1887

Chapter 54 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap54-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816513/9781555813437_Chap54-2.gif

Abstract:

Prior to the extraordinary interest in generated by the recent bioterrorism events in the United States, much of microbiologists' awareness of the bacterium resulted from its historical significance. can infect all mammals, some birds, and possibly even reptiles. Systemic anthrax, generally resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores, has a high fatality rate. is a facultative anaerobe and grows in most rich undefined media with a doubling time of approximately 30 min. Experimental studies of anthrax toxin are summarized in this chapter. The majority of animal models for anthrax have been used to assess pathophysiological effects of purified toxin and to test efficacy of vaccines against anthrax. When is grown under appropriate conditions, the outermost surface of vegetative cells is covered by a capsule. As is true for numerous pathogens, the capsule is an important virulence factor. Toxin and capsule synthesis by represents an intriguing example of coordinate expression of virulence genes in response to host-related cues. Major advances in understanding of structure and function of the "classic" virulence factors of , the anthrax toxin proteins and the poly-D-glutamic capsule, combined with new information regarding the anthrax toxin receptors are fueling new strategies for anthrax therapeutics and improved human vaccines. Molecular genetic analyses involving multiple strains will continue to facilitate epidemiological studies and development of advanced methods for detection and identification.

Citation: Koehler T. 2006. , p 659-671. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch54

Key Concept Ranking

Live Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines
0.4608811
0.4608811
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

( Ribbon diagrams representing structures of the anthrax toxin proteins. (A) Monomeric PA. Ia (blue), 20-kDa fragment removed with cleavage; Ib (yellow), forms N terminus of PA and contains two structural calcium ions (red); II (green), pore formation; III (magenta), oligomerization of PA; IV (turquoise), receptor binding. (B) LF. Substrate-binding and catalytic domains (green) and PA-binding domain (magenta). (C) EF in complex with calmodulin. Catalytic core (green); PA-binding domain (magenta); helical domain (yellow) interacts with calmodulin (red). (Courtesy of W.-J. Tang.)

Citation: Koehler T. 2006. , p 659-671. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch54
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Model of anthrax toxin action. PA binds to receptors TEM8 or CMG2. Following proteolytic cleavage of PA by furin, PA oligomerizes to form a heptameric prepore. EF-LF binds to the prepore, and the complex is endocytosed. Acidification of the intracellular compartment triggers translocation of EF and LF to the cytosol. EF, a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase, converts ATP to cAMP. LF, a zinc-dependent protease, cleaves members of the MEK family and may also affect other targets. (Reprinted from Moayeri and Leppla [ ].)

Citation: Koehler T. 2006. , p 659-671. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch54
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Model depicting virulence gene regulation.

Citation: Koehler T. 2006. , p 659-671. In Fischetti V, Novick R, Ferretti J, Portnoy D, Rood J (ed), Gram-Positive Pathogens, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816513.ch54
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816513.chap54
1. Abrami, L.,, S. Liu,, P. Cosson,, S. H. Leppla,, and F. G. van der Goot. 2003. Anthrax toxin triggers endocytosis of its receptor via a lipid raft-mediated clathrin-dependent process. J. Cell Biol. 160: 321 328.
2. Bartkus, J. M.,, and S. H. Leppla. 1989. Transcriptional regulation of the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 57: 2295 2300.
3. Battisti, L.,, B. D. Green,, and C. B. Thorne. 1985. Mating system for transfer of plasmids among Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Bacteriol. 162: 543 550.
4. Beauregard, K. E.,, R. J. Collier,, and J. A. Swanson. 2000. Proteolytic activation of receptor-bound anthrax protective antigen on macrophages promotes its internalization. Cell. Microbiol. 2: 251 258.
5. Bourgogne, A.,, M. Drysdale,, S. G. Hilsenbeck,, S. N. Peterson,, and T. M. Koehler. 2003. Global effects of virulence gene regulators in a Bacillus anthracis strain with both virulence plasmids. Infect. Immun. 71: 2736 2743.
6. Bradley, K. A.,, J. Mogridge,, M. Mourez,, R. J. Collier,, and J. A. Young. 2001. Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin. Nature 414: 225 229.
