1887

Chapter 36 : The Conidium

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

The Conidium, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816636/9781555814731_Chap36-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816636/9781555814731_Chap36-2.gif

Abstract:

A discussion of hyphal growth and polarity determination, cell cycle and signal transduction, is integral to understanding the cell biology of development. In Tup1p can alter chromatin structure as a mechanism to regulate gene expression. The ortholog in , , has been shown to affect chromatin structure at some promoters. Heterotrimeric G proteins positively regulate adenylate cyclase in , and mutation of has the most dramatic effect of the three G-alpha subunit mutations in derepressing conidiation, suggesting that GNA-3 plays the greatest role in stimulating cAMP levels under vegetative growth conditions. Thus, signals that downregulate cAMP levels are likely to stimulate conidiophore morphogenesis. A dominant activated G-alpha subunit stimulates conidiation. Although G-protein and cAMP signal transduction is used as part of the overall pathway controlling conidiation in all , , and , the wiring of the circuit differs among them, just as the effect of light on conidiation can differ (stimulatory in and and inhibitory in ). The central regulatory pathway controlling conidiation in involves BrlA, AbaA (for “abacus”), and WetA (for “wet-white”) to regulate production of vesicles, sterigmata (metulae and phialide cells), and conidia. Principles gained from defining the evolution of conidiation pathways are likely to be informative for understanding the origins of other novel developmental pathways, such as pathogenesis.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36

Key Concept Ranking

Transcription Start Site
0.5476536
Scanning Electron Microscopy
0.41069087
0.5476536
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Cytoplasmic cleavage in zoosporogenesis. The cytoplasm of the sporangium is divided into membrane-bound compartments that give rise to uniflagellate zoospores. Control treatments of zoospore formation in living sporangia of were observed with video-enhanced differential interference contrast optics (A through D) and confocal microscopy after FM4–64 staining (E through H). Minutes and seconds in the upper left corners indicate postinduction times. Scale bars = 10 mm. (A through D) Nuclei were located in the cortical cytoplasm during early stages of zoospore formation (arrow, A) and by 20 to 30 min postinduction were positioned throughout the cytoplasm (arrows, B). Cytoplasmic domains became distinct (C), and eventually the papillum (asterisk, A) deliquesced and mature zoospores (arrowhead, D) maneuvered out of the sporangium into the surrounding medium. (E through H) By 12 to 20 min postinduction, areas of increased fluorescence (arrows, E) were observed along regions of the plasma membrane. Cleavage elements initially extended from these regions within the sporangial cortex (arrows, F) followed by a rapid elongation inward toward the center of the sporangium (G). By 40 to 50 min postinduction, zoospore initials were delimited into polyhedral cells (asterisk, H). Reprinted from with permission from the Mycological Society of America.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Developmental stages of sporangiophores and sporangia as seen under low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. (A) Immature sporangiophore; (B) young sporangiophore with developing spores in sporangia; (C) mature sporangium with sporangiospores; (D) sporangiospores starting to be released from an old sporangium; (E) columella with only a few spores left. Arrows indicate examples of anomalies in sporangiospore size and shape. (A) CBS 102277; 3 days, MEA; (B) CBS 339.62; 3 days, malt extract agar (MEA); (C) CBS 111232; 4 days, oatmeal agar; (D through E) CBS 536.80, 12 days, MEA. Bars, 10 μm. Reprinted from with permission from Elsevier.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Conidial development in , Reiss (1852). (A) The conidia are produced in a sympodial fashion, and the sites of conidial production are apparent after detachment from the conidiogenous cell. (B) Note the Y-shaped conidia of this Ingoldian aquatic hyphomycete. (C) Illustration of conidia and conidiogenous cells. Images provided by S. S. Tzean, National Taiwan University.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Coiled conidia of helicosporous fungi. (A and E) Conidia from the Tubeufiaceae; (B through D) conidia from other lineages. The conidia in panels A through C are three-dimensional and doliiform (barrel-shaped); those in panels D and E are two-dimensional and planate. Species represented are (A), (B and C), (D), and (E), with a conidium developing from a conspicuous, erect conidiophore. Images are differential interference contrast micrographs; scale bar for panels A, B, and D, 30 μm; for panel C, 25 μm; for panel E, 15 μm. Reprinted from with permission from Elsevier.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Ontogeny of blastic and thallic conidia. (A) Conidiophore of showing holoblastic conidiation. Conidia are produced by repeated apical budding with an intact outer cell wall during macroconidium formation. (B) holoblastic macroconidiation showing arthric separation of individual conidia. (C) Enteroblastic conidia development observed in the conidiophore of . The phialide, P, cell wall differentiates to form an inner wall layer (arrows) that forms a blastic conidium initial, CI, which pushes through the phialide cell wall to form the conidial cell wall (arrow labeled CW), distinct from the phialide cell wall layer. Photograph from with permission from Elsevier. (D) Microconidia of pushing through the phialide cell wall. Photographs for panels A, B, and D provided courtesy of Matthew Springer, University of California—San Francisco, and Oxford University Press ( ).

