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Chapter 28 : Ecology of Siderophores

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Ecology of Siderophores, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter attempts to illustrate the occurrence of siderophores within different bacterial genera and explains the relationship between environmental factors and the biological function of siderophores, which may be summarized under the term "ecology of siderophores". The ecology of siderophores may be considered in the context of an ecological niche defined by low iron availability and by the expression of high-affinity siderophore-mediated iron transport systems by the organisms that occupy this niche. The chapter focuses on selected aerobic, chemoorganotrophic bacterial groups, which represent only a part of the currently known bacteria. Streptomycetes are known to utilize polymeric carbohydrates such as starch, chitin, and cellulose, which are abundant in the upper layers of soils. Although plants are generally not able to use fungal and bacterial siderophores as iron sources, there are reports showing optimal utilization by mono- and dicotyledonous plants of some fungal mono- and dihydroxamates, which originate from partial degradation of fungal trihydroxamate siderophores. Many bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tracts of vertebrate hosts produce siderophores, although the question whether ferric siderophore transport is required in the gut still remains. The currently known bacterial siderophores and their producing organisms are listed in the chapter. An example of an absolute requirement for hydroxamate siderophores is the soil bacterium JG9 (previously classified as or ), which is often used as a bioassay organism. It is an interesting fact that enzymes for siderophore biosynthesis are found among bacteria as well fungi.

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28

Key Concept Ranking

Major Facilitator Superfamily
0.49771646
Outer Membrane Proteins
0.43174857
0.49771646
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Siderophore production in humic soil. Streptomycetes and fungi are the predominant microorganisms in the upper layer of humic soil, producing desferrioxamines and desferrichromes, respectively, under iron limitation. Siderophores solubilize iron bound to humic matter and subsequently support the growth of the producing strains as well as other soil microorganisms.

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Proposed model for the production and degradation of desferrioxamines by and on the root surface. Species of both microorganisms have been isolated from the root surface of grasses, wheat, and barley.

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Major hydroxamate siderophores produced by bacteria and fungi originating from oxygenated ornithine.

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Tree of bacterial catecholate siderophores grouped according to characteristic structural elements. The precursor 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine (the number of DHB residues per molecule is shown in parentheses) is amidically linked to amino acids or polyamines, resulting in linear or cyclic catecholate siderophores. In cases where salicylic acid is involved, the phenolate residue is indicated by (P).

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Citrate-containing siderophores comprising polycarboxylates and citrate-hydroxamates. While Fe is coordinated exclusively by carboxy and α-hydroxycarboxy ligands in polycarboxylates, the citrate-hydroxamates have a mixed coordination dominated by the hydroxamate donor groups.

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Major routes of bacterial and fungal siderophore uptake in the fungus . Ferric citrate is taken up via the reduction route (Fre, Ftr1, and Fet3), while ferrioxamines may enter the cells either via reduction or, like all other siderophores, via specific (Sit1p) membrane transporters of the MFS. M, cytoplasmic membrane; Fre 1–7p, membrane reductases; Ftr1p, high-affinity Fe/Fetransporter; Fet3p, multicopper oxidase; Si1p, Arn1p, Taflp, Enb1 (also called Arn1–4p), MSF transporters exhibiting specificity for different siderophores of the hydroxamate and catecholate classes.

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28
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References

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1. Bister, B.,, D. Bischoff,, G. J. Nicholson,, M. Valdebenito,, K. Schneider,, G. Winkelmann,, K. Hantke,, and R. D. Süssmuth. 2004. The structure of salmochelins: C-glucosylated enterobactins of Salmonella enterica. BioMetals 17:471481.
2. Boukhalfa, H.,, and A. L. Crumbliss. 2002. Chemical aspects of siderophore mediated iron transport. BioMetals 15:325339.
3. Carrano, C. J.,, M. Jordan,, H. Drechsel,, D. G. Schmid,, and G. Winkelmann. 2001. Heterobactins: a new class of siderophores from Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 containing both hydroxamate and catecholate donor groups. BioMetals 14:119125.
4. Crosa, J. H.,, and C. T. Walsh. 2002. Genetics and assembly line enzymology of siderophore biosynthesis in bacteria. Microbiol.Mol.Biol. Rev. 66:223249.
5. Drechsel, H.,, and G. Winkelmann,. 1997. Iron chelation and siderophores, p. 149. In G. Winkelmann, and C. J. Carrano (ed.), Transition Metals in Microbial Metabolism. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
6. Hantke, K.,, G. Nicholson,, W. Rabsch,, and G. Winkelmann. 2003. Salmochelins, siderophores of Salmonella enterica and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, are recognized by the outer membrane receptor IroN. Proc.Natl. Acad.Sci.USA 100:36773682.
7. Leong, S. A.,, and G. Winkelmann,. 1998. Molecular biology of iron transport in fungi, p. 147186. In A. Sigel, and H. Sigel (ed.), Metal Ions in Biological Systems, vol. 35. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y.
8. Martinez, J. S.,, J. N. Carter-Franklin,, E. L., Mann,, J. D. Martin,, M. G. Haygood,, and A. Butler. 2003. Structure and membrane affinity of a suite of amphiphilic siderophores produced by a marine bacterium. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 100:37543759.
9. Meyer, J.-M. 2000. Pyoverdines: pigments, siderophores and potential taxonomic markers of fluores cent Pseudomonas species. Arch.Microbiol. 174:135142.
10. Ratledge, C.,, and L. G. Dover. 2000. Iron metabolism in pathogenic bacteria. Annu.Rev.Microbiol. 54:881941.
11. Raymond, K. N.,, E. A. Dertz,, and S. S. Kim. 2003. Enterobactin: an archetype for microbial iron transport. Proc. Natl.Acad.Sci. USA 100:35843588.
12. Winkelmann, G. (ed.). 2001. Microbial Transport Systems. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
13. Winkelmann, G.,, and C. J. Carrano (ed.). 1997. Transition Metals in Microbial Metabolism. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Siderophores and producing organisms grouped according to their main ecological habitat

Citation: Winkelmann G. 2004. Ecology of Siderophores, p 437-450. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch28

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