Chapter 5 : Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816650/9781555814014_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816650/9781555814014_Chap05-2.gif


Phagocytosing neutrophils produce chemoattractants themselves to continue cell recruitment after the initial phase driven by C5a. The chemokines are important in providing varying degrees of cell type specificity to leukocyte recruitment. C5a and LTB are potent neutrophil chemoattractants (others are platelet-activating factor and formyl peptides derived from bacteria). The specificity of different chemokines for leukocyte types provides a mechanism to explain the geographical organization of the immune system under basal conditions and the recruitment of selected leukocyte types in response to different inflammatory stimuli. Chemokine receptors are approximately 350 amino acids long, having an N-terminal extracellular domain followed by seven hydrophobic domains that traverse the plasma membrane leaving a cytoplasmic tail. IL-8 is considered the prototypic neutrophil-selective CXC chemokine. ELR CXC chemokines and their receptors play a direct role in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases, including reperfusion injury, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic human parasitic disease in which the parasites repeatedly provoke both acute and chronic inflammatory reactions in the lymphatics and bloodstream. Chemokine receptor expression on macrophages is also altered in hypoxic tissue microenvironments, such as the necrotic areas of tumors or in ischemic tissues. The usual caveats apply as with any anti-inflammatory therapy concerning compromising host defense processes.

Citation: Williams T, Rankin S. 2009. Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking, p 93-106. In Russell D, Gordon S (ed), Phagocyte-Pathogen Interactions. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816650.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Complement System
Immune Systems
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

The ELR CXC chemokines and their binding to chemokine receptors on neutrophils.

Citation: Williams T, Rankin S. 2009. Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking, p 93-106. In Russell D, Gordon S (ed), Phagocyte-Pathogen Interactions. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816650.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

The dynamic expression of chemokine receptors on neutrophils as they age.

Citation: Williams T, Rankin S. 2009. Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking, p 93-106. In Russell D, Gordon S (ed), Phagocyte-Pathogen Interactions. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816650.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

The role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis in neutrophil clearance via the bone marrow.

Citation: Williams T, Rankin S. 2009. Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking, p 93-106. In Russell D, Gordon S (ed), Phagocyte-Pathogen Interactions. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816650.ch5
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Anisowicz, A.,, L. Bardwell, and, R. Sager. 1987. Constitutive overexpression of a growth-regulated gene in transformed Chinese hamster and human cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:71887192.
2. Ariel, A.,, G. Fredman,, Y. P. Sun,, A. Kantarci,, T. E. Van Dyke,, A. D. Luster, and, C. N. Serhan. 2006. Apoptotic neutrophils and T cells sequester chemokines during immune response resolution through modulation of CCR5 expression. Nat. Immunol. 7:12091216.
3. Ato, M.,, H. Nakano,, T. Kakiuchi, and, P. M. Kaye. 2004. Localization of marginal zone macrophages is regulated by CC chemokine ligands 21/19. J. Immunol. 173:48154820.
4. Bacon, K.,, M. Baggiolini,, H. Broxmeyer,, R. Horuk,, I. Lind-ley,, A. Mantovani,, K. Maysushima,, P. Murphy,, H. Nomiyama,, J. Oppenheim,, A. Rot,, T. Schall,, M. Tsang,, R. Thorpe,, J. Van Damme,, M. Wadhwa,, O. Yoshie,, A. Zlotnik, and, K. Zoon. 2002. Chemokine/chemokine receptor nomenclature. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 22:10671068.
5. Barlic, J.,, Y. Zhang,, J. F. Foley, and, P. M. Murphy. 2006. Oxidized lipid-driven chemokine receptor switch, CCR2 to CX3CR1, mediates adhesion of human macrophages to coronary artery smooth muscle cells through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent pathway. Circulation 114:807819.
6. Barlic, J.,, Y. Zhang, and, P. M. Murphy. 2007. Atherogenic lipids induce adhesion of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to macrophages by up-regulating chemokine CX3CL1 on smooth muscle cells in a TNFalpha-NFkappaB-dependent manner. J. Biol. Chem. 282:1916719176.
7. Beaubien, B. C.,, P. D. Collins,, P. J. Jose,, N. F. Totty,, M. D. Waterfield,, J. Hsuan, and, T. J. Williams. 1990. A novel neutrophil chemoattractant generated during an inflammatory reaction in the rabbit peritoneal cavity in vivo: purification, partial amino acid sequence and structural relationship to interleukin 8. Biochem. J. 271:797801.
8. Bertini, R.,, M. Allegretti,, C. Bizzarri,, A. Moriconi,, M. Locati,, G. Zampella,, M. N. Cervellera,, V. Di Cioccio,, M. C. Cesta,, E. Galliera,, F. O. Martinez,, R. Di Bitondo,, G. Troiani,, V. Sabbatini,, G. D’Anniballe,, R. Anacardio,, J. C. Cutrin,, B. Cavalieri,, F. Mainiero,, R. Strippoli,, P. Villa,, M. Di Girolamo,, F. Martin,, M. Gentile,, A. Santoni,, D. Corda,, G. Poli,, A. Mantovani,, P. Ghezzi, and, F. Colotta. 2004. Noncompetitive allosteric inhibitors of the inflammatory chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2: prevention of reperfusion injury. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1179111796.
