1887

Chapter 2 : Overview of Taxonomy

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Overview of Taxonomy, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816698/9781555816032_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816698/9781555816032_Chap02-2.gif

Abstract:

The work of taxonomy is carried out by groups of specialist virologists, each group being responsible for monitoring developments in a particular field of virology, usually a virus family (e.g., the ), and for proposing new taxonomy. The ultimate aim of taxonomy is to construct a hierarchical classification (species < genus < family < order) that reproduces phylogeny. Members of most picornavirus species can be grown in cell culture, but fastidious strains and even species also exist. The effects of virus replication on cellular morphology and physiology vary from cytolysis (common) or strong inhibition of cellular macromolecular synthesis to an apparently minimal influence. Human rhinovirus infections appear to be restricted to respiratory mucosa and result in local disease symptoms, while human enteroviruses, irrespective of the species, show a range of disease severity from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening systemic infections of the newborn or to poliomyelitis or other neurological diseases with potentially persisting sequelae. Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in horses but may also infect other species, including humans (causing an influenza-like illness). In humans, the is transmitted feco-orally and especially through contaminated water and seafood, causing outbreaks of acute hepatitis. Combining the cardio- and aphthoviruses has also been suggested and would presumably include the erbo-, seneca-, tescho-, and cosaviruses. These changes would only be necessary if phylogenies were compromised by the taxonomy.

Citation: Knowles N, Hovi T, King A, Stanway G. 2010. Overview of Taxonomy, p 19-32. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch2
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1a.
Figure 1a.

Unrooted neighbor-joining tree showing the relationships between picornavirus species and genera in the P1 capsid and the 3D polymerase. Predicted amino acid sequences were compared using the Jones-Taylor-Thornton (JTT) matrix-based model, and the branching (shown as a percentage) was tested by bootstrap analysis (1,000 pseudoreplicates).

Citation: Knowles N, Hovi T, King A, Stanway G. 2010. Overview of Taxonomy, p 19-32. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 1b.
Figure 1b.

Unrooted neighbor-joining tree showing the relationships between picornavirus species and genera in the P1 capsid and the 3D polymerase. Predicted amino acid sequences were compared using the Jones-Taylor-Thornton (JTT) matrix-based model, and the branching (shown as a percentage) was tested by bootstrap analysis (1,000 pseudoreplicates).

