1887

Chapter 15 : Industrial and Regulatory Issues in Bacteriophage Applications in Food Production and Processing

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Industrial and Regulatory Issues in Bacteriophage Applications in Food Production and Processing, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816629/9781555815028_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816629/9781555815028_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter’s main focus is on ‘‘direct food safety’’ applications for phages, i.e., using them to treat food processing facilities and directly adding them to foods prepared and packaged in them. Numerous factors may improve the speed with which phage-based preparations for improving food safety can be introduced into the marketplace and the degree to which they ultimately will be integrated into hazard analysis and critical control point programs by various food producers. Although phage-based preparations can, under certain conditions, be regulated as foodcontact substances, it is likely that most regulatory approvals for phage-based food safety products will be pursued as (i) direct food additives, (ii) "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS), (iii) dietary supplements, and/or (iv) processing aids. The specific regulations for those four categories are briefly reviewed in the chapter. Food additives are further subdivided into two broad categories: (i) direct food additives and (ii) indirect food additives. Among various applications of bacteriophages, those developed for animal and human therapeutic uses were fairly common, and several large pharmaceutical companies produced commercial phage products for various phage therapy applications. The chapter briefly reviews various types of phage-related patents. Although the focus of this chapter is on food applications of bacteriophages, patents for all applications of bacteriophages are discussed in the chapter because often the same patented bacteriophage may be used to improve both food safety and human health.

Citation: Sulakvelidze A, Pasternack G. 2010. Industrial and Regulatory Issues in Bacteriophage Applications in Food Production and Processing, p 297-326. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch15
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Patents containing the word “phage” or “bacteriophage” from 1920 to 2008. Patents containing the indicated search words were identified by Google Patent for the period 1920 to 1975, and by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office database and search engine for patents issued between 1976 and 2008 (http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-adv.htm). With each database, patents were searched year by year over the indicated overall time span.

Citation: Sulakvelidze A, Pasternack G. 2010. Industrial and Regulatory Issues in Bacteriophage Applications in Food Production and Processing, p 297-326. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816629.ch15
1. Abuladze, T.,, M. Li,, M. Y. Menetrez,, T. Dean,, A. Senecal and,, A. Sulakvelidze. 2008. Bacteriophages reduce experimental contamination of hard surfaces, tomato, spinach, broccoli, and ground beef by Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:62306238.
2. Adams, M. H. 1959. Bacteriophages, p. 365380. Interscience Publishers, New York, NY.
3. Al-Harran, S., and, P. Low. Mar./Apr. 2008. Marketing of halal products: the way forward. Halal J.
4. Alisky, J.,, K. Iczkowski,, A. Rapoport, and, N. Troitsky. 1998. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents. J. Infect. 36:515.
5. Anonymous. 2003. Quantitative Assessment of the Relative Risk to Public Health from Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among Selected Categories of Ready-to-Eat Foods. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD; Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ScienceResearch/ResearchAreas / RiskAssessmentSafetyAssessment / UCM197330.pdf.
6. Araujo, R. M.,, A. Puig,, J. Lasobras,, F. Lucena, and, J. Jofre. 1997. Phages of enteric bacteria in fresh water with different levels of faecal pollution. J. Appl. Microbiol. 82:281286.
7. Armon, R.,, R. Araujo,, Y. Kott,, F. Lucena, and, J. Jofre. 1997. Bacteriophages of enteric bacteria in drinking water: comparison of their distribution in two countries. J. Appl. Microbiol. 83:627633.
8. Armon, R., and, Y. Kott. 1993. A simple, rapid and sensitive presence/absence detection test for bacteriophage in drinking water. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 74: 490496.
9. Atterbury, R. J.,, P. L. Connerton,, C. E. Dodd,, C. E. Rees, and, I. F. Connerton. 2003. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter bacteriophages from retail poultry. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:45114518.
10. Berchieri, A.,, Jr.,, M. A. Lovell, and, P. A. Barrow. 1991. The activity in the chicken alimentary tract of bacteriophages lytic for Salmonella typhimurium. Res. Microbiol. 142:541549.
11. Bergh, O.,, K. Y. Borsheim,, G. Bratbak, and, M. Heldal. 1989. High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments. Nature 340:467468.
12. Bigwood, T.,, J. A. Hudson,, C. Billington,, G. V. Carey-Smith, and, J. A. Heinemann. 2008. Phage inactivation of foodborne pathogens on cooked and raw meat. Food Microbiol. 25:400406.