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Effect of light on conidiophore development and spore release of . (A) Aerial development and conidium formation are repressed by light. growing (left to right) across a strip of medium and exposed to light (white boxes) and dark (black boxes). (B) Spore release activated by light. Cultures grown in constant darkness fail to release spores (line with boxes); 12-h exposure to light induces spore release (line with diamonds). Reprinted from with permission from Elsevier.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Deep etch of an conidium showing hydrophobin rodlet layer. The initial fracture passed through the cell wall (CWF), exposing the plasma membrane face (PF). Etching then exposed the outside of the cell wall proper (CWE) and shows that in some regions the cell wall is covered by rodlets. Bar, 1 μm. Reproduced from with permission from the American Society for Microbiology.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Analogous features in conidiation of and . (A) Time coursean conidiation. (C) Regulatory genes controlling development in . (D) Timing of expression of conidiation-specific genes. (E) Regulatory genes controlling development in . (F) Morphological landmarks in conidiation. The , and play roles in activating the nonhomologous key regulatory genes and . The role of in appears to be played by , which is required for major constriction chain formation. The , and genes are required for late stages of conidial morphogenesis and maturation. The and () genes play roles in conidiation across fungal species in cell patterning and conidiophore structure.aa

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Conservation of developmental regulator function in evolution. The different fungal species display analogous effects on morphogenesis. The top row illustrates . In mutants reiterate sterigmata and sometimes form new conidiophores from the vesicle. In , the mutants are unable to make either micro- or macroconidia and instead produce a reiteration of a new cell type. In mutants fail to produce a sympodial arrangement of conidia and instead reiterate conidia, one on top of the preceding cell. This is called an acropetal mode of spore ontogeny. The bottom row illustrates phenotypic similarity in the ortholog mutants across the fungi. In , the stalk cell is stunted and the sterigma is reduced (stunted). In , the conidiophore is reduced so that conidiophores are not produced and macro-conidia form directly from the substrate hyphae (intercalary phialides). Microconidium formation is not affected. In , aerial hyphae are stunted, but conidiation is otherwise normal. Figure modified from , and .

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Patterns of gene evolution for regulators of conidiation. (A) Genes that are conserved across fungi and play a recognizably analogous role in conidiation. This pattern is represented by and orthologs across a broad group of fungi. These genes also appear to be involved in sexual development in all fungi examined to date. (B) Lineage-specific regulators are genes that are unique to a particular fungal clade either through loss in most other fungal groups or gain in a particular clade. BrlA and FL exemplify this group. (C) Genes that are conserved across fungi may retain a common function, but in some lineages the gene has been adapted to also regulate a conidiation pathway. Alternatively, the ancestral gene was involved in development and this role was lost in some lineages. FlbD is an example of a protein that has retained its biochemical function across a broad evolutionary distance but plays different roles in the different fungal lineages.