7. Brook, I.,, T. B. Elliott,, R. A. Harding,, S. S. Bouhaouala,, S. J. Peacock,, G. D. Ledney,, and G. B. Knudson. 2001. Susceptibility of irradiated mice to Bacillus anthracis sterne by the intratracheal route of infection. J. Med. Microbiol. 50: 702 711.
8. Brossier, F.,, M. Levy,, and M. Mock. 2002. Anthrax spores make an essential contribution to vaccine efficacy. Infect. Immun. 70: 661 664.
9. Brossier, F.,, M. Weber-Levy,, M. Mock,, and J. C. Sirard. 2000. Role of toxin functional domains in anthrax pathogenesis. Infect. Immun. 68: 1781 1786.
10. Brown, D. P.,, L. Ganova-Raeva,, B. D. Green,, S. R. Wilkinson,, M. Young,, and P. Youngman. 1994. Characterization of spo0A homologues in diverse Bacillus and Clostridium species identifies a probable DNA-binding domain. Mol. Microbiol. 14: 411 426.
11. Cataldi, A.,, A. Fouet,, and M. Mock. 1992. Regulation of pag gene expression in Bacillus anthracis: use of a pag-lacZ transcriptional fusion. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 98: 89 94.
12. Charlton, S.,, A. J. Moir,, L. Baillie,, and A. Moir. 1999. Characterization of the exosporium of Bacillus cereus. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87: 241 245.
13. Chen, Y.,, F. C. Tenover,, and T. M. Koehler. 2004. β-Lactamase gene expression in a penicillin-resistant Bacillus anthracis strain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 4873 4877.
14. Collier, R. J.,, and J. A. Young. 2003. Anthrax toxin. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 19: 45 70.
15. Couture-Tosi, E.,, H. Delacroix,, T. Mignot,, S. Mesnage,, M. Chami,, A. Fouet,, and G. Mosser. 2002. Structural analysis and evidence for dynamic emergence of Bacillus anthracis S-layer networks. J. Bacteriol. 184: 6448 6456.
16. Dai, Z.,, and T. M. Koehler. 1997. Regulation of anthrax toxin activator gene ( atxA) expression in Bacillus anthracis: Temperature, not CO 2/bicarbonate, affects AtxA synthesis. Infect. Immun. 65: 2576 2582.
17. Dai, Z.,, J.-C. Sirard,, M. Mock,, and T. M. Koehler. 1995. The atxA gene product activates transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and is essential for virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 16: 1171 1181.
18. Daubenspeck, J. M.,, H. Zeng,, P. Chen,, S. Dong,, C. T. Steichen,, N. R. Krishna,, D. G. Pritchard,, and C. L. Turnbough, Jr. 2004. Novel oligosaccharide side chains of the collagen-like region of BclA, the major glycoprotein of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 30945 30953.
19. Drum, C. L.,, S. Z. Yan,, J. Bard,, Y. Q. Shen,, D. Lu,, S. Soelaiman,, Z. Grabarek,, A. Bohm,, and W. J. Tang. 2002. Structural basis for the activation of anthrax adenylyl cyclase exotoxin by calmodulin. Nature 415: 396 402.
20. Drysdale, M.,, A. Bourgogne,, S. G. Hilsenbeck,, and T. M. Koehler. 2004. atxA controls Bacillus anthracis capsule synthesis via acpA and a newly discovered regulator, acpB. J. Bacteriol. 186: 307 315.
21. Drysdale, M.,, S. Heninger,, J. Hutt,, Y. Chen,, C. R. Lyons,, and T. M. Koehler. 2005. Capsule synthesis by Bacillus anthracis is required for dissemination in murine inhalation anthrax. EMBO J. 24: 221 227.
22. Duesbery, N. S.,, C. P. Webb,, S. H. Leppla,, V. M. Gordon,, K. R. Klimpel,, T. D. Copeland,, N. G. Ahn,, M. K. Oskarsson,, K. Fukasawa,, K. D. Paull,, and G. F. Vande Woude. 1998. Proteolytic inactivation of MAP-kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor. Science 280: 734 737.
23. Erwin, J. L.,, L. M. DaSilva,, S. Bavari,, S. F. Little,, A. M. Friedlander,, and T. C. Chanh. 2001. Macrophage-derived cell lines do not express proinflammatory cytokines after exposure to Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Infect. Immun. 69: 1175 1177.