13. Bogovazova, G. G.,, N. N. Voroshilova, and, V. M. Bondarenko. 1991. The efficacy of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage in the therapy of experimental Klebsiella infection. Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. 1991:58.
14. Boyd, F. 2005. Bacteriophages and bacterial virulence, p. 223265. In E. Kutter and A. Sulakvelidze (ed.), Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
15. Brabban, A.,, T. Callaway,, G. Dutta,, M. Dyen,, T. Edrington,, E. Kutter,, R. Raya, and, P. Varey. 2003. Characterization of a new T-even bacteriophage with potential for reducing E. coli O157:H7 levels in livestock, abstr. M-019. Abstr. 103rd Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
16. Breitbart, M.,, I. Hewson,, B. Felts,, J. M. Mahaffy,, J. Nulton,, P. Salamon, and, F. Rohwer. 2003. Metagenomic analyses of an uncultured viral community from human feces. J. Bacteriol. 185: 62206223.
17. Brüssow, H.,, A. Bruttin,, F. Desiere,, S. Lucchini, and, S. Foley. 1998. Molecular ecology and evolution of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages—a review. Virus Genes 16:95109.
18. Brüssow, H.,, C. Canchaya, and, W. D. Hardt. 2004. Phages and the evolution ofbacterial pathogens: from genomic rearrangements to lysogenic conversion. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:560602.
19. Brüssow, H., and, R. W. Hendrix. 2002. Phage genomics: small is beautiful. Cell 108:1316.
20. Bruttin, A., and, H. Brüssow. 2005. Human volunteers receiving Escherichia coli phage T4 orally: a safety test of phage therapy. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:28742878.
21. Bull, J. J.,, B. R. Levin,, T. DeRouin,, N. Walker, and, C. A. Bloch. 2002. Dynamics of success and failure in phage and antibiotic therapy in experimental infections. BMC Microbiol. 2:35.
22. Calci, K. R.,, W. Burkhardt III,, W. D. Watkins, and, S. R. Rippey. 1998. Occurrence of male-specific bacteriophage in feral and domestic animal wastes, human feces, and human-associated waste-waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:50275029.
23. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 2009. Meat Hygiene Directive: Control Measures for Listeria in Ready-to-Eat (RTE) Meat Products, chapter 5, section 5.3.11 and annex I. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
24. Capparelli, R.,, M. Parlato,, G. Borriello,, P. Salvatore, and, D. Iannelli. 2007. Experimental phage therapy against Staphylococcus aureus in mice. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:27652773.
25. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2006. GRAS notice no. GRN 000198. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD.
26. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 2007. GRAS notice no. GRN 000218. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD.
27. Center for Veterinary Biologics. 2005. Center for Veterinary Biologics notice no. 05-07. Biologics for reduction of colonization and/or shedding of animals. Center for Veterinary Biologics, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA. http://www.aphis.usda.gov / animal_health / vet_biologics / publications/notice_05_07.pdf.
28. Chen, J., and, R. P. Novick. 2009. Phage-mediated intergeneric transfer of toxin genes. Science 323: 139141.
29. Civerolo, E. L. 1973. Relationship of Xanthomonas pruni bacteriophages to bacterial spot disease in Prunus. Phytopathology 63:12791284.
30. Civerolo, E. L., and, H. L. Keil. 1969. Inhibition of bacterial spot of peach foliage by Xanthomonas pruni bacteriophage. Phytopathology 59:19661967.
31. Davidson, P. M., and, M. A. Harrison. 2002. Resistance and adaptation to food antimicrobials, sanitizers, and other process controls. Food Technol. 56:6978.
32. Drake, J. W.,, B. Charlesworth,, D. Charlesworth, and, J. F. Crow. 1998. Rates of spontaneous mutation. Genetics 148:16671686.
33. Duckworth, D. H. 1976. “Who discovered bacteriophage?” Bacteriol. Rev. 40:793802.
34. Federal Register. 1997. Substances generally recognized as safe, proposed rule. Fed. Regist. 62:1893818964.
35. Flaherty, J. E.,, J. B. Jones,, B. K. Harbaugh,, G. C. Somodi, and, L. E. Jackson. 2000. Control of bacterial spot on tomato in the greenhouse and field with H-mutant bacteriophages. Hort-Science 35:882884.
36. Furuse, K.,, S. Osawa,, J. Kawashiro,, R. Tanaka,, A. Ozawa,, S. Sawamura,, Y. Yanagawa,, T. Nagao, and, I. Watanabe. 1983. Bacteriophage distribution in human faeces: continuous survey of healthy subjects and patients with internal and leukaemic diseases. J. Gen. Virol. 64:20392043.