Citation: Ebbole D. 2010. The Conidium, p 577-590. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816636.ch36
1. Alexopoulos, C. J.,, C. W. Mims, and, M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory Mycology, 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
2. Appel, D. N.,, T. Kurdyla, and, R. Lewis,, Jr. 1990. Nitidulids as vectors of the oak wilt fungus and other Ceratocystis spp. in Texas. Eur. J. Forest Pathol. 20:412417.
3. Aramayo, R.,, T. H. Adams, and, W. E. Timberlake. 1989. A large cluster of highly expressed genes is dispensable for growth and development in Aspergillus nidulans. Genetics 122:6571.
4. Aramayo, R.,, Y. Peleg,, R. Addison, and, R. Metzenberg. 1996. Asm-1+, a Neurospora crassa gene related to transcriptional regulators of fungal development. Genetics 144:9911003.
5. Bailey, L. A., and, D. J. Ebbole. 1998. The fluffy gene of Neurospora crassa encodes a Gal4p-type C6 zinc cluster protein required for conidial development. Genetics 148:18131820.
6. Bailey-Shrode, L., and, D. J. Ebbole. 2004. The fluffy gene of Neurospora crassa is necessary and sufficient to induce conidiophore development. Genetics 166:17411749.
7. Banno, S.,, N. Ochiai,, R. Noguchi,, M. Kimura,, I. Yamaguchi,, S. Kanzaki,, T. Murayama, and, M. Fujimura. 2005. A catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, PKAC-1, regulates asexual differentiation in Neurospora crassa. Genes Genet. Syst. 80:2534.
8. Belden, W. J.,, L. F. Larrondo,, A. C. Froehlich,, M. Shi,, C. H. Chen,, J. J. Loros, and, J. C. Dunlap. 2007. The band mutation in Neurospora crassa is a dominant allele of ras-1 implicating RAS signaling in circadian output. Genes Dev. 21:14941505.
9. Bell-Pedersen, D.,, J. C. Dunlap, and, J. J. Loros. 1996. Distinct cis-acting elements mediate clock, light, and developmental regulation of the Neurospora crassa eas (ccg-2) gene. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:513521.
10. Bell-Pedersen, D.,, Z. A. Lewis,, J. J. Loros, and, J. C. Dunlap. 2001. The Neurospora circadian clock regulates a transcription factor that controls rhythmic expression of the output eas (ccg-2) gene. Mol. Microbiol. 41:897909.
11. Berlin, V., and, C. Yanofsky. 1985. Isolation and characterization of genes differentially expressed during conidiation of Neurospora crassa. Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:849855.
12. Breakspear, A., and, M. Momany. 2007. Aspergillus nidulans conidiation genes dewA, fluG, and stuA are differentially regulated in early vegetative growth. Eukaryot. Cell 6:16971700.
13. Cano-Dominguez, N.,, K. Alvarez-Delfin,, W. Hansberg, and, J. Aguirre. 2008. NADPH oxidases NOX-1 and NOX-2 require the regulatory subunit NOR-1 to control cell differentiation and growth in Neurospora crassa. Eukaryot. Cell 7:13521361.
14. Chang, Y. C., and, W. E. Timberlake. 1993. Identification of Aspergillus brlA response elements (BREs) by genetic selection in yeast. Genetics 133:2938.
15. Corrochano, L. M.,, F. R. Lauter,, D. J. Ebbole, and, C. Yanofsky. 1995. Light and developmental regulation of the gene con-10 of Neurospora crassa. Dev. Biol. 167:190200.
16. Davis, R. H. 2000. Neurospora: Contributions of a Model Organism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
17. Dempsey, G. P., and, R. E. Beever. 1979. Electron microscopy of the rodlet layer of Neurospora crassa conidia. J. Bacteriol. 140:10501062.
18. Fitt, B. D. L.,, H. A. McCartney, and, P. J. Walklate. 1989. The role of rain in dispersal of pathogen inoculum. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 27:241270.
19. Garcia, I.,, M. Mathieu,, I. Nikolaev,, B. Felenbok, and, C. Scazzocchio. 2008. Roles of the Aspergillus nidulans homologues of Tup1 and Ssn6 in chromatin structure and cell viability. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 289:146154.
20. Gwynne, D. I.,, B. L. Miller,, K. Y. Miller, and, W. E. Timberlake. 1984. Structure and regulated expression of the SpoC1 gene cluster from Aspergillus nidulans. J. Mol. Biol. 180:91109.
21. Hamer, J. E.,, B. Valent, and, F. G. Chumley. 1989. Mutations at the Smo genetic locus affect the shape of diverse cell types in the rice blast fungus. Genetics 122:351361.
22. Han, S., and, T. H. Adams. 2001. Complex control of the developmental regulatory locus brlA in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol. Genet. Genomics 266:260270.
