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causes a spectrum of clinical entities, ranging from allergic rhinitis to invasive disease. Following the inhalation of conidia, allergic rhinitis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) result from overly exuberant immunological responses. Techniques for global analysis of transcription are revolutionizing one's understanding of fungal physiology, including the complex regulatory networks that facilitate adaptation to the host environment. The first large-scale analysis of the transcriptome was published in conjunction with the initial report of the Af293 genome sequence. In this study, microarrays were used to gain insight into genes that are differentially regulated in response to a temperature shift, with the goal of understanding aspects of thermotolerant growth that are relevant to mammalian infection. A more targeted proteomics strategy has been used to uncover novel cellulases in the proteome. The procedure focuses on the identification of β-glucosidase activity in the secreted proteome using a 2D-in-gel β-glucosidase activity assay combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important stress response among metazoans, and components of the pathway are considered to be excellent targets for anticancer drug development. Typical primary pathogen has unique virulence traits that evolved in association with a host organism. These virulence factors are generally dispensable for growth outside the host but provide some competitive advantage to the organism when it is in the host environment.

Citation: Rhodes J, Askew D. 2010. , p 697-716. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch43

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Gene Expression and Regulation
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
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Schematic illustration of the life cycle and pathogenesis of (not drawn to scale). propagates itself in the environment by the release of asexual conidia into the atmosphere. The conidia begin the process of germination when they encounter a suitable substrate, forming mature hyphae that eventually develop into a mycelium. In response to an appropriate stimulus, such as nutrient deprivation, some of the hyphae activate the developmental program of asexual development, resulting in a series of morphological changes: an aerial hypha, or stalk, forms from a thick-walled foot-cell, and the stalk tip swells to form a vesicle. A single row of phialides then forms on the vesicle surface, from which the conidia subsequently develop. A mature conidiophore can possess up to 50,000 conidia, which are released into the environment in response to changes in airflow. The airborne conidia are inhaled by most people on a daily basis and are small enough (2 to 3 μm in diameter) to reach the distal airways. The conidia are efficiently cleared in a healthy individual, but in an immunodeficient host they are able to germinate into invasive hyphae that penetrate the vasculature and migrate to distal sites.

Citation: Rhodes J, Askew D. 2010. , p 697-716. In Borkovich K, Ebbole D (ed), Cellular and Molecular Biology of Filamentous Fungi. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816636.ch43
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