37. Gautier, M.,, A. Rouault,, P. Sommer, and, R. Briandet. 1995. Occurrence of Propionibacterium freudenreichii bacteriophages in swiss cheese. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:25722576.
38. Gill, J. J.,, T. Hollyer, and, P. M. Sabour. 2007. Bacteriophages and phage-derived products as antibacterial therapeutics. Expert Opin. Ther. Pat. 17: 13411350.
39. Goode, D.,, V. M. Allen, and, P. A. Barrow. 2003. Reduction of experimental Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of chicken skin by application of lytic bacteriophages. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:50325036.
40. Goodridge, L. D. 2004. Bacteriophage biocontrol of plant pathogens: fact or fiction? Trends Biotechnol. 22:384385.
41. Grabow, W. O., and, P. Coubrough. 1986. Practical direct plaque assay for coliphages in 100-ml samples of drinking water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:430433.
42. Greer, G. G. 2005. Bacteriophage control of foodborne bacteria. J. Food Prot. 68:11021111.
43. Havelaar, A. H.,, K. Furuse, and, W. M. Hogeboom. 1986. Bacteriophages and indicator bacteria in human and animal faeces. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 60:255262.
44. Holt, M. E.,, M. R. Enright, and, T.J. Alexander. 1990. Immunisation of pigs with killed cultures of Streptococcus suis type 2. Res. Vet. Sci. 48:2327.
45. Hsu, F. C.,, Y. S. Shieh, and, M. D. Sobsey. 2002. Enteric bacteriophages as potential fecal indicators in ground beef and poultry meat. J. Food Prot. 65:9399.
46. Hurley, A.,, J. J. Maurer, and, M. D. Lee. 2008. Using bacteriophages to modulate Salmonella colonization of the chicken’s gastrointestinal tract: lessons learned from in silico and in vivo modeling. Avian Dis. 52:599607.
47. Jalava, K.,, F. O. Eko,, E. Riedmann, and, W. Lubitz. 2003. Bacterial ghosts as carrier and targeting systems for mucosal antigen delivery. Expert Rev. Vaccines 2:4551.
48. Jalava, K.,, A. Hensel,, M. Szostak,, S. Resch, and, W. Lubitz. 2002. Bacterial ghosts as vaccine candidates for veterinary applications. J. Control. Release 85:1725.
49. Jones, J. B.,, L. E. Jackson,, B. Balogh,, A. Obradovic,, F. B. Iriarte, and, M. T. Momol. 2007. Bacteriophages for plant disease control. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 45:245262.
50. Kennedy, J. E.,, Jr.,, J. L. Oblinger, and, G. Bitton. 1984. Recovery of coliphages from chicken, pork sasuage, and delicatessen meats. J. Food Prot. 47:623626.
51. Kennedy, J. E.,, Jr.,, C. I. Wei, and, J. L. Oblinger. 1986. Methodology for enumeration of coliphages in foods. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51:956962.
52. Krueger, A. P., and, E. J. Scribner. 1941. Bacteriophage therapy II. The bacteriophage: its nature and its therapeutic use. JAMA 19:21602277.
53. Kudva, I. T.,, S. Jelacic,, P. I. Tarr,, P. Youderian, and, C. J. Hovde. 1999. Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157 with O157-specific bacteriophages. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:37673773.
54. Lasobras, J.,, J. Dellunde,, J. Jofre, and, F. Lucena. 1999. Occurrence and levels of phages proposed as surrogate indicators of enteric viruses in different types of sludges. J. Appl. Microbiol. 86:723729.
55. Lauvau, G.,, S. Vijh,, P. Kong,, T. Horng,, K. Kerksiek,, N. Serbina,, R. A. Tuma, and, E. G. Pamer. 2001. Priming of memory but not effector CD8 T cells by a killed bacterial vaccine. Science 294:17351739.
56. Lenski, R. E. 1984. Coevolution of bacteria and phage: are there endless cycles of bacterial defenses and phage counterdefenses? J. Theor. Biol. 108: 319325.
57. Leverentz, B.,, W. S. Conway,, Z. Alavidze,, W.J. Janisiewicz,, Y. Fuchs,, M. J. Camp,, E. Chighladze, and, A. Sulakvelidze. 2001. Examination of bacteriophage as a biocontrol method for Salmonella on fresh-cut fruit: a model study. J. Food Prot. 64:11161121.