23. Hanlin, R. T. 1994. Microcycle conidiation—a review. Mycoscience 35:113123.
24. Hof, C.,, K. Eisfeld,, L. Antelo,, A. J. Foster, and, H. Anke. 2009. Siderophore synthesis in Magnaporthe grisea is essential for vegetative growth, conidiation and resistance to oxidative stress. Fungal Genet. Biol. 46:321332.
25. Horowitz Brown, S.,, R. Zarnowski,, W. C. Sharpee, and, N. P. Keller. 2008. Morphological transitions governed by density dependence and lipoxygenase activity in Aspergillus flavus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:56745685.
26. Hughes, S. J. 1953. Conidiophores, conidia, and classification. Can. J. Bot. 31:577659.
27. Huppert, M.,, S. H. Sun, and, J. L. Harrison. 1982. Morphogenesis throughout saprobic and parasitic cycles of Coccidioides immitis. Mycopathologia 78:107122.
28. Ingold, C. T. 1942. Aquatic hyphomycetes of decaying alder leaves. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 25:339417.
29. Ingold, C. T. 1964. Possible spore discharge mechanism in Piricularia. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 47:573575.
30. James, T. Y.,, P. M. Letcher,, J. E. Longcore,, S. E. Mozley-Standridge,, D. Porter,, M. J. Powell,, G. W. Griffith, and, R. Vilgalys. 2006. A molecular phylogeny of the flagellated fungi (Chytridiomycota) and description of a new phylum (Blastocladiomycota). Mycologia 98:860871.
31. Jennessen, J.,, J. Schnurer,, J. Olsson,, R. A. Samson, and, J. Dijksterhuis. 2008. Morphological characteristics of sporangiospores of the tempe fungus Rhizopus oligosporus differentiate it from other taxa of the R. microsporus group. Mycol. Res. 112:547563.
32. Kana-uchi, A.,, C. T. Yamashiro,, S. Tanabe, and, T. Murayama. 1997. A ras homologue of Neurospora crassa regulates morphology. Mol. Gen. Genet. 254:427432.
33. Kasuga, T.,, J. P. Townsend,, C. Tian,, L. B. Gilbert,, G. Mannhaupt,, J. W. Taylor, and, N. L. Glass. 2005. Long-oligomer microarray profiling in Neurospora crassa reveals the transcriptional program underlying biochemical and physiological events of conidial germination. Nucleic Acids Res. 33:64696485.
34. Kays, A. M.,, P. S. Rowley,, R. A. Baasiri, and, K. A. Borkovich. 2000. Regulation of conidiation and adenylyl cyclase levels by the Galpha protein GNA-3 in Neurospora crassa. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:76937705.
35. Lambreghts, R.,, M. Shi,, W. J. Belden,, D. Decaprio,, D. Park,, M. R. Henn,, J. E. Galagan,, M. Basturkmen,, B. W. Birren,, M. S. Sachs,, J. C. Dunlap, and, J. J. Loros. 2009. A high-density single nucleotide polymorphism map for Neurospora crassa. Genetics 181:767781.
36. Lau, G. W., and, J. E. Hamer. 1998. Acropetal: a genetic locus required for conidiophore architecture and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus. Fungal Genet. Biol. 24:228239.
37. Lauter, F. R.,, V. E. Russo, and, C. Yanofsky. 1992. Developmental and light regulation of eas, the structural gene for the rodlet protein of Neurospora. Genes Dev. 6:23732381.
38. Lauter, F. R., and, C. Yanofsky. 1993. Day/night and circa-dian rhythm control of con gene expression in Neurospora. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:82498253.
39. Lee, K., and, D. J. Ebbole. 1998a. Analysis of two transcription activation elements in the promoter of the developmentally regulated con-10 gene of Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genet. Biol. 23:259268.
40. Lee, K., and, D. J. Ebbole. 1998b. Tissue-specific repression of starvation and stress responses of the Neurospora crassa con-10 gene is mediated by RCO1. Fungal Genet. Biol. 23:269278.
41. Lee, K.,, P. Singh,, W. C. Chung,, J. Ash,, T. S. Kim,, L. Hang, and, S. Park. 2006. Light regulation of asexual development in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43:694706.
42. Li, D.,, P. Bobrowicz,, H. H. Wilkinson, and, D. J. Ebbole. 2005. A mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway essential for mating and contributing to vegetative growth in Neurospora crassa. Genetics 170:10911104.
43. Li, L., and, K. A. Borkovich. 2006. GPR-4 is a predicted G-protein-coupled receptor required for carbon source-dependent asexual growth and development in Neurospora crassa. Eukaryot. Cell 5:12871300.