24. Etienne-Toumelin, I.,, J. C. Sirard,, E. Duflot,, M. Mock,, and A. Fouet. 1995. Characterization of the Bacillus anthracis S-layer: cloning and sequencing of the structural gene. J. Bacteriol. 177: 614 620.
25. Ezzell, J. W., Jr., and T. G. Abshire. 1988. Immunological analysis of cell-associated antigens of Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 56: 349 356.
26. Farchaus, J. W.,, W. J. Ribot,, M. B. Downs,, and J. W. Ezzell. 1995. Purification and characterization of the major surface array protein from the avirulent Bacillus anthracis Delta Sterne-1. J. Bacteriol. 177: 2481 2489.
27. Fouet, A.,, and S. Mesnage. 2002. Bacillus anthracis cell envelope components. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 271: 87 113.
28. Fouet, A.,, O. Namy,, and G. Lambert. 2000. Characterization of the operon encoding the alternative σ B factor from Bacillus anthracis and its role in virulence. J. Bacteriol. 182: 5036 5045.
29. Friedlander, A. M. 1986. Macrophages are sensitive to anthrax lethal toxin through an acid-dependent process. J. Biol. Chem. 261: 7123 7126.
30. Friedlander, A. M.,, R. Bhatnagar,, S. H. Leppla,, L. Johnson,, and Y. Singh. 1993. Characterization of macrophage sensitivity and resistance to anthrax lethal toxin. Infect. Immun. 61: 245 252.
31. Fritz, D. L.,, N. K. Jaax,, W. B. Lawrence,, K. J. Davis,, M. L. Pitt,, J. W. Ezzell,, and A. M. Friedlander. 1995. Pathology of experimental inhalation anthrax in the rhesus monkey. Lab. Investig. 73: 691 702.
32. Galloway, D. R.,, and L. Baillie. 2004. DNA vaccines against anthrax. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 4: 1661 1667.
33. Gordon, V. M.,, K. R. Klimpel,, N. Arora,, M. A. Henderson,, and S. H. Leppla. 1995. Proteolytic activation of bacterial toxins by eukaryotic cells is performed by furin and by additional cellular proteases. Infect. Immun. 63: 82 87.
34. Green, B. D.,, L. Battisti,, T. M. Koehler,, and C. B. Thorne. 1985. Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 49: 291 297.
35. Guidi-Rontani, C.,, M. Levy,, H. Ohayon,, and M. Mock. 2001. Fate of germinated Bacillus anthracis spores in primary murine macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 42: 931 938.
36. Guidi-Rontani, C.,, M. Weber-Levy,, E. Labruyere,, and M. Mock. 1999. Germination of Bacillus anthracis spores within alveolar macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 9 17.
37. Guignot, J.,, M. Mock,, and A. Fouet. 1997. AtxA activates the transcription of genes harbored by both Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmids. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 147: 203 207.
38. Hachisuka, Y.,, K. Kojima,, and T. Sato. 1966. Fine filaments on the outside of the exosporium of Bacillus anthracis spores. J. Bacteriol. 91: 2382 2384.
39. Hachisuka, Y.,, S. Kozuka,, and M. Tsujikawa. 1984. Exosporia and appendages of spores of Bacillus species. Microbiol. Immunol. 28: 619 624.
40. Hambleton, P.,, and P. C. Turnbull. 1990. Anthrax vaccine development: a continuing story. Adv. Biotechnol. Processes 13: 105 122.
41. Hanna, P. 1998. Anthrax pathogenesis and host response. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 225: 13 35.
42. Hanna, P. C.,, D. Acosta,, and R. J. Collier. 1993. On the role of macrophages in anthrax. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 10198 10201.
43. Hill, K. K.,, L. O. Ticknor,, R. T. Okinaka,, M. Asay,, H. Blair,, K. A. Bliss,, M. Laker,, P. E. Pardington,, A. P. Richardson,, M. Tonks,, D. J. Beecher,, J. D. Kemp,, A. B. Kolsto,, A. C. Wong,, P. Keim,, and P. J. Jackson. 2004. Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 1068 1080.
44. Hoffmaster, A. R.,, and T. M. Koehler. 1997. The anthrax toxin activator gene atxA is associated with CO 2-enhanced non-toxin gene expression in Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 65: 3091 3099.