58. Leverentz, B.,, W. S. Conway,, M. J. Camp,, W. J. Janisiewicz,, T. Abuladze,, M. Yang,, R. Saftner, and, A. Sulakvelidze. 2003. Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut produce by treatment with lytic bacteriophages and a bacteriocin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69:45194526.
59. Leverentz, B.,, W. S. Conway,, W. Janisiewicz, and, M. J. Camp. 2004. Optimizing concentration and timing of a phage spray application to reduce Listeria monocytogenes on honeydew melon tissue. J. Food Prot. 67:16821686.
60. Lopez, V.,, H. D. Ochs,, H. C. Thuline,, S. D. Davis, and, R. J. Wedgwood. 1975. Defective antibody response to bacteriophage phichi 174 in Down syndrome. J. Pediatr. 86:207211.
61. Lucena, F.,, M. Muniesa,, A. Puig,, R. Araujo, and, J. Jofre. 1995. Simple concentration method for bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis in drinking water. J. Virol. Methods 54:121130.
62. Maciorowski, K. G.,, S. D. Pillai, and, S. C. Ricke. 2001. Presence of bacteriophages in animal feed as indicators of fecal contamination. J. Environ. Sci. Health B 36:699708.
63. Mathews, C. K. 1994. An overview of the T4 developmental program, p. 18. In J. D. Karam (ed.), Molecular Biology of Bacteriophage T4. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
64. Melamed, D.,, G. Leitner, and, E. D. Heller. 1991. A vaccine against avian colibacillosis based on ultrasonic inactivation of Escherichia coli. Avian Dis. 35:1722.
65. Merril, C. R.,, T. B. Friedman,, A. F. Attallah,, M. R. Geier,, K. Krell, and, R. Yarkin. 1972. Isolation of bacteriophages from commercial sera. In Vitro 8:9193.
66. Merril, C. R.,, D. Scholl, and, S. L. Adhya. 2003. The prospect for bacteriophage therapy in Western medicine. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2:489497.
67. Milch, H., and, F. Fornosi. 1975. Bacteriophage contamination in live poliovirus vaccine. J. Biol. Stand. 3:307310.
68. Miller, E. S.,, J. F. Heidelberg,, J. A., Eisen,, W. C. Nelson,, A. S. Durkin,, A. Ciecko,, T. V. Feldblyum,, O. White,, I. T. Paulsen,, W. C. Nierman,, J. Lee,, B. Szczypinski, and, C. M. Fraser. 2003. Complete genome sequence of the broad-host-range vibriophage KVP40: comparative genomics of a T4-related bacteriophage. J. Bacteriol. 185:52205233.
69. Milstien, J. B.,, J. R. Walker, and, J. C. Petricciani. 1977. Bacteriophages in live virus vaccines: lack of evidence for effects on the genome of rhesus monkeys. Science 197:469470.
70. Moody, E. E.,, M. D. Trousdale,, J. H. Jorgensen, and, A. Shelokov. 1975. Bacteriophages and endotoxin in licensed live-virus vaccines. J. Infect. Dis. 131:588591.
71. Moore, E. S. 1926. D’Herelle’s bacteriophage in relation to plant parasites. S. Afr. J. Sci. 23:306.
72. Niu, Y. D.,, T. A. McAllister,, Y. Xu,, R. P., Johnson,, T. P. Stephens, and, K. Stanford. 2009. Prevalence and impact of bacteriophages on the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle and their environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:12711278.
73. Ochs, H. D.,, R. H. Buckley,, R. H. Kobayashi,, A. L. Kobayashi,, R. U. Sorensen,, S. D. Douglas,, B. L. Hamilton, and, M. S. Hershfield. 1992. Antibody responses to bacteriophage ΦX174 in patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Blood 80:11631171.
74. Ochs, H. D.,, L. G. Lum,, F. L., Johnson,, G. Schiffman,, R. J. Wedgwood, and, R. Storb. 1982. Bone marrow transplantation in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Complete hematological and immunological reconstitution. Transplantation 34:284288.
75. Ochs, H. D.,, S. Nonoyama,, M. L. Farrington,, S. H. Fischer, and, A. Aruffo. 1993. The role of adhesion molecules in the regulation of antibody responses. Semin. Hematol. 30:7279.
76. Pedulla, M. L.,, M. E. Ford,, J. M. Houtz,, T. Karthikeyan,, C. Wadsworth,, J. A. Lewis,, D. Jacobs-Sera,, J. Falbo,, J. Gross,, N. R. Pannunzio,, W. Brucker,, V. Kumar,, J. Kandasamy,, L. Keenan,, S. Bardarov,, J. Kriakov,, J. G. Lawrence,, W. R. Jacobs,, Jr.,, R. W. Hendrix, and, G. F. Hatfull. 2003. Origins of highly mosaic mycobacteriophage genomes. Cell 113:171182.
