect of prevention measures on incidence of human listeriosis, France, 1987-1997. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:983989.
29. Graves, L. M.,, B. Swaminathan,, G. W. Ajello,, G. D. Malcolm,, R. E. Weaver,, R. Ransom,, K. Dever,, B. D. Plikaytis,, A. Schuchat,, J. D. Wenger,, R. W. Pinner,, C. V. Broome, and the Listeria Study Group. 1992. Comparison of three selective enrichment methods for the isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated foods. J. Food Prot. 55:952959.
30. Grif, K.,, I. Hein,, M. Wagner,, E. Brandl,, O. Mpamugo,, J. McLauchlin,, M. P. Dierich,, and F. Allerberger. 2001. Prevalence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of healthy Austrians. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 113:737742.
31. Grif, K.,, G. Patscheider,, M. P. Dierich,, and F. Allerberger. 2003. Incidence of fecal carriage of Listeria monocytogenes in three healthy volunteers: a one-year prospective stool survey. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infec. Dis. 22:1620.
32. Hof, H.,, T. Nichterlein,, and M. Kretschmar. 1997. Management of listeriosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:345357.
33. Jayaraj, K.,, A. M. Di Bisceglie,, and S. Gibson. 1998. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by infection with Listeria monocytogenes: case report and review of the literature. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 93:15561558.
34. Jurado, R. L.,, M. M. Farley,, E. Pereira,, R. C. Harvey,, A. Schuchat,, J. D. Wenger,, and D. S. Stephens. 1993. Increased risk of meningitis and bacteremia due to Listeria monocytogenes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:224227.
35. Kampelmacher, E. H.,, and L. M. Van Noorle Jansen. 1969. Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from feces of clinically healthy humans and animals. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 211:353359.
36. Kessler, S. L.,, and A. S. Dajani. 1990. Listeria meningitis in infants and children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 9:6163.
37. Khan, K. M.,, W. Pao,, and J. Kendler. 2001. Epidural abscess and vertebral osteomyelitis caused byListeria monocytogenes: case report and literature review. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 33:714716.
38. Lammerding, A. M.,, K. A. Glass,, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick,, and M. P. Doyle. 1992. Determination of virulence of different stains of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua by oral inoculation of pregnant mice. Appl. Bacteriol. Microbiol. 58:39914000.
39. Linnan, M. J.,, L. Mascola,, X. D. Lou,, V. Goulet,, S. May,, G. Salminen,, D. W. Hird,, M. L. Yonekura,, P. Hayes,, R. Weaver,, A. Audurier,, B. D. Plikaytis,, S. L. Fannin,, A. Kleks,, and C. V. Broome. 1988. Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. N. Engl. J. Med. 319:823828.
40. Lorber, B. 1991. Listeriosis following shigellosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:865866.
41. Lorber, B. 1997. Listeriosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:19.
42. Louthrenoo, W.,, and H. R. Schumacher, Jr. 1990. Listeria monocytogenes osteomyelitis complicating leukemia: report and literature review of Listeria osteoarticular infections. J. Rheumatol. 17:107110.
43. Low, J. C.,, and C. P. Renton. 1985. Septicemia, encephalitis and abortions in a housed flock of sheep caused by Listeria monocytogenes type 1/2. Vet. Rec. 114:147150.
44. Lyytikainen, O.,, T. Autio,, R. Maijala,, P. Ruutu,, T. Honkanen-Buzalski,, M. Miettinen,, M. Hatakka,, J. Mikkola,, V.-J. Antilla,, T. Johansson,, L. Rantala,, T. Aalto,, H. Korkeala,, and A. Siitonen. 2000. An outbreak of invasive Listeria monocytogenes serotype 3a infections from butter in Finland. J. Infect. Dis. 181:18381841.
45. MacGowan, A.,, M. Wooton,, K. Bowker,, H. A. Holt,, and D. Reeves. 1998. Ampicillin-aminoglycoside interaction studies using Listeria monocytogenes. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 41:417418.