45. Hoffmaster, A. R.,, and T. M. Koehler. 1999. Autogenous regulation of the Bacillus anthracis pag operon. J. Bacteriol. 181: 4485 4492.
46. Hoffmaster, A. R.,, J. Ravel,, D. A. Rasko,, G. D. Chapman,, M. D. Chute,, C. K. Marston,, B. K. De,, C. T. Sacchi,, C. Fitzgerald,, L. W. Mayer,, M. C. Maiden,, F. G. Priest,, M. Barker,, L. Jiang,, R. Z. Cer,, J. Rilstone,, S. N. Peterson,, R. S. Weyant,, D. R. Galloway,, T. D. Read,, T. Popovic,, and C. M. Fraser. 2004. Identification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 8449 8454.
47. Hugh-Jones, M. E.,, and V. de Vos. 2002. Anthrax and wildlife. Rev. Sci. Tech. 21: 359 383.
48. Ireland, J.,, and P. Hanna. 2002. Amino acid- and purine ribonucleoside-induced germination of Bacillus anthracis ΔSterne endospores: gerS mediates responses to aromatic ring structures. J. Bacteriol. 184: 1296 1303.
49. Ivanova, N.,, A. Sorokin,, I. Anderson,, N. Galleron,, B. Candelon,, V. Kapatral,, A. Bhattacharyya,, G. Reznik,, N. Mikhailova,, A. Lapidus,, L. Chu,, M. Mazur,, E. Goltsman,, N. Larsen,, M. D’Souza,, T. Walunas,, Y. Grechkin,, G. Pusch,, R. Haselkorn,, M. Fonstein,, S. D. Ehrlich,, R. Overbeek,, and N. Kyrpides. 2003. Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis. Nature 423: 87 91.
50. Ivins, B. E.,, S. L. Welkos,, G. B. Knudson,, and D. J. Leblanc. 1988. Transposon Tn916 mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 56: 176 181.
51. Ivins, B. E.,, S. L. Welkos,, G. B. Knudson,, and S. F. Little. 1990. Immunization against anthrax with aromatic compound-dependent (Aro -) mutants of Bacillus anthracis and with recombinant strains of Bacillus subtilis that produce anthrax protective antigen. Infect. Immun. 58: 303 308.
52. Ivins, B. E.,, S. L. Welkos,, S. F. Little,, M. H. Crumrine,, and G. O. Nelson. 1992. Immunization against anthrax with Bacillus anthracis protective antigen combined with adjuvants. Infect. Immun. 60: 662 668.
53. Jernigan, D. B.,, P. L. Raghunathan,, B. P. Bell,, R. Brechner,, E. A. Bresnitz,, J. C. Butler,, M. Cetron,, M. Cohen,, T. Doyle,, M. Fischer,, C. Greene,, K. S. Griffith,, J. Guarner,, J. L. Hadler,, J. A. Hayslett,, R. Meyer,, L. R. Petersen,, M. Phillips,, R. Pinner,, T. Popovic,, C. P. Quinn,, J. Reefhuis,, D. Reissman,, N. Rosenstein,, A. Schuchat,, W. J. Shieh,, L. Siegal,, D. L. Swerdlow,, F. C. Tenover,, M. Traeger,, J. W. Ward,, I. Weisfuse,, S. Wiersma,, K. Yeskey,, S. Zaki,, D. A. Ashford,, B. A. Perkins,, S. Ostroff,, J. Hughes,, D. Fleming,, J. P. Koplan,, and J. L. Gerberding. 2002. Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1019 1028.
54. Keim, P.,, and K. L. Smith. 2002. Bacillus anthracis evolution and epidemiology. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 271: 21 32.
55. Kim, S. O.,, Q. Jing,, K. Hoebe,, B. Beutler,, N. S. Duesbery,, and J. Han. 2003. Sensitizing anthrax lethal toxinresistant macrophages to lethal toxin-induced killing by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 7413 7421.
56. Koehler, T. M.,, Z. Dai,, and M. Kaufman-Yarbray. 1994. Regulation of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene: CO2 and a trans-acting element activate transcription from one of two promoters. J. Bacteriol. 176: 586 595.
