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Chapter 25 : , , and

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the existing knowledge of the molecular basis for iron transport in the genera , , and . Staphylococci can be divided into two major groups: coagulase positive and coagulase negative. While coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), notably , have come into prominence due to their opportunistic ability to colonize foreign medical devices, by far the most extensively studied staphylococcal species is coagulase-positive , owing to it being both a frequent and a highly versatile pathogen. The relative amounts of siderophore produced among various species and strains of seem to vary remarkably and depends largely on culture conditions. The nomenclature of the genes is based on their homology to ferric hydroxamate transport proteins in and . For the most part, investigations into the ability of streptococci to transport iron have been limited to and . is the causative agent of anthrax and has come into prominence recently due to its use as a biological weapon. The iron-restricted growth of , a human pathogen, is inhibited by transferrin and lactoferrin but enhanced by hemoglobin, heme, and heme-albumin complexes. It is clear that molecular studies of iron transport systems in gram-positive bacteria, especially members of the genera , , and , are in their infancy.

Citation: Heinrichs D, Rahn A, Dale S, Sebulsky M. 2004. , , and , p 387-401. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch25

Key Concept Ranking

Integral Membrane Proteins
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Staphylococcus aureus
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Gram-Positive Cocci
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Chemical structures of the staphylococcal siderophores staphyloferrin A (left) and staphyloferrin B (right).

Citation: Heinrichs D, Rahn A, Dale S, Sebulsky M. 2004. , , and , p 387-401. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Physical map of the genes and the siderophore biosynthetic locus () present in the genome. Expression of each of the operons is iron regulated and controlled by the activity of the Fur protein. Shown below the open reading frames are the predicted functions of the encoded proteins

Citation: Heinrichs D, Rahn A, Dale S, Sebulsky M. 2004. , , and , p 387-401. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Physical map of the region in the genome. Also shown are alternate designations given to the genes based on publications that appeared in the literature almost simultaneously. Expression of each of the three transcripts within the locus is iron regulated as a result of Fur binding sites present within the promoter regions.

Citation: Heinrichs D, Rahn A, Dale S, Sebulsky M. 2004. , , and , p 387-401. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Chemical structures of the siderophores schizokinen (left) and bacillibactin (right).

Citation: Heinrichs D, Rahn A, Dale S, Sebulsky M. 2004. , , and , p 387-401. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Physical map of the operon in , and the biosynthetic pathway of bacillibactin.

Citation: Heinrichs D, Rahn A, Dale S, Sebulsky M. 2004. , , and , p 387-401. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch25
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Known and putative genes involved in iron uptake in , and

Citation: Heinrichs D, Rahn A, Dale S, Sebulsky M. 2004. , , and , p 387-401. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch25

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