9. Bleul, C. C.,, R. C. Fuhlbrigge,, J. M. Casasnovas,, A. Aiuti, and, T. A. Springer. 1996. A highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). J. Exp. Med. 184:11011109.
10. Bonecchi, R.,, F. Facchetti,, S. Dusi,, W. Luini,, D. Lissandrini,, M. Simmelink,, M. Locati,, S. Bernasconi,, P. Allavena,, E. Brandt,, F. Rossi,, A. Mantovani, and, S. Sozzani. 2000. Induction of functional IL-8 receptors by IL-4 and IL-13 in human monocytes. J. Immunol. 164:38623869.
11. Bonecchi, R.,, N. Polentarutti,, W. Luini,, A. Borsatti,, S. Bernasconi,, M. Locati,, C. Power,, A. Proudfoot,, T. N. Wells,, C. Mackay,, A. Mantovani, and, S. Sozzani. 1999. Up-regulation of CCR1 and CCR3 and induction of chemotaxis to CC chemokines by IFN-gamma in human neutrophils. J. Immunol. 162:474479.
12. Boring, L.,, J. Gosling,, S. W. Chensue,, S. L. Kunkel,, R. V. Farese, Jr.,, H. E. Broxmeyer, and, I. F. Charo. 1997. Impaired monocyte migration and reduced type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses in C-C chemokine receptor 2 knockout mice. J. Clin. Invest. 100:25522561.
13. Boyle, E. M.,, Jr, J. C. Kovacich,, C. A. Hebert,, T. G. Canty, Jr,, E. Chi,, E. N. Morgan,, T. H. Pohlman, and, E. D. Verrier. 1998. Inhibition of interleukin-8 blocks myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 116:114121.
14. Bray, M. A.,, A. W. Ford-Hutchinson, and, M. J. Smith. 1981. Leukotriene B4: an inflammatory mediator in vivo. Prostaglandins 22:213222.
15. Cara, D. C.,, J. Kaur,, M. Forster,, D. M. McCafferty, and, P. Kubes. 2001. Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in chemokine-induced emigration and chemotaxis in vivo. J. Immunol. 167:65526558.
16. Chapman, R. W.,, M. Minnicozzi,, C. S. Celly,, J. E. Phillips,, T. T. Kung,, R. W. Hipkin,, X. Fan,, D. Rindgen,, G. Deno,, R. Bond,, W. Gonsiorek,, M. M. Billah,, J. S. Fine, and, J. A. Hey. 2007. A novel, orally active CXCR1/2 receptor antagonist, Sch527123, inhibits neutrophil recruitment, mucus production, and goblet cell hyperplasia in animal models of pulmonary inflammation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 322:486493.
17. Charo, I. F.,, S. J. Myers,, A. Herman,, C. Franci,, A. J. Connolly and, S. R. Coughlin. 1994. Molecular cloning and functional expression of two monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 receptors reveals alternative splicing of the carboxyl-terminal tails. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:27522756.
18. Charo, I. F.,, and W. Peters. 2003. Chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in atherosclerosis, infectious diseases, and regulation of T-cell polarization. Microcirculation 10:259264.
19. Cheng, S. S.,, J. J. Lai,, N. W. Lukacs, and, S. L. Kunkel. 2001. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor up-regulates CCR1 in human neutrophils. J. Immunol. 166:11781184.
20. Clark-Lewis, I.,, B. Dewald,, T. Geiser,, B. Moser, and, M. Baggiolini. 1993. Platelet factor 4 binds to interleukin 8 receptors and activates neutrophils when its N terminus is modified with Glu-Leu-Arg. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:35743577.
21. Colditz, I. G.,, R. D. Zwahlen, and, M. Baggiolini. 1990. Neutrophil accumulation and plasma leakage induced in vivo by neutrophil-activating peptide-1 (NAP-1). J. Leukoc. Biol. 48:129137.
22. Collins, P. D.,, P. J. Jose, and, T. J. Williams. 1991. The sequential generation of neutrophil chemoattractant proteins in acute inflammation in the rabbit in vivo: relationship between C5a and a protein with the characteristics of IL-8. J. Immunol. 146:677684.
23. Combadiere, C.,, S. Potteaux,, J. L. Gao,, B. Esposito,, S. Casanova,, E. J. Lee,, P. Debre,, A. Tedgui,, P. M. Murphy, and, Z. Mallat. 2003. Decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in CX3CR1/apolipoprotein E double knockout mice. Circulation 107:10091016.