57. Kozel, T. R.,, W. J. Murphy,, S. Brandt,, B. R. Blazar,, J. A. Lovchik,, P. Thorkildson,, A. Percival,, and C. R. Lyons. 2004. mAbs to Bacillus anthracis capsular antigen for immunoprotection in anthrax and detection of antigenemia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 5042 5047.
58. Kramer, M. J.,, and I. L. Roth. 1968. Ultrastructural differences in the exosporium of the Sterne and Vollum strains of Bacillus anthracis. Can. J. Microbiol. 14: 1297 1299.
59. Lai, E. M.,, N. D. Phadke,, M. T. Kachman,, R. Giorno,, S. Vazquez,, J. A. Vazquez,, J. R. Maddock,, and A. Driks. 2003. Proteomic analysis of the spore coats of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 185: 1443 1454.
60. Lentner, C. 1981 Geigy Scientific Tables: Units of Measurement, Body Fluids, Composition of the Body, Nutrition, vol. 1 Ciba Geigy, Basel, Switzerland.
61. Leppla, S. H., 1995. Anthrax toxins, p. 543 572. In J. Moss,, B. Iglewski,, M. Vaughan,, and A. T. Tu (ed.), Bacterial Toxins and Virulence Factors in Disease. Marcel Dekker, New York, N.Y..
62. Little, S. F.,, and G. B. Knudson. 1986. Comparative efficacy of Bacillus anthracis live spore vaccine and protective antigen vaccine against anthrax in the guinea pig. Infect. Immun. 52: 509 512.
63. Liu, H.,, N. H. Bergman,, B. Thomason,, S. Shallom,, A. Hazen,, J. Crossno,, D. A. Rasko,, J. Ravel,, T. D. Read,, S. N. Peterson,, J. Yates III,, and P. C. Hanna. 2004. Formation and composition of the Bacillus anthracis endospore. J. Bacteriol. 186: 164 178.
64. Lyons, C. R.,, J. Lovchik,, J. Hutt,, M. F. Lipscomb,, E. Wang,, S. Heninger,, L. Berliba,, and K. Garrison. 2004. Murine model of pulmonary anthrax: kinetics of dissemination, histopathology, and mouse strain susceptibility. Infect. Immun. 72: 4801 4809.
65. Makino, S.,, C. Sasakawa,, I. Uchida,, N. Terakado,, and M. Yoshikawa. 1988. Cloning and CO 2-dependent expression of the genetic region for encapsulation from Bacillus anthracis. Mol. Microbiol. 2: 371 376.
66. Makino, S.,, M. Watarai,, H. I. Cheun,, T. Shirahata,, and I. Uchida. 2002. Effect of the lower molecular capsule released from the cell surface of Bacillus anthracis on the pathogenesis of anthrax. J. Infect. Dis. 186: 227 233.
67. Makino, S.-I.,, I. Uchida,, N. Terakado,, C. Sasakawa,, and M. Yoshikawa. 1989. Molecular characterization and protein analysis of the cap region, which is essential for encapsulation in Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 171: 722 730.
68. Marrero, R.,, and S. L. Welkos. 1995. The transformation frequency of plasmids into Bacillus anthracis is affected by adenine methylation. Gene 152: 75 78.
69. Mesnage, S.,, E. Tosi-Couture,, P. Gounon,, M. Mock,, and A. Fouet. 1998. The capsule and S-layer: two independent and yet compatible macromolecular structures in Bacillus anthracis. J. Bacteriol. 180: 52 58.
70. Mesnage, S.,, E. Tosi-Couture,, M. Mock,, P. Gounon,, and A. Fouet. 1997. Molecular characterization of the Bacillus anthracis main S-layer component: evidence that it is the major cell-associated antigen. Mol. Microbiol. 23: 1147 1155.
71. Mignot, T.,, S. Mesnage,, E. Couture-Tosi,, M. Mock,, and A. Fouet. 2002. Developmental switch of S-layer protein synthesis in Bacillus anthracis. Mol. Microbiol. 43: 1615 1627.
72. Mignot, T.,, M. Mock,, and A. Fouet. 2003. A plasmid-encoded regulator couples the synthesis of toxins and surface structures in Bacillus anthracis. Mol. Microbiol. 47: 917 927.
