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Chapter 14 : Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella

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Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The gram-negative enteric pathogens are a closely related group of bacteria. On the basis of genome analyses, and can be considered a single species, and their classification as separate genera is largely historical. The species are evolutionarily more distant but share many characteristics with the group. The enteric pathogens usually initiate infection following ingestion, causing diseases ranging from relatively mild enteritis to dysentery and septicemia. The extent of invasion and the nature of the disease depend on the specific set of virulence factors expressed by these pathogens. This chapter discusses the pathogenic members of the enteric bacteria. Many of the iron transport systems originally described in K-12 are found also in the enteric pathogens. The chapter first talks about siderophore-mediated iron transport systems and nonsiderophore iron transport systems. Next, it summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to the role of iron transport systems in the pathogenesis of , , and . Pathogenic strains are associated with a variety of different diseases and cause both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. While the precise roles of each iron transport system in transmission, colonization, survival, and spread of enteric pathogens in the host cannot be unambiguously defined, several features of iron transport in the enteric pathogens are clear.

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(A) Organization of the enterobactin locus in , , and . Genes in this cluster are represented by thick arrows. The arrows indicate the direction of transcription and are shaded according to function. The small hatched boxes with right-angle arrows show the location and direction of the Fur binding sequences (not to scale). (B) FepA and EntA amino acid homologies between K-12 and selected , , and isolates. The numbers indicate percent identity (percent similarity) to the corresponding K-12 protein.

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) Structure of the catechol siderophore salmochelin. The molecule containing three DHBS moieties is shown, but two subunits linked by a single glucose also occur. (B) Organization of the locus for salmochelin production and transport. The thick arrows indicate the direction of transcription and are shaded according to their roles in biosynthesis or transport. The small hatched boxes with right-angle arrows show the location and direction of the Fur binding sequences (not to scale).

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(A) Organization of the aerobactin locus in the enteric pathogens. The thick arrows indicate the direction of transcription of each of the open reading frames. The shading of the arrows reflects the function of these genes in aerobactin synthesis or uptake. The small hatched box with a right-angle arrow shows the location and direction of the Fur binding sequence (not to scale). (B) Comparison of the location of the aerobactin locus in selected isolates and species. The black boxes represent sequences also found in the K- 12 genome. These sequences are the likely sites of insertion of the aerobactin island in each strain. The dotted lines delineate DNA of various lengths between the aerobactin locus and the ends of the island. The thick arrows indicate the direction of transcription of the aerobactin genes and are shaded according to the degree of homology of each gene product to the equivalent pColV-encoded protein.

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Organization of the heme transport locus. The thick arrows show the direction of transcription of the genes. The shading of the arrows reflects what is known about the role of each gene in heme uptake. The hatched boxes with right-angle arrows show the location and direction of the Fur binding sequences (not to scale).

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

(A) Organization of the operon for ferrous iron and manganese uptake. The thick arrows show the direction of transcription of the four genes. The small boxes with right-angle arrows show the location and direction of the Fur and MntR binding sites (not to scale). (B) Homology of Sit proteins from selected , , and isolates to the serovar Typhimurium Sit system. The and CFT073 genes are essentially identical at the nucleotide level; however, an apparent frameshift mutation in the CFT073 gene creates a divergent carboxy terminus in CFT073 SitA.

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14
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References