24. D’Amico, G.,, G. Frascaroli,, G. Bianchi,, P. Transidico,, A. Doni,, A. Vecchi,, S. Sozzani,, P. Allavena, and, A. Mantovani. 2000. Uncoupling of inflammatory chemokine receptors by IL-10: generation of functional decoys. Nat. Immunol. 1:387391.
25. Donnelly, L. E.,, and P. J. Barnes. 2006. Chemokine receptors as therapeutic targets in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 27:546553.
26. Fantuzzi, L.,, P. Borghi,, V. Ciolli,, G. Pavlakis,, F. Belardelli, and, S. Gessani. 1999. Loss of CCR2 expression and functional response to monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) during the differentiation of human monocytes: role of secreted MCP-1 in the regulation of the chemotactic response. Blood 94:875883.
27. Franca-Koh, J.,, Y. Kamimura, and, P. N. Devreotes. 2007. Leading-edge research: PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and directed migration. Nat. Cell Biol. 9:1517.
28. Fuentes, M. E.,, S. K. Durham,, M. R. Swerdel,, A. C. Lewin,, D. S. Barton,, J. R. Megill,, R. Bravo, and, S. A. Lira. 1995. Controlled recruitment of monocytes and macrophages to specific organs through transgenic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. J. Immunol. 155:57695776.
29. Geiser, T.,, B. Dewald,, M. U. Ehrengruber,, I. Clark-Lewis, and, M. Baggiolini. 1993. The interleukin-8-related chemo-tactic cytokines GRO alpha, GRO beta, and GRO gamma activate human neutrophil and basophil leukocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 268:1541915424.
30. Geissmann, F.,, S. Jung, and, D. R. Littman. 2003. Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties. Immunity 19:7182.
31. Graham, G. J.,, and C. S. McKimmie. 2006. Chemokine scavenging by D6: a movable feast? Trends Immunol. 27:381386.
32. Graves, D. T.,, Y. L. Jiang,, M. J. Williamson, and, A. J. Valente. 1989. Identification of monocyte chemotactic activity produced by malignant cells. Science 245:14901493.
33. Gu, L.,, Y. Okada,, S. K. Clinton,, C. Gerard,, G. K. Sukhova,, P. Libby, and, B. J. Rollins. 1998. Absence of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 reduces atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Mol. Cell 2:275281.
34. Gunn, M. D.,, K. Tangemann,, C. Tam,, J. G. Cyster,, S. D. Rosen, and, L. T. Williams. 1998. A chemokine expressed in lymphoid high endothelial venules promotes the adhesion and chemotaxis of naive T lymphocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:258263.
35. Han, K. H.,, M. K. Chang,, A. Boullier,, S. R. Green,, A. Li,, C. K. Glass, and, O. Quehenberger. 2000. Oxidized LDL reduces monocyte CCR2 expression through pathways involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J. Clin. Invest. 106:793802.
36. Haskill, S.,, A. Peace,, J. Morris,, S. A. Sporn,, A. Anisowicz,, S. W. Lee,, T. Smith,, G. Martin,, P. Ralph, and, R. Sager. 1990. Identification of three related human GRO genes encoding cytokine functions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:77327736.
37. Hay, D. W.,, and H. M. Sarau. 2001. Interleukin-8 receptor antagonists in pulmonary diseases. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 1:242247.
38. Hirsch, E.,, V. L. Katanaev,, C. Garlanda,, O. Azzolino,, L. Pirola,, L. Silengo,, S. Sozzani,, A. Mantovani,, F. Altruda, and, M. P. Wymann. 2000. Central role for G protein-coupled phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma in inflammation [see comments]. Science 287:10491053.
39. Hodgson, S.,, S. Charlton, and, P. Warne. 2004. Chemokines and drug discovery. Drug News Perspect. 17:335338.
40. Holmes, W. E.,, J. Lee,, W.-J. Kuang,, G. C. Rice, and, W. I. Wood. 1991. Structure and functional expression of a human interleukin-8 receptor. Science 253:12781283.
41. Ivey, C. L.,, F. M. Williams,, P. D. Collins,, P. J. Jose, and, T. J. Williams. 1995. Neutrophil chemoattractants generated in two phases during reperfusion of ischemic myocardium in the rabbit: evidence for a role for C5a and interleukin-8. J. Clin. Invest. 95:27202728.
42. Johnston, B.,, A. R. Burns,, M. Suematsu,, T. B. Issekutz,, R. C. Woodman, and, P. Kubes. 1999. Chronic inflammation upregulates chemokine receptors and induces neutrophil migration to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. J. Clin. Invest. 103:12691276.
43. Johnston, R. A.,, J. P. Mizgerd, and, S. A. Shore. 2005. CXCR2 is essential for maximal neutrophil recruitment and methacholine responsiveness after ozone exposure. Am. J. Physiol. 288:L61L67.
44. Jones, S. A.,, B. Dewald,, I. Clark-Lewis, and, M. Baggiolini. 1997. Chemokine antagonists that discriminate between interleukin-8 receptors. Selective blockers of CXCR2. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1616616169.