44. Liu, H.,, A. Suresh,, F. S. Willard,, D. P. Siderovski,, S. Lu, and, N. I. Naqvi. 2007. Rgs1 regulates multiple Galpha subunits in Magnaporthe pathogenesis, asexual growth and thigmotropism. EMBO J. 26:690700.
45. Lowry, D. S.,, K. E. Fisher, and, R. W. Roberson. 2004. Functional necessity of the cytoskeleton during cleavage membrane development and zoosporogenesis in Allomyces macrogynus. Mycologia 96:211218.
46. Maheshwari, R. 1991. Microcycle conidiation and its genetic basis in Neurospora crassa. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137:21032115.
47. Maheshwari, R. 1999. Microconidia of Neurospora crassa. Fungal Genet. Biol. 26:118.
48. Malave, T. M., and, S. Y. Dent. 2006. Transcriptional repression by Tup1-Ssn6. Biochem. Cell Biol. 84:437443.
49. Meredith, D. S. 1973. Significance of spore release and dispersal mechanisms in plant disease epidemiology. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 11:313342.
50. Miller, B. L.,, K. Y. Miller,, K. A. Roberti, and, W. E. Timberlake. 1987. Position-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate cell-specific expression of the SpoC1 gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans. Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:427434.
51. Mosch, H. U.,, E. Kubler,, S. Krappmann,, G. R. Fink, and, G. H. Braus. 1999. Crosstalk between the Ras2p-controlled mitogen-activated protein kinase and cAMP pathways during invasive growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Biol. Cell 10:13251335.
52. Odenbach, D.,, B. Breth,, E. Thines,, R. W. Weber,, H. Anke, and, A. J. Foster. 2007. The transcription factor Con7p is a central regulator of infection-related morphogenesis in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Mol. Microbiol. 64:293307.
53. Ohara, T.,, I. Inoue,, F. Namiki,, H. Kunoh, and, T. Tsuge. 2004. REN1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Genetics 166:113124.
54. Ohara, T., and, T. Tsuge. 2004. FoSTUA, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix protein, differentially regulates development of three kinds of asexual spores, macroconidia, micro-conidia, and chlamydospores, in the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Eukaryot. Cell 3:14121422.
55. Pandey, A.,, M. G. Roca,, N. D. Read, and, N. L. Glass. 2004. Role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway during conidial germination and hyphal fusion in Neurospora crassa. Eukaryot. Cell 3:348358.
56. Poitras, A. W. 1955. Observations on asexual and sexual reproductive structures of the Choanephoraceae. Mycologia 47:702713.
57. Polak, E.,, M. Aebi, and, U. Kues. 2001. Morphological variations in oidium formation in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Mycol. Res. 105:603610.
58. Rerngsamran, P.,, M. B. Murphy,, S. A. Doyle, and, D. J. Ebbole. 2005. Fluffy, the major regulator of conidiation in Neurospora crassa, directly activates a developmentally regulated hydrophobin gene. Mol. Microbiol. 56:282297.
59. Roberts, A. N.,, V. Berlin,, K. M. Hager, and, C. Yanofsky. 1988. Molecular analysis of a Neurospora crassa gene expressed during conidiation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:24112418.
60. Roberts, A. N., and, C. Yanofsky. 1989. Genes expressed during conidiation in Neurospora crassa: characterization of con-8. Nucleic Acids Res. 17:197214.
61. Rossier, C.,, T. C. Ton-That, and, G. Turian. 1977. Microcyclic microconidiation in Neurospora crassa. Exp. Mycol. 1:5262.
62. Sewall, T. C.,, C. W. Mims, and, W. E. Timberlake. 1990. Conidium differentiation in Aspergillus nidulans wild-type and wet-white (wetA) mutant strains. Dev. Biol. 138:499508.
63. Shaw, D. E. 1998. Species of Neurospora recorded in Australia, and the collection of Neurospora conidia by honey bees in lieu of pollen. Mycologist 12:154158.
64. Shen, W. C.,, J. Wieser,, T. H. Adams, and, D. J. Ebbole. 1998. The Neurospora rca-1 gene complements an Aspergillus flbD sporulation mutant but has no identifiable role in Neurospora sporulation. Genetics 148:10311041.
65. Shi, Z.,, D. Christian, and, H. Leung. 1998. Interactions between spore morphogenetic mutations affect cell types, sporulation, and pathogenesis in Magnaporthe grisea. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 11:199207.