73. Milne, J. C.,, D. Furlong,, P. C. Hanna,, J. S. Wall,, and R. J. Collier. 1994. Anthrax protective antigen forms oligomers during intoxication of mammalian cells. J. Biol. Chem. 269: 20607 20612.
74. Moayeri, M.,, D. Haines,, H. A. Young,, and S. H. Leppla. 2003. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF-alpha-independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice. J. Clin. Investig. 112: 670 682.
75. Moayeri, M.,, and S. H. Leppla. 2004. The roles of anthrax toxin in pathogenesis. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 7: 19 24.
76. Mogridge, J.,, K. Cunningham,, and R. J. Collier. 2002. Stoichiometry of anthrax toxin complexes. Biochemistry 41: 1079 1082.
77. Mourez, M.,, D. B. Lacy,, K. Cunningham,, R. Legmann,, B. R. Sellman,, J. Mogridge,, and R. J. Collier. 2002. 2001: a year of major advances in anthrax toxin research. Trends Microbiol. 10: 287 293.
78. Okinaka, R. T.,, K. Cloud,, O. Hampton,, A. Hoffmaster,, K. K. Hill,, P. Keim,, T. M. Koehler,, G. Lamke,, S. Kumano,, J. Mahillon,, D. Manter,, Y. Martinez,, D. Ricke,, R. Svensson,, and P. J. Jackson. 1999. The sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. J. Bacteriol. 181: 6509 6515.
79. Ooi, Y. M.,, and H. R. Colten. 1979. Genetic defect in secretion of complement C5 in mice. Nature 282: 207 208.
80. Pannifer, A. D.,, T. Y. Wong,, R. Schwarzenbacher,, M. Renatus,, C. Petosa,, J. Bienkowska,, D. B. Lacy,, R. J. Collier,, S. Park,, S. H. Leppla,, P. Hanna,, and R. C. Liddington. 2001. Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor. Nature 414: 229 233.
81. Park, J. M.,, F. R. Greten,, Z. W. Li,, and M. Karin. 2002. Macrophage apoptosis by anthrax lethal factor through p38 MAP kinase inhibition. Science 297: 2048 2051.
82. Pellizzari, R.,, C. Guidi-Rontani,, G. Vitale,, M. Mock,, and C. Montecucco. 2000. Lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis cleaves the N-terminus of MAPKKs: analysis of the intracellular consequences in macrophages. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 290: 421 427.
83. Petosa, C.,, R. J. Collier,, K. R. Klimpel,, S. H. Leppla,, and R. C. Liddington. 1997. Crystal structure of the anthrax toxin protective antigen. Nature 385: 833 838.
84. Pezard, C.,, P. Berche,, and M. Mock. 1991. Contribution of individual toxin components to virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 59: 3472 3477.
85. Pezard, C.,, M. Weber,, J. C. Sirard,, P. Berche,, and M. Mock. 1995. Protective immunity induced by Bacillus anthracis toxin-deficient strains. Infect. Immun. 63: 1369 1372.
86. Phipps, A. J.,, C. Premanandan,, R. E. Barnewall,, and M. D. Lairmore. 2004. Rabbit and nonhuman primate models of toxin-targeting human anthrax vaccines. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68: 617 629.
87. Pitt, M. L.,, S. F. Little,, B. E. Ivins,, P. Fellows,, J. Barth,, J. Hewetson,, P. Gibbs,, M. Dertzbaugh,, and A. M. Friedlander. 2001. In vitro correlate of immunity in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Vaccine 19: 4768 4773.
88. Priest, F. G.,, M. Barker,, L. W. Baillie,, E. C. Holmes,, and M. C. Maiden. 2004. Population structure and evolution of the Bacillus cereus group. J. Bacteriol. 186: 7959 7970.
89. Rasko, D. A.,, J. Ravel,, O. A. Okstad,, E. Helgason,, R. Z. Cer,, L. Jiang,, K. A. Shores,, D. E. Fouts,, N. J. Tourasse,, S. V. Angiuoli,, J. Kolonay,, W. C. Nelson,, A. B. Kolsto,, C. M. Fraser,, and T. D. Read. 2004. The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1. Nucleic Acids Res. 32: 977 988.