46. Marco, F.,, M. Almela,, J. Nolla-Salas,, P. Coll,, I. Gasser,, M. D. Ferrer,, M. de Simon, and the Collaborative Study Group of Listeriosis of Barcelona. 2000. In vitro activity of 22 antimicrobial agents against Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Barcelona, Spain. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 38:259261.
47. Majewski, M. C. 1992. Food safety: the HACCP approach to hazard control. Commun. Dis. Rep. CDR Rev. 9:R105R108.
48. Mascola, L.,, F. Sorvillo,, V. Goulet,, B. Hall,, R. Weaver,, and M. J. Linnan. 1992. Fecal carriage of Listeria monocytogenes—observations during a community-wide, common-source outbreak. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:557558.
49. McLauchlin, J.,, and J. C. Low. 1994. Primary cutaneous listeriosis in adults: an occupational disease in veterinarians and farmers. Vet. Rec. 135:615617.
50. McLauchlin, J.,, R. T. Mitchell,, W. J. Smerdon,, and K. Jewell. 2004. Listeria monocytogenes and listeriosis: a review of hazard characterization for use in microbiological risk assessment of foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 92:1533.
51. Merle-Melet, M.,, L. Dossou-Glete,, P. Maurer,, P. Meyer,, A. Lozniewski,, O. Kuntzburger,, M. Weber,, and A. Gerard. 1996. Is amoxicillin-cotrimoxasole the most appropriate antibiotic regimen for listeria meningoencephalitis? Review of 22 cases and the literature. J. Infect. 33:7985.
52. Murray, E. G. D.,, R. A. Webb,, and M. B. R. Swann. 1926. A disease of rabbits characterized by large mononuclear leucocytosis, caused by a hitherto undescribed bacillus: Bacterium monocytogenes. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 29:407439.
53. Mylonakis, E.,, M. Paliou,, E. L. Hohmann,, S. B. Calderwood,, and E. J. Wing. 2002. Listeriosis during pregnancy: a case series and review of 222 cases. Medicine 81:260269.
54. Mylonakis, E.,, E. L. Hohmann,, and S. B. Calderwood. 1998. Central nervous system infection with Listeria monocytogenes: 33 years’ experience at a general hospital and review of 776 episodes from the literature. Medicine 77:313336.
55. Panisello, P. J.,, R. Rooney,, P. C. Quantick,, and R. Stanwell-Smith. 2000. Application of foodborne disease outbreak data in the development and maintenance of HACCP systems. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 59:221234.
56. Pirie, J. H. H. 1927. A new disease of veld rodents, “Tiger River Disease.” Publ. S. Afr. Inst. Med. Res. 3:163186.
57. Potel, J. 1952. Zur granulomatosis infantiseptica. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. Hyg. 158:329331.
58. Reissbrodt, R. 2004. New chromogenic plating media for detection and enumeration of pathogenic Listeria spp.—an overview. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 15:19.
59. Riedo, F. X.,, R. W. Pinner,, M. L. Tosca,, M. L. Cartter,, M. L. Graves,, N. W. Reeves,, R. E. Weaver,, B. D. Plikaytis,, and C. V. Broome. 1994. A point-source food borne listeriosis outbreak: documented incubation period and possible mild illness. J. Infect Dis. 170:693696.
60. Rivero, G. A.,, H. A. Torres,, K. V. I. Rolston,, and D. P. Kontoyiannis. 2003. Listeria monocytogenes infection in patients with cancer. Diag. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 47:393398.
61. Rocourt, J.,, A. Hogue,, H. Toyofuku,, C. Jacquet,, and J. Schlundt. 2001. Listeria and listeriosis: risk assessment as a new tool to unravel a multifaceted problem. Am. J. Infect. Control 29:225227.
62. Safdar, A.,, and D. Armstrong. 2003. Antimicrobial activities against 84 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from patients with systemic listeriosis at a comprehensive cancer center (1955-1997). J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:483485.
63. Salamina, G.,, E. Dalle Donne,, A. Niccolini,, G. Poda,, D. Cesaroni,, M. Brici,, M. Maldini,, R. Fini,, A. Schuchat,, B. Swaminathan,, W. Bibb,, J. Rocourt,, N. Binkin,, and S. Salmaso. 1996. A foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Listeria monocytogenes. Epidemiol. Infect. 117:429436.
64. Schlech, W. F., III. 1993. An animal model of foodborne Listeria monocytogenes virulence: effect of alterations in local and systemic immunity on invasive infection. Clin. Investig. Med. 16:219225.
