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Chapter 9 : Iron Uptake via the Enterobactin System

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Iron Uptake via the Enterobactin System, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Iron assimilation by means of the enterobactin (Ent) system of has served as a paradigm for siderophore-dependent iron uptake in prokaryotes. This chapter briefly reviews well-documented aspects of the Ent system and then concentrates on some remaining major questions concerning Ent-related iron transport. The Ent gene cluster contains six genes ( to ) required for Ent biosynthesis. Before biosynthesis of Ent can occur, the Ent-specific precursor dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) must be produced. Cells with mutations in grow in iron-poor media, but this is attributed to their excretion of Ent breakdown products (DBS monomers, dimers, and trimers), which can act as secondary siderophores. It is likely that our understanding of iron uptake by products of Ent cluster genes has been limited by focusing on Ent, the defining and strongest siderophore of this system; in its basic form, one molecule of Ent is responsible for the import of only one ferric ion. The chapter discusses the results of studies showing that Ent breakdown products as well as at least one Ent precursor (DHB) can serve as siderophores. Ferrienterobactin enters the cell via an unusually complex transport system. Details concerning the regulation of many individual Ent cluster genes are unclear; for instance, the significance of the precisely placed open reading frames (ORFs) upstream of , , and and the roles of the palindromic repetitive extragenic palindrome (REP) and box C sequences remain to be determined.

Citation: Earhart C. 2004. Iron Uptake via the Enterobactin System, p 133-146. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch9

Key Concept Ranking

Major Facilitator Superfamily
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Outer Membrane Proteins
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Integral Membrane Proteins
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Structures of diDHB, DHB, DBS, and Ent.

Citation: Earhart C. 2004. Iron Uptake via the Enterobactin System, p 133-146. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch9
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Enterobactin gene cluster (not to scale). Symbols: bent arrows, iron box with direction of transcription indicated; diagonally striped arrows, transport genes; solid arrows, biosynthetic genes; open arrow, gene for iron release; vertically striped arrow, gene for Ent excretion pump; cross-hatched arrow, gene determining the length of O-Ag. Modified from Earhart (1996).

Citation: Earhart C. 2004. Iron Uptake via the Enterobactin System, p 133-146. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch9
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Synthesis of Ent from DHB and Ser. diDHB, 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid; P-pant, 4′-phosphopantetheine.

Citation: Earhart C. 2004. Iron Uptake via the Enterobactin System, p 133-146. In Crosa J, Mey A, Payne S, Iron Transport in Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816544.ch9
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References

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