90. Read, T. D.,, S. N. Peterson,, N. Tourasse,, L. W. Baillie,, I. T. Paulsen,, K. E. Nelson,, H. Tettelin,, D. E. Fouts,, J. A. Eisen,, S. R. Gill,, E. K. Holtzapple,, O. A. Okstad,, E. Helgason,, J. Rilstone,, M. Wu,, J. F. Kolonay,, M. J. Beanan,, R. J. Dodson,, L. M. Brinkac,, M. Gwinn,, R. T. DeBoy,, R. Madpu,, S. C. Daugherty,, A. S. Durkin,, D. H. Haft,, W. C. Nelson,, J. D. Peterson,, M. Pop,, H. M. Khouri,, D. Radune,, J. L. Benton,, Y. Mahamoud,, L. Jiang,, I. R. Hance,, J. F. Weidman,, K. J. Berry,, R. D. Plaut,, A. M. Wolf,, K. L. Watkins,, W. C. Nierman,, A. Hazen,, R. Cline,, C. Redmond,, J. E. Thwaite,, O. White,, S. L. Salzberg,, B. Thomason,, A. M. Friedlander,, T. M. Koehler,, P. C. Hanna,, A. B. Kolsto,, and C. M. Fraser. 2003. The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. Nature 423: 81 86.
91. Rhie, G. E.,, M. H. Roehrl,, M. Mourez,, R. J. Collier,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and J. Y. Wang. 2003. A dually active anthrax vaccine that confers protection against both bacilli and toxins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 10925 10930.
92. Ross, J. M. 1957. Pathogenesis of anthrax following administration of spores by the respiratory route. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 73: 485 494.
93. Ruthel, G.,, W. J. Ribot,, S. Bavari,, and T. A. Hoover. 2004. Time-lapse confocal imaging of development of Bacillus anthracis in macrophages. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 1313 1316.
94. Saile, E.,, and T. M. Koehler. 2002. Control of anthrax toxin gene expression by the transition state regulator abrB. J. Bacteriol. 184: 370 380.
95. Salles, I. I.,, A. E. Tucker,, D. E. Voth,, and J. D. Ballard. 2003. Toxin-induced resistance in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 12426 12431.
96. Schneerson, R.,, J. Kubler-Kielb,, T. Y. Liu,, Z. D. Dai,, S. H. Leppla,, A. Yergey,, P. Backlund,, J. Shiloach,, F. Majadly,, and J. B. Robbins. 2003. Poly(γ-D-glutamic acid) protein conjugates induce IgG antibodies in mice to the capsule of Bacillus anthracis: a potential addition to the anthrax vaccine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 8945 8950.
97. Scobie, H. M.,, G. J. Rainey,, K. A. Bradley,, and J. A. Young. 2003. Human capillary morphogenesis protein 2 functions as an anthrax toxin receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 5170 5174.
98. Shafa, F.,, B. J. Moberly,, and P. Gerhardt. 1966. Cytological features of anthrax spores phagocytized in vitro by rabbit alveolar macrophages. J. Infect. Dis. 116: 401 413.
99. Sirard, J.-C.,, M. Mock,, and A. Fouet. 1995. Molecular tools for the study of transcriptional regulation in Bacillus anthracis. Res. Microbiol. 146: 729 737.
100. Sirard, J.-C.,, M. Mock,, and A. Fouet. 1994. The three Bacillus anthracis toxin genes are coordinately regulated by bicarbonate and temperature. J. Bacteriol. 176: 5188 5192.
101. Smith, H. 2000. Discovery of the anthrax toxin: the beginning of in vivo studies on pathogenic bacteria. Trends Microbiol. 8: 199 200.
102. Steichen, C.,, P. Chen,, J. F. Kearney,, and C. L. Turnbough, Jr. 2003. Identification of the immunodominant protein and other proteins of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium. J. Bacteriol. 185: 1903 1910.
103. Sterne, M. 1939. The use of anthrax vaccines prepared from avirulent (uncapsulated) variants of Bacillus anthracis. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Sci. Anim. Ind. 13: 307 312.
104. Sylvestre, P.,, E. Couture-Tosi,, and M. Mock. 2002. A collagen-like surface glycoprotein is a structural component of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium. Mol. Microbiol. 45: 169 178.
