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Chapter 9 : Chromatin Structure and Modification

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Abstract:

Histones and chromatin modifiers are quite conserved, but there is some variation, even among the fungi. This chapter discusses what is known about chromatin structure in the filamentous fungi. The information is compared to what is known for other eukaryotes and exciting areas for future research are highlighted. In budding yeast, transcription of the core histones is tightly regulated and is primarily restricted to the S phase of the cell cycle. Posttranslational modification of histone proteins by acetylation and methylation was first described in 1964. Acetylated histones supported higher rates of RNA synthesis than did unacetylated histones, suggesting that posttranslational modification of the histone proteins could produce functionally distinct chromatin domains. Histone modifications can be loosely grouped into "active marks," which facilitate processes such as transcription, recombination, and DNA repair, and "repressive marks," which tend to inhibit these processes. Changes in chromatin structure from a closed to an open conformation may result from transcription. The chromatin remodelers that catalyze the dramatic changes in nucleosome organization at the promoters are also described in the chapter. The investigation of chromatin structure and function in the filamentous fungi has been fruitful, but much remains unknown. It will be interesting to determine how histone variants, chromatin remodeling, and chromatin modifications impact additional biological processes in filamentous fungi. The complete genome sequences available for many fungi allow high-resolution mapping of the distributions of modified histones, histone variants, and nonhistone chromatin proteins, which should provide some clues to their functions.

Citation: Lewis Z, Selker E. 2010. Chromatin Structure and Modification, p 113-123. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch9

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Covalent modifications of the H3 and H4 N-terminal tails. The amino acid sequence of the N-terminal tails of H3 and H4 is shown. Some of the modified residues are shown in larger font, and modification of these residues by acetylation (A), methylation (M), or phosphorylation (P) is indicated above the respective amino acids. The modifications highlighted by an asterisk have been characterized in filamentous fungi.

Citation: Lewis Z, Selker E. 2010. Chromatin Structure and Modification, p 113-123. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch9
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Chromatin modification profile for LGVII. The base composition of LGVII is shown as the moving average of %GC at the top of the plot. The distribution of DNA methylation (5mC), H3 trimethyl K9 (H3K9me3), HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN-1 (HP1), and H3 dimethyl K4 (H3K4me2) is shown for LGVII. The positions of predicted open reading frames (genes) and repeats are also indicated. The scale bar on the top left indicates 0.5 Mb.

Citation: Lewis Z, Selker E. 2010. Chromatin Structure and Modification, p 113-123. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch9
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Histone genes in and

Citation: Lewis Z, Selker E. 2010. Chromatin Structure and Modification, p 113-123. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch9

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