65. Schlech, W. F., III,, P. M. Lavigne,, R. A. Bortolussi,, A. C. Allen,, E. V. Haldane,, A. J. Wort,, A. W. Hightower,, S. E. Johnson,, S. H. King,, E. S. Nicholls,, and C. V. Broome. 1983. Epidemic listeriosis—evidence for transmission by food. N. Engl. J. Med. 308:203206.
66. Schuchat, A.,, K. A. Deaver,, J. D. Wenger,, B. D. Plikaytis,, L. Mascola,, R. W. Pinner,, A. L. Reingold,, C. V. Broome, and the Listeriosis Study Group. 1992. Role of foods in sporadic listeriosis. I. Case-control study of dietary risk factors. JAMA 267:20412045.
67. Schuchat, A.,, A. C. Lizano,, C. V. Broome,, B. Swaminathan,, C. Kim,, and K. Winn. 1991. Outbreak of neonatal listeriosis associated with mineral oil. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 10:183189.
68. Schwartz, B.,, C. V. Broome,, G. R. Brown,, A. W. Hightower,, C. A. Ciesielski,, S. Gaventa,, B. G. Gellin,, L. Mascola, and the Listeriosis Study Group. 1988. Association of sporadic listeriosis with consumption of uncooked hotdogs and undercooked chicken. Lancet ii:779782.
69. Schwartz, B.,, D. Hexter,, C. V. Broome,, A. W. Hightower,, R. V. Hirschhorn,, J. D. Porter,, P. S. Hayes,, W. F. Bibb,, B. Lorber,, and D. G. Faris. 1989. Investigation of an outbreak of listeriosis; new hypothesis for the etiology of epidemic Listeria monocytogenes infections. J. Infect. Dis. 159:680685.
70. Shuin, D. T.,, and S. B. Galsworthy. 1982. Stimulation of monocyte production by an endogenous mediator induced by a component from Listeria monocytogenes. Immunology 46:343351.
71. Sim, J.,, D. Hood,, L. Finnie,, M. Wilson,, C. Graham,, M. Brett,, and J. A. Hudson. 2002. Series of incidents of Listeria monocytogenes non-invasive febrile gastroenteritis involving ready-to-eat meats. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 35:409413.
72. Sivalingam, J. J.,, P. Martin,, H. S. Fraimow,, J. C. Yarze,, and L. S. Friedman. 1992. Listeria monocytogenes peritonitis: case report and literature review. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87:18391845.
73. Skogberg, K. J.,, J. Syrjanen,, M. Jahkola,, O. V. Reinkonen,, J. Paavonen,, J. Ahonen,, S. Kontiainen,, P. Ruutu,, and V. Valtonen. 1992. Clinical presentation and outcome of listeriosis in patients with and without immunosuppressive therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:815821.
74. Spyrou, N.,, M. Anderson,, and R. Foale. 1997. Listeria endocarditis: current management and patient outcome—world literature review. Heart 4:380383.
75. Sridama, V.,, F. Pacni,, S.-L. Wang,, A. Moawad,, M. Reilly,, and L. J. Degroot. 1982. Decreased levels of helper T cells: a possible cause of immunodeficiency in pregnancy. N. Engl. J. Med. 307:352356.
76. Tappero, J. W.,, A. Schuchat,, K. A. Deaver,, L. Mascola,, and J. D. Wenger for the Listeriosis Study Group. 1995. Reduction in the incidence of human listeriosis in the United States: effectiveness of prevention efforts? JAMA 273:11181122.
77. Temple, M. E.,, and M. C. Nahata. 2000. Treatment of listeriosis. Ann. Pharmacother. 34:656661.
78. Thompson, P.,, P. A. Salisbury,, C. Adams,, and D. L. Archer. 1990. U.S. food legislation. Lancet 336:15571559.
79. Vargas, V.,, C. Aleman,, I. de Torres,, L. Castells,, J. Gavalda,, C. Margarit,, R. Esteban,, and J. Guardia. 1998. Listeria monocytogenes-associated acute hepatitis in a liver transplant recipient. Liver 18:213215.
80. Wald, A.,, D. H. Vanthiel,, L. Hoechstetter,, J. S. Gavaler,, K. M. Egler,, R. Verm,, L. Scott,, and R. Lester. 1982. Effect of pregnancy on gastrointestinal transit. Dig. Dis. Sci. 27:10151018.
81. Welshimer, H. J.,, and J. Donker-Voet. 1971. Listeria monocytogenes in nature. Appl. Microbiol. 21:516519.


Generic image for table

Some foods implicated in published reports of food-borne listeriosis

Citation: Schlech, III W. 2006. Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, p 601-608. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch49
Generic image for table

Major clinical syndromes associated with

Citation: Schlech, III W. 2006. Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Listeria monocytogenes Infection, p 601-608. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch49

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error