105. Sylvestre, P.,, E. Couture-Tosi,, and M. Mock. 2003. Polymorphism in the collagen-like region of the Bacillus anthracis BclA protein leads to variation in exosporium filament length. J. Bacteriol. 185: 1555 1563.
106. Thorne, C. B., 1993. Bacillus anthracis, p. 113 124. In A. L. Sonenshein,, J. A. Hoch,, and R. Losick (ed.), Bacillus subtilis and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Genetics. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
107. Thorne, C. B., 1985. Genetics of Bacillus anthracis, p. 56 62. In L. Leive (ed.), Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
108. Tinsley, E.,, A. Naqvi,, A. Bourgogne,, T. M. Koehler,, and S. A. Khan. 2004. Isolation of a minireplicon of the virulence plasmid pXO2 of Bacillus anthracis and characterization of the plasmid-encoded RepS replication protein. J. Bacteriol. 186: 2717 2723.
109. Todd, S. J.,, A. J. Moir,, M. J. Johnson,, and A. Moir. 2003. Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis encoding proteins of the exosporium. J. Bacteriol. 185: 3373 3378.
110. Turnbull, P. C. 1991. Anthrax vaccines: past, present and future. Vaccine 9: 533 539.
111. Turnbull, P. C. 1991. Bacillus, p. 233 245. In S. Baron (ed.), Medical Microbiology, 4th ed. The University Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Tex..
112. Turnbull, P. C.,, R. A. Hutson,, M. J. Ward,, M. N. Jones,, C. P. Quinn,, N. J. Finnie,, C. J. Duggleby,, J. M. Kramer,, and J. Melling. 1992. Bacillus anthracis but not always anthrax. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 72: 21 28.
113. Turnbull, P. C. B. (ed.). 1996. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax, vol. 87, special supplement. Salisbury Medical Society, Salisbury, United Kingdom.
114. Uchida, I.,, J. M. Hornung,, C. B. Thorne,, K. R. Klimpel,, and S. H. Leppla. 1993. Cloning and characterization of a gene whose product is a trans-activator of anthracis toxin synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 175: 5329 5338.
115. Uchida, I.,, S. Makino,, C. Sasakawa,, M. Yoshikawa,, C. Sugimoto,, and N. Terakado. 1993. Identification of a novel gene, dep, associated with depolymerization of the capsular polymer in Bacillus anthracis. Mol. Microbiol. 9: 487 496.
116. Vietri, N. J.,, R. Marrero,, T. A. Hoover,, and S. L. Welkos. 1995. Identification and characterization of a trans-activator involved in the regulation of encapsulation by Bacillus anthracis. Gene 152: 1 9.
117. Vitale, G.,, R. Pellizzari,, C. Recchi,, G. Napolitani,, M. Mock,, and C. Montecucco. 1998. Anthrax lethal factor cleaves the N-terminus of MAPKKs and induces tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of MAPKs in cultured macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 248: 706 711.
118. Wang, T. T.,, P. F. Fellows,, T. J. Leighton,, and A. H. Lucas. 2004. Induction of opsonic antibodies to the gamma-D-glutamic acid capsule of Bacillus anthracis by immunization with a synthetic peptide-carrier protein conjugate. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 40: 231 237.
119. Watters, J. W.,, K. Dewar,, J. Lehoczky,, V. Boyartchuk,, and W. F. Dietrich. 2001. Kif1C, a kinesin-like motor protein, mediates mouse macrophage resistance to anthrax lethal factor. Curr. Biol. 11: 1503 1511.
120. Watters, J. W.,, and W. F. Dietrich. 2001. Genetic, physical, and transcript map of the Ltxs1 region of mouse chromosome 11. Genomics 73: 223 231.
121. Welkos, S. L.,, T. J. Keener,, and P. H. Gibbs. 1986. Differences in susceptibility of inbred mice to Bacillus anthracis. Infect. Immun. 51: 795 800.
122. Wesche, J.,, J. L. Elliott,, P. O. Falnes,, S. Olsnes,, and R. J. Collier. 1998. Characterization of membrane translocation by anthrax protective antigen. Biochemistry 37: 15737 15746.
123. Whiting, G. C.,, S. Rijpkema,, T. Adams,, and M. J. Corbel. 2004. Characterisation of adsorbed anthrax vaccine by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Vaccine 22: 4245 4251.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error