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1. Baumler, A. J.,, R. M. Tsolis,, A. W. vanderVelden,, I. Stojiljkovic,, S. Anic,, and F. Heffron. 1996. Identification of a new iron regulated locus of Salmonella typhi. Gene 183:207213.
2. Boyer, E.,, I. Bergevin,, D. Malo,, P. Gros,, and M. F. Cellier. 2002. Acquisition of Mn(II) in addition to Fe(II) is required for full virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 70: 60326042.
3. Clermont, O.,, S. Bonacorsi,, and E. Bingen. 2001. The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island is highly predominant in virulence-associated phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 196: 153157.
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5. Der Vartanian, M.,, B. Jaffeux,, M. Contrepois,, M. Chavarot,, J. P. Girardeau,, Y. Bertin,, and C. Martin. 1992. Role of aerobactin in systemic spread of an opportunistic strain of Escherichia coli from the intestinal tract of gnotobiotic lambs. Infect. Immun. 60:28002807.
6. Dozois, C. M.,, F. Daigle,, and R. Curtiss III. 2003. Identification of pathogen-specific and conserved genes expressed in vivo by an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 247252.
7. Goetz, D. H.,, M. A. Holmes,, N. Borregaard,, M. E. Bluhm,, K. N. Raymond,, and R. K. Strong. 2002. The neutrophil lipocalin NGAL is a bacteriostatic agent that interferes with siderophore-mediated iron acquisition. Mol. Cell 10:10331043.
8. Hantke, K. 1997. Ferrous iron uptake by a magnesium transport system is toxic for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 179: 62016204.
9. Hantke, K.,, G. Nicholson,, W. Rabsch,, and G. Winkelmann. 2003. Salmochelins, siderophores of Salmonella enterica and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, are recognized by the outer membrane receptor IroN. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 36773682.
10. Kingsley, R.,, W. Rabsch,, P. Stephens,, M. Roberts,, R. Reissbrodt,, and P. H. Williams. 1995. Iron supplying systems of Salmonella in diagnostics, epidemiology and infection. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 11:257264.
11. Lam-Yuk-Tseung, S.,, and P. Gros. 2003. Genetic control of susceptibility to bacterial infections in mouse models. Cell. Microbiol. 5:299313.
12. Luck, S. N.,, S. A. Turner,, K. Rajakumar,, H. Sakellaris,, and B. Adler. 2001. Ferric dicitrate transport system (Fec) of Shigella flexneri 2a YSH6000 is encoded on a novel pathogenicity island carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Infect. Immun. 69:60126021.
13. Reissbrodt, R.,, R. Kingsley,, W. Rabsch,, W. Beer,, M. Roberts,, and P. H. Williams. 1997. Iron-regulated excretion of α-keto acids by Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 179:45384544.
14. Runyen-Janecky, L. J.,, S. A. Reeves,, E. G. Gonzales,, and S. M. Payne. 2003. Contribution of the Shigella flexneri Sit, Iuc, and Feo iron acquisition systems to iron acquisition in vitro and in cultured cells. Infect. Immun. 71:19191928.
15. Torres, A. G.,, P. Redford,, R. A. Welch,, and S. M. Payne. 2001. TonB-dependent systems of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: aerobactin and heme transport and TonB are required for virulence in the mouse. Infect. Immun. 69:61796185.
16. Tsolis, R. M.,, A. J. Baumler,, F. Heffron,, and I. Stojiljkovic. 1996. Contribution of TonB- and Feo-mediated iron uptake to growth of Salmonella typhimurium in the mouse. Infect. Immun. 64: 45494556.
17. Vokes, S. A.,, S. A. Reeves,, A. G. Torres,, and S. M. Payne. 1999. The aerobactin iron transport genes in Shigella flexneri are present within a pathogenicity island. Mol. Microbiol. 33:6373.
18. Williams, P. H. 1979. Novel iron uptake system specified by ColV plasmids: an important component in the virulence of invasive strains of Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 26:925932.
19. Wyckoff, E. E.,, D. Duncan,, A. G. Torres,, M. Mills,, K. Maase,, and S. M. Payne. 1998. Structure of the Shigella dysenteriae haem transport locus and its phylogenetic distribution in enteric bacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 28:11391152.
20. Zhou, D.,, W.-D. Hardt,, and J. E. Galan. 1999. Salmonella typhimurium encodes a putative iron transport system within the centrisome 63 pathogenicity island. Infect. Immun. 67:19741981.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

The gram-negative enteric pathogens and the diseases they cause

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Iron acquisition systems in the enteric pathogens

Citation: Payne S, Mey A. 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella, p 199-218. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch14

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