66. Springer, M. L., and, C. Yanofsky. 1989. A morphological and genetic analysis of conidiophore development in Neurospora crassa. Genes Dev. 3:559571.
67. Springer, M. L., and, C. Yanofsky. 1992. Expression of con genes along the three sporulation pathways of Neurospora crassa. Genes Dev. 6:10521057.
68. St. Leger, R. J. 2008. Studies on adaptations of Metarhizium anisopliae to life in the soil. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 98:271276.
69. Straney, D.,, R. Khan,, R. Tan, and, S. Bagga. 2002. Host recognition by pathogenic fungi through plant flavonoids. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 505:922.
70. Stringer, M. A., and, W. E. Timberlake. 1995. dewA encodes a fungal hydrophobin component of the Aspergillus spore wall. Mol. Microbiol. 16:3344.
71. Timberlake, W. E., and, E. C. Barnard. 1981. Organization of a gene cluster expressed specifically in the asexual spores of A. nidulans. Cell 26:2937.
72. Todd, R. B.,, J. R. Greenhalgh,, M. J. Hynes, and, A. Andrianopoulos. 2003. TupA, the Penicillium marneffei Tup1p homologue, represses both yeast and spore development. Mol. Microbiol. 48:8594.
73. Toledo, I.,, J. Aguirre, and, W. Hansberg. 1994. Enzyme inactivation related to a hyperoxidant state during conidiation of Neurospora crassa. Microbiology 140:23912397.
74. Ton-That, T. C., and, G. Turian. 1978. Ultrastructural study of microcyclic macroconidiation in Neurospora crassa. Arch. Microbiol. 117:279288.
75. Tsitsigiannis, D. I.,, T. M. Kowieski,, R. Zarnowski, and, N. P. Keller. 2004. Endogenous lipogenic regulators of spore balance in Aspergillus nidulans. Eukaryot. Cell 3:13981411.
76. Tsitsigiannis, D. I.,, T. M. Kowieski,, R. Zarnowski, and, N. P. Keller. 2005. Three putative oxylipin biosynthetic genes integrate sexual and asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Microbiology 151:18091821.
77. Tsui, C. K. M., and, M. L. Berbee. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and convergence of helicosporous fungi inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 39:587597.
78. Ulloa, M., and, R. T. Hanlin. 2000. Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
79. Watanabe, S.,, K. Yamashita,, N. Ochiai,, F. Fukumori,, A. Ichiishi,, M. Kimura, and, M. Fujimura. 2007. OS-2 mitogen activated protein kinase regulates the clock-controlled gene ccg-1 in Neurospora crassa. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 71:28562859.
80. Webster, J. 1959. Experiments with spores of aquatic hyphomycetes. I. Sedimentation and impaction on smooth surfaces. Ann. Bot. 23:595611.
81. White, B. T., and, C. Yanofsky. 1993. Structural characterization and expression analysis of the Neurospora conidiation gene con-6. Dev. Biol. 160:254264.
82. Wieser, J., and, T. H. Adams. 1995. flbD encodes a Myb-like DNA-binding protein that coordinates initiation of Aspergillus nidulans conidiophore development. Genes Dev. 9:491502.
83. Wosten, H. A. B. 2001. Hydrophobins: multipurpose proteins. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 55:625646.
84. Wu, J., and, B. L. Miller. 1997. Aspergillus asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction are differentially affected by transcriptional and translational mechanisms regulating stunted gene expression. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:61916201.
85. Yafetto, L.,, L. Carroll,, Y. Cui,, D. J. Davis,, M. W. Fischer,, A. C. Henterly,, J. D. Kessler,, H. A. Kilroy,, J. B. Shidler,, J. L. Stolze-Rybczynski,, Z. Sugawara, and, N. P. Money. 2008. The fastest flights in nature: high-speed spore discharge mechanisms among fungi. PLoS ONE 3:e3237.
86. Yamashiro, C. T.,, D. J. Ebbole,, B. U. Lee,, R. E. Brown,, C. Bourland,, L. Madi, and, C. Yanofsky. 1996. Characterization of rco-1 of Neurospora crassa, a pleiotropic gene affecting growth and development that encodes a homolog of Tup1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:62186228.
87. Yi, M.,, J. H. Park,, J. H. Ahn, and, Y. H. Lee. 2008. MoSNF1 regulates sporulation and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45:11721181.
88. Zimmermann, C. R.,, W. C. Orr,, R. F. Leclerc,, E. C. Barnard, and, W. E. Timberlake. 1980. Molecular cloning and selection of genes regulated in Aspergillus development. Cell 21:709715.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error