45. Jones, S. A.,, M. Wolf,, S. Qin,, C. R. Mackay, and, M. Baggiolini. 1996. Different functions for the interleukin 8 receptors (IL-8R) of human neutrophil leukocytes: NADPH oxidase and phospholipase D are activated through IL-8R1 but not IL-8R2. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:66826686.
46. Jose, P. J.,, P. D. Collins,, J. A. Perkins,, B. C. Beaubien,, N. F. Totty,, M. D. Waterfield,, J. Hsuan, and, T. J. Williams. 1991. Identification of a second neutrophil chemoattractant cytokine generated during an inflammatory reaction in the rabbit peritoneal cavity in vivo: purification, partial amino acid sequence and structural relationship to melanoma growth stimulatory activity. Biochem. J. 278:493497.
47. Jose, P. J.,, M. J. Forrest, and, T. J. Williams. 1983. Detection of the complement fragment C5a in inflammatory exudates from the rabbit peritoneal cavity using radioimmunoassay. J. Exp. Med. 158:21772182.
48. Jose, P. J.,, D. A. Griffiths-Johnson,, P. D. Collins,, D. T. Walsh,, R. Moqbel,, N. F. Totty,, O. Truong,, J. J. Hsuan, and, T. J. Williams. 1994. Eotaxin: a potent eosinophil chemoattractant cytokine detected in a guinea-pig model of allergic airways inflammation. J. Exp. Med. 179:881887.
49. Kaufmann, A.,, R. Salentin,, D. Gemsa, and, H. Sprenger. 2001. Increase of CCR1 and CCR5 expression and enhanced functional response to MIP-1 alpha during differentiation of human monocytes to macrophages. J. Leukoc. Biol. 69:248252.
50. Kim, H. K.,, M. De La Luz Sierra,, C. K. Williams,, A. V. Gulino, and, G. Tosato. 2006. G-CSF down-regulation of CXCR4 expression identified as a mechanism for mobilization of myeloid cells. Blood 108:812820.
51. Kurihara, T.,, G. Warr,, J. Loy, and, R. Bravo. 1997. Defects in macrophage recruitment and host defense in mice lacking the CCR2 chemokine receptor. J. Exp. Med. 186:17571762.
52. Le Borgne, M.,, N. Etchart,, A. Goubier,, S. A. Lira,, J. C. Sirard,, N. van Rooijen,, C. Caux,, S. Ait-Yahia,, A. Vicari,, D. Kaiserlian, and, B. Dubois. 2006. Dendritic cells rapidly recruited into epithelial tissues via CCR6/CCL20 are responsible for CD8+ T cell crosspriming in vivo. Immunity 24:191201.
53. Lesnik, P.,, C. A. Haskell, and, I. F. Charo. 2003. Decreased atherosclerosis in CX3CR1−/−mice reveals a role for fractalkine in atherogenesis. J. Clin. Invest. 111:333340.
54. Ley, K.,, C. Laudanna,, M. I. Cybulsky, and, S. Nourshargh. 2007. Getting to the site of inflammation: the leukocyte adhesion cascade updated. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 7:678689.
55. Li, Z.,, H. Jiang,, W. Xie,, Z. Zhang,, A. V. Smrcka, and, D. Wu. 2000. Roles of PLC-beta2 and -beta3 and PI3Kgamma in chemoattractant-mediated signal transduction. Science 287:10461049.
56. Lin, M.,, E. Carlson,, E. Diaconu, and, E. Pearlman. 2007. CXCL1/KC and CXCL5/LIX are selectively produced by corneal fibroblasts and mediate neutrophil infiltration to the corneal stroma in LPS keratitis. J. Leukoc. Biol. 81:786792.
57. Lira, S. A.,, P. Zalamea,, J. N. Heinrich,, M. E. Fuentes,, D. Carrasco,, A. C. Lewin,, D. S. Barton,, S. Durham, and, R. Bravo. 1994. Expression of the chemokine N51/KC in the thymus and epidermis of transgenic mice results in marked infiltration of a single class of inflammatory cells. J. Exp. Med. 180:20392048.
58. Lu, B.,, B. J. Rutledge,, L. Gu,, J. Fiorillo,, N. W. Lukacs,, S. L. Kunkel,, R. North,, C. Gerard, and, B. J. Rollins. 1998. Abnormalities in monocyte recruitment and cytokine expression in monocyte chemoattractant protein 1-deficient mice. J. Exp. Med. 187:601608.
59. Luther, S. A.,, H. L. Tang,, P. L. Hyman,, A. G. Farr, and, J. G. Cyster. 2000. Coexpression of the chemokines ELC and SLC by T zone stromal cells and deletion of the ELC gene in the plt/plt mouse. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:1269412699.
60. Mantovani, A.,, A. Sica, and, M. Locati. 2007. New vistas on macrophage differentiation and activation. Eur. J. Immunol. 37:1416.
61. Mantovani, A.,, A. Sica,, S. Sozzani,, P. Allavena,, A. Vecchi, and, M. Locati. 2004. The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization. Trends Immunol. 25:677686.