77. Petricciani, J. C.,, F. C. Chu,, J. B. Johnson, and, H. M. Meyer,, Jr. 1973. Bacteriophages in live virus vaccines. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 144:789792.
78. Petricciani, J. C.,, T. C. Hsu,, A. D. Stock,, J. H. Turner,, S. L. Wenger, and, B. L. Elisberg. 1978. Bacteriophages, vaccines, and people: an assessment of risk. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 158:378382.
79. Puig, A.,, N. Queralt,, J. Jofre, and, R. Araujo. 1999. Diversity of Bacteroides fragilis strains in their capacity to recover phages from human and animal wastes and from fecally polluted wastewater. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:17721776.
80. Raya, R.,, T. Callaway,, T. Edrington,, M. Dyen,, R. Droleskey,, E. Kutter, and, A. Brabban. 2003. In vitro and in vivo studies using phages isolated from sheep to reduce population levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminants, abstr. P-021. Abstr. 103rd Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
81. Rohwer, F. 2003. Global phage diversity. Cell 113: 141.
82. Roy, B.,, H. W. Ackermann,, S. Pandian,, G. Picard, and, J. Goulet. 1993. Biological inactivation of adhering Listeria monocytogenes by listeria-phages and a quaternary ammonium compound. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:29142917.
83. Sharma, M.,, J. H. Ryu, and, L. R. Beuchat. 2005. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilm on stainless steel by treatment with an alkaline cleaner and a bacteriophage. J. Appl. Microbiol. 99:449459.
84. Smith, H. W., and, M. B. Huggins. 1983. Effectiveness of phages in treating experimental Escherichia coli diarrhoea in calves, piglets and lambs. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129:26592675.
85. Smith, H. W.,, M. B. Huggins, and, K. M. Shaw. 1987a. Factors influencing the survival and multiplication of bacteriophages in calves and in their environment. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133:11271135.
86. Smith, H. W.,, M. B. Huggins, and, K. M. Shaw. 1987b. The control of experimental Escherichia coli diarrhoea in calves by means of bacteriophages. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133:11111126.
87. Stone, R. 2002. Bacteriophage therapy. Stalin’s forgotten cure. Science 298:728731.
88. Sulakvelidze, A.,, Z. Alavidze, and, J. G. Morris,, Jr. 2001. Bacteriophage therapy. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:649659.
89. Sulakvelidze, A., and, P. Barrow. 2005. Phage therapy in animals and agribusiness, p. 335–380. In E. Kutter and, A. Sulakvelidze (ed.), Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
90. Sulakvelidze, A., and, E. Kutter. 2005. Bacteriophage therapy in humans, p. 381436. In E. Kutter and, A. Sulakvelidze (ed.), Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
91. Summers, W. C. 2001. Bacteriophage therapy. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55:437451.
92. Summers, W. C. 1999. Felix d’Herelle and the Origins of Molecular Biology. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
93. Summers, W. C. 1993. How bacteriophage came to be used by the Phage Group. J. Hist. Biol. 26:255267.
94. Szostak, M. P.,, A. Hensel,, F. O. Eko,, R. Klein,, T. Auer,, H. Mader,, A. Haslberger,, S. Bunka,, G. Wanner, and, W. Lubitz. 1996. Bacterial ghosts: non-living candidate vaccines. J. Biotechnol. 44:161170.
95. Thiel, K. 2004. Old dogma, new tricks—21st century phage therapy. Nat. Biotechnol. 22:3136.
96. Thomas, R. C. 1935. A bacteriophage in relation to Stewart’s disease of corn. Phytopathology 25:371372.
97. Thompson, P.,, P. A. Salsbury,, C. Adams, and, D. L. Archer. 1990. US food legislation. Lancet 336:15571559.
98. von Jagow, C., and, T. Teufer. 2007. Which path to go? Eur. Food Feed Law Rev. 3:136145.
99. Whitman, P. A., and, R. T. Marshall. 1971. Isolation of psychrophilic bacteriophage-host systems from refrigerated food products. Appl. Microbiol. 22:220223.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Companies involved with therapeutic phage research and commercialization for food safety applications

Citation: Sulakvelidze A, Pasternack G. 2010. Industrial and Regulatory Issues in Bacteriophage Applications in Food Production and Processing, p 297-326. In Sabour P, Griffiths M (ed), Bacteriophages in the Control of Food-and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816629.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error