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Chapter 12 : Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production

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Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Practical routes of administration of phages are an important limitation for acceptance in food animal production since phages could be affected by components present at the site of administration. Under optimal laboratory conditions, most studied bacteriophages are stable as phage lysates for some time and their loss of infectivity is estimated at about 1% per day, which may differ in their natural environment. To meet the physiological challenges of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and optimal storage conditions, methods such as microencapsulation of phages with a protective agent that allows their direct addition to animal feed are discussed. A typical example of coacervation method is the microencapsulation of peptide or protein drugs in poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(DLlactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) microspheres. There are few reports on microencapsulation of phages. Bacteriophages have been encapsulated into PLG microspheres in an inhalation dosage form designed for the control of or for treatment of associated lung diseases. In this study a modified double-emulsion and solvent extraction protocol was used wherein the phages were added to the external aqueous phase to minimize the exposure of the phages at the solvent interface. In vitro simulation tests have demonstrated that appropriate encapsulation of phages may protect phages from inactivation by stomach acids and bile salts and release them under intestinal conditions.

Citation: Wang Q, Sabour P. 2010. Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, p 237-255. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch12

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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Images of wet (left) and dry (right) alginate microspheres containing phage Felix-O1.

Citation: Wang Q, Sabour P. 2010. Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, p 237-255. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Cross section of alginate microsphere containing phage K observed under transmission electron microscopy.

Citation: Wang Q, Sabour P. 2010. Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, p 237-255. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Survival of free and encapsulated phage K incubated in simulated gastric fluid at pH 2.5 and 37°C. Alg, alginate.

Citation: Wang Q, Sabour P. 2010. Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, p 237-255. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Phage release profiles from different microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid. Alg, alginate.

Citation: Wang Q, Sabour P. 2010. Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, p 237-255. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch12
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Examples of microencapsulated viruses for oral vaccine delivery

Citation: Wang Q, Sabour P. 2010. Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, p 237-255. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch12
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TABLE 2

Survival ofbacteriophage K after air drying with addition of different type and concentration of protective additives to the encapsulation matrix

Citation: Wang Q, Sabour P. 2010. Encapsulation and Controlled Release of Bacteriophages for Food Animal Production, p 237-255. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch12

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