62. Martin, C.,, P. C. E. Burdon,, G. Bridger,, J.-C. Gutierrez-Ramos,, T. J. Williams, and, S. M. Rankin. 2003. The balance between chemokines acting via CXCR4 and CXCR2 determines the release of neutrophils from the bone marrow and their return following senescence. Immunity 19:583593.
63. Martinez, F. O.,, S. Gordon,, M. Locati, and, A. Mantovani. 2006. Transcriptional profiling of the human monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and polarization: new molecules and patterns of gene expression. J. Immunol. 177:73037311.
64. McColl, S. R.,, and I. Clark-Lewis. 1999. Inhibition of murine neutrophil recruitment in vivo by CXC chemokine receptor antagonists. J. Immunol. 163:28292835.
65. McDonald, P. H.,, C. W. Chow,, W. E. Miller,, S. A. Laporte,, M. E. Field,, F. T. Lin,, R. J. Davis, and, R. J. Lefkowitz. 2000. Beta-arrestin 2: a receptor-regulated MAPK scaffold for the activation of JNK3. Science 290:15741577.
66. McWilliam, A. S.,, S. Napoli,, A. M. Marsh,, F. L. Pemper,, D. J. Nelson,, C. L. Pimm,, P. A. Stumbles,, T. N. Wells, and, P. G. Holt. 1996. Dendritic cells are recruited into the airway epithelium during the inflammatory response to a broad spectrum of stimuli. J. Exp. Med. 184:24292432.
67. Mehrad, B.,, R. M. Strieter,, T. A. Moore,, W. C. Tsai,, S. A. Lira, and, T. J. Standiford. 1999. CXC chemokine receptor-2 ligands are necessary components of neutrophil-mediated host defense in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J. Immunol. 163:60866094.
68. Merad, M.,, P. Hoffmann,, E. Ranheim,, S. Slaymaker,, M. G. Manz,, S. A. Lira,, I. Charo,, D. N. Cook,, I. L. Weissman,, S. Strober, and, E. G. Engleman. 2004. Depletion of host Langerhans cells before transplantation of donor alloreactive T cells prevents skin graft-versus-host disease. Nat. Med. 10:510517.
69. Miura, M.,, X. Fu,, Q. W. Zhang,, D. G. Remick, and, R. L. Fairchild. 2001. Neutralization of Gro alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 attenuates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Am. J. Pathol. 159:21372145.
70. Murphy, P. M.,, and H. L. Tiffany. 1991. Cloning of complementary DNA encoding a functional human interleukin-8 receptor. Science 253:12801283.
71. Nagira, M.,, A. Sato,, S. Miki,, T. Imai, and, O. Yoshie. 1999. Enhanced HIV-1 replication by chemokines constitutively expressed in secondary lymphoid tissues. Virology 264:422426.
72. Neel, N. F.,, E. Schutyser,, J. Sai,, G. H. Fan, and, A. Richmond. 2005. Chemokine receptor internalization and intra-cellular trafficking. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16:637658.
73. Nelken, N. A.,, S. R. Coughlin,, D. Gordon, and, J. N. Wilcox. 1991. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in human atheromatous plaques. J. Clin. Invest. 88:11211127.
74. Ngo, V. N.,, H. L. Tang, and, J. G. Cyster. 1998. Epstein-Barr virus-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine is expressed by dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues and strongly attracts naive T cells and activated B cells. J. Exp. Med. 188:181191.
75. Nourshargh, S.,, J. A. Perkins,, H. J. Showell,, K. Matsushima,, T. J. Williams, and, P. D. Collins. 1992. A comparative study of the neutrophil stimulatory activity in vitro and proinflammatory properties in vivo of 72 amino acid and 77 amino acid IL-8. J. Immunol. 148:106111.
76. Oquendo, P.,, J. Alberta,, D. Z. Wen,, J. L. Graycar,, R. Derynck, and, C. D. Stiles. 1989. The platelet-derived growth factor-inducible KC gene encodes a secretory protein related to platelet alpha-granule proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 264:41334137.
77. Passlick, B.,, D. Flieger, and, H. W. Ziegler-Heitbrock. 1989. Identification and characterization of a novel monocyte sub-population in human peripheral blood. Blood 74:25272534.
78. Penton-Rol, G.,, N. Polentarutti,, W. Luini,, A. Borsatti,, R. Mancinelli,, A. Sica,, S. Sozzani, and, A. Mantovani. 1998. Selective inhibition of expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2 in human monocytes by IFN-gamma. J. Immunol. 160:38693873.
79. Podolin, P. L.,, B. J. Bolognese,, J. J. Foley,, D. B. Schmidt,, P. T. Buckley,, K. L. Widdowson,, Q. Jin,, J. R. White,, J. M. Lee,, R. B. Goodman,, T. R. Hagen,, O. Kajikawa,, L. A. Marshall,, D. W. Hay, and, H. M. Sarau. 2002. A potent and selective nonpeptide antagonist of CXCR2 inhibits acute and chronic models of arthritis in the rabbit. J. Immunol. 169:64356444.
