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Chapter 3 : Hemophore-Dependent Heme Acquisition Systems

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Abstract:

This chapter describes hemophore secretion and its interaction with heme and hemoproteins, specific receptors, mechanisms of heme transfer from hemophore to receptor, TonB function at various steps in the heme acquisition process, and the regulation of the operon. HasA hemophores are secreted by ABC transporters. One of the four HasA hemophores identified, the HasA protein, has been biochemically characterized. The interaction between HasA and its receptor was first investigated by binding experiments with cells expressing HasR immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes. Second, the binding of HasA to whole cells expressing HasR in liquid media was determined. In a wider perspective, it would be interesting to investigate whether hemophore-like proteins exist in gram-positive bacteria and whether hemophores are species specific or are used by nonproducing bacteria, similarly to certain siderophores. Finally, many bacterial species have multiple heme acquisition systems, with only one of these being hemophore dependent. Hemophores enhance the efficiency of heme delivery to bacterial cells and enlarge the heme source range.

Citation: Debarbieux L, Wandersman C. 2004. Hemophore-Dependent Heme Acquisition Systems, p 38-50. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch3

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Outer Membrane Proteins
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Siderophore uptake in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Question marks indicate unelucidated steps. (Reprinted, with permission, from the [volume 58, 2004] by Annual Reviews [www.annualreviews.org].)

Citation: Debarbieux L, Wandersman C. 2004. Hemophore-Dependent Heme Acquisition Systems, p 38-50. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic comparison between hemophore and siderophore iron acquisition pathways. (Reprinted, with permission, from the [volume 58, 2004] by Annual Reviews [www.annualreviews.org].)

Citation: Debarbieux L, Wandersman C. 2004. Hemophore-Dependent Heme Acquisition Systems, p 38-50. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(A) HasA system of . (B) Comparison of the genetic organization of the operons of (), (), (), and (). (Reprinted, with permission, from the [volume 58, 2004] by Annual Reviews [www.annualreviews.org].)

Citation: Debarbieux L, Wandersman C. 2004. Hemophore-Dependent Heme Acquisition Systems, p 38-50. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Crystal structure of hemophore (holo-HasA). Reprinted from Arnoux et al. (1999) with permission from .

Citation: Debarbieux L, Wandersman C. 2004. Hemophore-Dependent Heme Acquisition Systems, p 38-50. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch3
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References

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