80. Proost, P.,, C. De Wolf-Peeters,, R. Conings,, G. Opdenakker,, A. Billiau, and, J. Van Damme. 1993. Identification of a novel granulocyte chemotactic protein (GCP-2) from human tumor cells. J. Immunol. 150:10001010.
81. Qu, C.,, E. W. Edwards,, F. Tacke,, V. Angeli,, J. Llodra,, G. Sanchez-Schmitz,, A. Garin,, N. S. Haque,, W. Peters,, N. van Rooijen,, C. Sanchez-Torres,, J. Bromberg,, I. F. Charo,, S. Jung,, S. A. Lira, and, G. J. Randolph. 2004. Role of CCR8 and other chemokine pathways in the migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells to lymph nodes. J. Exp. Med. 200:12311241.
82. Rajarathnam, K.,, B. D. Sykes,, B. Dewald,, M. Baggiolini, and, I. Clark-Lewis. 1999. Disulfide bridges in interleukin-8 probed using non-natural disulfide analogues: dissociation of roles in structure from function. Biochemistry 38:76537658.
83. Ramirez, B. L.,, O. M. Howard,, H. F. Dong,, T. Edamatsu,, P. Gao,, M. Hartlein, and, M. Kron. 2006. Brugia malayi asparaginyl-transfer RNA synthetase induces chemotaxis of human leukocytes and activates G-protein-coupled receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. J. Infect. Dis. 193:11641171.
84. Randolph, G. J.,, G. Sanchez-Schmitz,, R. M. Liebman, and, K. Schakel. 2002. The CD16(+) (FcgammaRIII(+)) subset of human monocytes preferentially becomes migratory dendritic cells in a model tissue setting. J. Exp. Med. 196:517527.
85. Rankin, S. M.,, S. Parthasarathy, and, D. Steinberg. 1991. Evidence for a dominant role of lipoxygenase(s) in the oxidation of LDL by mouse peritoneal macrophages. J. Lipid Res. 32:449456.
86. Reutershan, J.,, M. A. Morris,, T. L. Burcin,, D. F. Smith,, D. Chang,, M. S. Saprito, and, K. Ley. 2006. Critical role of endothelial CXCR2 in LPS-induced neutrophil migration into the lung. J. Clin. Invest. 116:695702.
87. Robinson, E. A.,, T. Yoshimura,, E. J. Leonard,, S. Tanaka,, P. R. Griffin,, J. Shabanowitz,, D. F. Hunt, and, E. Appella. 1989. Complete amino acid sequence of a human monocyte chemoattractant, a putative mediator of cellular immune reactions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:18501854.
88. Rot, A. 2005. Contribution of Duffy antigen to chemokine function. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16:687694.
89. Sallusto, F.,, P. Schaerli,, P. Loetscher,, C. Schaniel,, D. Lenig,, C. R. Mackay,, S. Qin, and, A. Lanzavecchia. 1998. Rapid and coordinated switch in chemokine receptor expression during dendritic cell maturation. Eur. J. Immunol. 28:27602769.
90. Sasaki, T.,, J. Irie-Sasaki,, R. G. Jones,, A. J. Oliveira-dos-Santos,, W. L. Stanford,, B. Bolon,, A. Wakeham,, A. Itie,, D. Bouchard,, I. Kozieradzki,, N. Joza,, T. W. Mak,, P. S. Ohashi,, A. Suzuki, and, J. M. Penninger. 2000. Function of PI3Kgamma in thymocyte development, T cell activation, and neutrophil migration [see comments]. Science 287:10401046.
91. Schall, T. J.,, K. Bacon,, K. I. Toy, and, D. V. Goeddel. 1990. Selective attraction of monocytes and T lymphocytes of the memory phenotype by cytokine RANTES. Nature 347:669671.
92. Schioppa, T.,, B. Uranchimeg,, A. Saccani,, S. K. Biswas,, A. Doni,, A. Rapisarda,, S. Bernasconi,, S. Saccani,, M. Nebuloni,, L. Vago,, A. Mantovani,, G. Melillo, and, A. Sica. 2003. Regulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by hypoxia. J. Exp. Med. 198:13911402.
93. Schröder, J.-M.,, U. Mrowietz, and, E. Christophers. 1988. Purification and partial biological characterization of a human lymphocyte-derived peptide with potent neutrophil-stimulating activity. J. Immunol. 140:35343540.
94. Sekido, N.,, N. Mukaida,, A. Harada,, I. Nakanish,, Y. Watanade, and, K. Matsushima. 1993. Prevention of lung reperfusion injury in rabbits by a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-8. Nature 365:654657.
95. Serbina, N. V.,, and E. G. Pamer. 2006. Monocyte emigration from bone marrow during bacterial infection requires signals mediated by chemokine receptor CCR2. Nat. Immunol. 7:311317.
96. Sica, A.,, A. Saccani,, A. Borsatti,, C. A. Power,, T. N. Wells,, W. Luini,, N. Polentarutti,, S. Sozzani, and, A. Mantovani. 1997. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide rapidly inhibits expression of C-C chemokine receptors in human monocytes. J. Exp. Med. 185:969974.
97. Sozzani, S.,, S. Ghezzi,, G. Iannolo,, W. Luini,, A. Borsatti,, N. Polentarutti,, A. Sica,, M. Locati,, C. Mackay,, T. N. Wells,, P. Biswas,, E. Vicenzi,, G. Poli, and, A. Mantovani. 1998. Interleukin 10 increases CCR5 expression and HIV infection in human monocytes. J. Exp. Med. 187:439444.
98. Speyer, C. L.,, H. Gao,, N. J. Rancilio,, T. A. Neff,, G. B. Huffnagle,, J. V. Sarma, and, P. A. Ward. 2004. Novel chemokine responsiveness and mobilization of neutrophils during sepsis. Am. J. Pathol. 165:21872196.
99. Stein, O.,, Y. Dabach,, M. Ben-Naim,, G. Halperin,, I. F. Charo, and, Y. Stein. 2003. In CCR2−/−mice monocyte recruitment and egress of LDL cholesterol in vivo is impaired. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 300:477481.
100. Stevenson, C. S.,, K. Coote,, R. Webster,, H. Johnston,, H. C. Atherton,, A. Nicholls,, J. Giddings,, R. Sugar,, A. Jackson,, N. J. Press,, Z. Brown,, K. Butler, and, H. Danahay. 2005. Characterization of cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory and mucus hypersecretory changes in rat lung and the role of CXCR2 ligands in mediating this effect. Am. J. Physiol. 288:L514L522.
101. Su, Y.,, S. K. Raghuwanshi,, Y. Yu,, L. B. Nanney,, R. M. Richardson, and, A. Richmond. 2005. Altered CXCR2 signaling in beta-arrestin-2-deficient mouse models. J. Immunol. 175:53965402.
102. Sugano, S.,, M. Y. Stoeckle, and, H. Hanafusa. 1987. Transformation by Rous sarcoma virus induces a novel gene with homology to a mitogenic platelet protein. Cell 49:321328.
103. Tacke, F.,, D. Alvarez,, T. J. Kaplan,, C. Jakubzick,, R. Span-broek,, J. Llodra,, A. Garin,, J. Liu,, M. Mack,, N. van Rooijen,, S. A. Lira,, A. J. Habenicht, and, G. J. Randolph. 2007. Monocyte subsets differentially employ CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1 to accumulate within atherosclerotic plaques. J. Clin. Invest. 117:185194.
104. Thatcher, T. H.,, N. A. McHugh,, R. W. Egan,, R. W. Chapman,, J. A. Hey,, C. K. Turner,, M. R. Redonnet,, K. E. Seweryniak,, P. J. Sime, and, R. P. Phipps. 2005. Role of CXCR2 in cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation. Am. J. Physiol. 289:L322L328.
105. Traves, S. L.,, S. J. Smith,, P. J. Barnes, and, L. E. Donnelly. 2004. Specific CXC but not CC chemokines cause elevated monocyte migration in COPD: a role for CXCR2. J. Leukoc. Biol. 76:441450.
106. Tsai, W. C.,, R. M. Strieter,, B. Mehrad,, M. W. Newstead,, X. Zeng, and, T. J. Standiford. 2000. CXC chemokine receptor CXCR2 is essential for protective innate host response in murine Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Infect. Immun. 68:42894296.
107. Tsou, C. L.,, W. Peters,, Y. Si,, S. Slaymaker,, A. M. Aslanian,, S. P. Weisberg,, M. Mack, and, I. F. Charo. 2007. Critical roles for CCR2 and MCP-3 in monocyte mobilization from bone marrow and recruitment to inflammatory sites. J. Clin. Invest. 117:902909.
108. Tyner, J. W.,, O. Uchida,, N. Kajiwara,, E. Y. Kim,, A. C. Patel,, M. P. O’Sullivan,, M. J. Walter,, R. A. Schwendener,, D. N. Cook,, T. M. Danoff, and, M. J. Holtzman. 2005. CCL5-CCR5 interaction provides antiapoptotic signals for macrophage survival during viral infection. Nat. Med. 11:11801187.
109. Valente, A. J.,, D. T. Graves,, C. E. Vialle-Valentin,, R. Delgado, and, C. J. Schwartz. 1988. Purification of a monocyte chemotactic factor secreted by nonhuman primate vascular cells in culture. Biochemistry 27:41624168.
110. Van Den Steen, P. E.,, P. Proost,, A. Wuyts,, J. Van Damme, and, G. Opdenakker. 2000. Neutrophil gelatinase B potentiates interleukin-8 tenfold by aminoterminal processing, whereas it degrades CTAP-III, PF-4, and GRO-alpha and leaves RANTES and MCP-2 intact. Blood 96:26732681.
111. Viola, A.,, and A. D. Luster. 2008. Chemokines and their receptors: drug targets in immunity and inflammation. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 48:171197.
112. Walz, A.,, and M. Baggiolini. 1989. Novel cleavage product of b-thromboglobulin formed in cultures of stimulated mono-nuclear cells activates human neutrophils. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 159:969975.
113. Walz, A.,, and M. Baggiolini. 1990. Generation of the neutrophil-activating peptide NAP-2 from platelet basic protein or connective tissue-activating peptide III through monocyte proteases. J. Exp. Med. 171:449454.
114. Walz, A.,, R. Burgener,, B. Car,, M. Baggiolini,, S. L. Kunkel, and, R. M. Strieter. 1991. Structure and neutrophil-activating properties of a novel inflammatory peptide (ENA-78) with homology to interleukin 8. J. Exp. Med. 174:13551362.
115. Walz, A.,, P. Peveri,, H. Aschauer, and, M. Baggiolini. 1987. Purification and amino acid sequencing of NAF, a novel neutrophil-activating factor produced by monocytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 149:755761.
116. Weathington, N. M.,, A. H. van Houwelingen,, B. D. Noerager,, P. L. Jackson,, A. D. Kraneveld,, F. S. Galin,, G. Folk-erts,, F. P. Nijkamp, and, J. E. Blalock. 2006. A novel peptide CXCR ligand derived from extracellular matrix degradation during airway inflammation. Nat. Med. 12:317323.
117. Weber, C.,, K. U. Belge,, P. von Hundelshausen,, G. Draude,, B. Steppich,, M. Mack,, M. Frankenberger,, K. S. Weber, and, H. W. Ziegler-Heitbrock. 2000. Differential chemokine receptor expression and function in human monocyte subpopulations. J. Leukoc. Biol. 67:699704.
118. Wengner, A. M.,, S. C. Pitchford,, R. C. Furze, and, S. M. Rankin. 2008. The co-ordinated action of G-CSF and ELR+CXC chemokines in neutrophil mobilisation during acute inflammation. Blood 111:4249.
119. Willard, S. S.,, and P. N. Devreotes. 2006. Signaling pathways mediating chemotaxis in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. Eur. J. Cell Biol. 85:897904.
120. Willimann, K.,, D. F. Legler,, M. Loetscher,, R. S. Roos,, M. B. Delgado,, I. Clark-Lewis,, M. Baggiolini, and, B. Moser. 1998. The chemokine SLC is expressed in T cell areas of lymph nodes and mucosal lymphoid tissues and attracts activated T cells via CCR7. Eur. J. Immunol. 28:20252034.
121. Yagihashi, A.,, T. Tsuruma,, K. Tarumi,, T. Kameshima,, T. Yajima,, Y. Yanai,, N. Watanabe, and, K. Hirata. 1998. Prevention of small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat by anti-cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant monoclonal antibody. J. Surg. Res. 78:9296.
122. Yamagami, S.,, Y. Tokuda,, K. Ishii,, H. Tanaka, and, N. Endo. 1994. cDNA cloning and functional expression of a human monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 receptor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 202:11561162.
123. Yla-Herttuala, S.,, B. A. Lipton,, M. E. Rosenfeld,, T. Sarkioja,, T. Yoshimura,, E. J. Leonard,, J. L. Witztum, and, D. Steinberg. 1991. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in macrophage-rich areas of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:52525256.
124. Yoshimura, T.,, K. Matsushima,, S. Tanaka,, E. A. Robinson,, E. Appella,, J. J. Oppenheim, and, E. J. Leonard. 1987. Purification of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemo-tactic factor that has peptide sequence similarity to other host defense cytokines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:92339237.
125. Zernecke, A.,, E. A. Liehn,, J. L. Gao,, W. A. Kuziel,, P. M. Murphy, and, C. Weber. 2006. Deficiency in CCR5 but not CCR1 protects against neointima formation in atherosclerosis-prone mice: involvement of IL-10. Blood 107:42404243.
126. Ziegler-Heitbrock, H. W.,, G. Fingerle,, M. Strobel,, W. Schraut,, F. Stelter,, C. Schutt,, B. Passlick, and, A. Pforte. 1993. The novel subset of CD14+/CD16+ blood monocytes exhibits features of tissue macrophages. Eur. J. Immunol. 23:20532058.


Generic image for table

Monocyte subsets and their expression of chemokine receptors

Citation: Williams T, Rankin S. 2009. Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking, p 93-106. In Russell D, Gordon S (ed), Phagocyte-Pathogen Interactions. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816650.ch5
Generic image for table

Differential profiles of chemokine production by classically and alternatively activated macrophages

Citation: Williams T, Rankin S. 2009. Chemokines and Phagocyte Trafficking, p 93-106. In Russell D, Gordon S (ed), Phagocyte-Pathogen Interactions. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816650.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error