Citation: Knowles N, Hovi T, King A, Stanway G. 2010. Overview of Taxonomy, p 19-32. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816698.ch02
1. Abed, Y., and, G. Boivin. 2008. New Saffold cardioviruses in 3 children, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:834836.
2. Bakhshesh, M.,, E. Groppelli,, M. M. Willcocks,, E. Royall,, G. J. Belsham, and, L. O. Roberts. 2008. The picornavirus avian encephalomyelitis virus possesses a hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry site element. J. Virol. 82:19932003.
3. Black, W. D.,, C. A. Hartley,, N. P. Ficorilli, and, M. J. Studdert. 2005. Sequence variation divides Equine rhinitis B virus into three distinct phylogenetic groups that correlate with serotype and acid stability. J. Gen. Virol. 86:23232332.
4. Black, W. D., and, M. J. Studdert. 2006. Formerly unclassified, acid-stable equine picornaviruses are a third equine rhinitis B virus serotype in the genus Erbovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 87:30233027.
5. Blinkova, O.,, A. Kapoor,, J. Victoria,, M. Jones,, N. Wolfe,, A. Naeem,, S. Shaukat,, S. Sharif,, M. M. Alam,, M. Angez,, S. Zaidi, and, E. L. Delwart. 2009. Cardioviruses are genetically diverse and cause common enteric infections in South Asian children. J. Virol. 83:46314641.
6. Borman, A. M., and, K. M. Kean. 1997. Intact eukaryotic initiation factor 4G is required for hepatitis A virus internal initiation of translation. Virology 237:129136.
7. Calnek, B. W. 2003. Avian encephalomyelitis, p. 271–281. In Y. M. Saif,, H. J. Barnes,, J. R. Glisson,, A. M. Fadly,, L. R. McDougald, and, D. E. Swayne (ed.), Diseases of Poultry, 11th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.
8. Chiu, C. Y.,, A. L. Greninger,, K. Kanada,, T. Kwok,, K. F. Fischer,, C. Runckel,, J. K. Louie,, C. A. Glaser,, S. Yagi,, D. P. Schnurr,, T. D. Haggerty,, J. Parsonnet,, D. Ganem, and, J. L. DeRisi. 2008. Identification of cardioviruses related to Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:1412414129.
9. Christina, J., and, M. Costa-Mattioli. 2007. Genetic variability and molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus. Virus Res. 127:151157.
10. Demakov, G. P.,, S. N. Ostashev,, V. N. Ogordnikova, and, M. A. Shilov. 1975. Infection of brown rats with the duck hepatitis virus. Veterinariia 3:5758. (In Russian.)
11. Doherty, M.,, D. Todd,, N. McFerran, and, E. M. Hoey. 1999. Sequence analysis of a porcine enterovirus serotype 1 isolate: relationships with other picornaviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 80:19291941.
12. Drake, M. T.,, L. K. Riley, and, R. S. Livingston. 2008. Differential susceptibility of SD and CD rats to a novel rat theilovirus. Comp. Med. 58:458464.
13. Drexler, J. F.,, L. K. de Souza Luna,, A. Stöcker,, P. Silva Almeida,, T. C. Medrado Ribeiro,, N. Petersen,, P. Herzog,, C. Pedroso,, H. I. Huppertz,, H. da Costa Ribeiro, Jr.,, S. Baumgarte, and, C. Drosten. 2008. Circulation of 3 lineages of a novel Saffold cardiovirus in humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:13981405.
14. Escribano-Romero, E.,, M. A. Jiménez-Clavero, and, V. Ley. 2000. Swine vesicular disease virus. Pathology of the disease and molecular characteristics of the virion. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 1:119126.
15. Gough, R. E.,, E. D. Borland,, I. F. Keymer, and, J. C. Stuart. 1985. An outbreak of duck hepatitis type II in commercial ducks. Avian Pathol. 14:227236.
16. Gough, R. E.,, M. S. Collins,, E. Borland, and, L. F. Keymer. 1984. Astrovirus-like particles associated with hepatitis in ducklings. Vet. Rec. 114:279.
17. Greninger, A. L.,, C. Runckel,, C. Y. Chiu,, T. Haggerty,, J. Parsonnet,, D. Ganem, and, J. L. DeRisi. 2009. The complete genome of klassevirus: a novel picornavirus in pediatric stool. Virol. J. 6:82.
18. Haider, S. A., and, B. W. Calnek. 1979. In vitro isolation, propagation and characterization of duck hepatitis virus type III. Avian Dis. 23:715729.
19. Hales, L. M.,, N. J. Knowles,, P. S. Reddy,, L. Xu,, C. Hay, and, P. L. Hallenbeck. 2008. Complete genome sequence analysis of Seneca Valley virus-001, a novel oncolytic picornavirus. J. Gen. Virol. 89:12651275.
20. Hamblin, C.,, N. J. Knowles, and, R. S. Hedger. 1985. Isolation and identification of bovid enteroviruses from free-living wild animals in Botswana. Vet. Rec. 116:238239.
21. Harvala, H.,, I. Robertson,, T. Chieochansin,, E. C. McWilliam Leitch,, K. Templeton, and, P. Simmonds. 2009. Specific association of human parechovirus type 3 with sepsis and fever in young infants, as identified by direct typing of cerebrospinal fluid samples. J. Infect. Dis. 199:17531760.
22. Harvala, H., and, P. Simmonds. 2009. Human parechoviruses: biology, epidemiology and clinical significance. J. Clin. Virol. 45:19.
23. Hellen, C. U., and, S. de Breyne. 2007. A distinct group of hepacivirus/pestivirus-like internal ribosomal entry sites in members of diverse picornavirus genera: evidence for modular exchange of functional noncoding RNA elements by recombination. J. Virol. 81:58505863.
24. Hinton, T. M., and, B. S. Crabb. 2001. The novel picornavirus Equine rhinitis B virus contains a strong type II internal ribosomal entry site which functions similarly to that of Encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Gen. Virol. 82:22572269.
25. Hinton, T. M.,, N. Ross-Smith,, S. Warner,, G. J. Belsham, and, B. S. Crabb. 2002. Conservation of L and 3C proteinase activities across distantly related aphthoviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 83:31113121.
26. Hollister, J.,, A. Vagnozzi,, N. J. Knowles, and, E. Rieder. 2008. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 show it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virology 373:411425.
27. Holtz, L. R.,, S. R. Finkbeiner,, C. D. Kirkwood, and, D. Wang. 2008. Identification of a novel picornavirus related to cosaviruses in a child with acute diarrhea. Virol. J. 5:159.
28. Holtz, L. R.,, S. R. Finkbeiner,, G. Zhao,, C. D. Kirkwood,, R. Girones,, J. M. Pipas, and, D. Wang. 2009. Klassevirus 1, a previously undescribed member of the family Picornaviridae, is globally widespread. Virol. J. 6:86.
29. Huang, J. A.,, N. Ficorilli,, C. A. Hartley,, R. S. Wilcox,, M. Weiss, and, M. J. Studdert. 2001. Equine rhinitis B virus: a new sero-type. J. Gen. Virol. 82:26412645.
30. Hughes, P. J., and, G. Stanway. 2000. The 2A proteins of three diverse picornaviruses are related to each other and to the H-rev107 family of proteins involved in the control of cell proliferation. J. Gen. Virol. 81:201207.
31. Imada, T.,, S. Yamaguchi,, M. Mase,, K. Tsukamoto,, M. Kubo, and, A. Morooka. 2000. Avian nephritis virus (ANV) as a new member of the family Astroviridae and construction of infectious ANV cDNA. J. Virol. 74:84878493.
32. Johansson, S.,, B. Niklasson,, J. Maizel,, A. E. Gorbalenya, and, A. M. Lindberg. 2002. Molecular analysis of three Ljungan virus isolates reveals a new, close-to-root lineage of the Picornaviridae with a cluster of two unrelated 2A proteins. J. Virol. 76:89208930.
33. Jonassen, C. M.,, T. O. Jonassen, and, B. Grinde. 1998. A common RNA motif in the 3′ end of the genomes of astroviruses, avian infectious bronchitis virus and an equine rhinovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 79:715718.
34. Jones, M. S.,, V. V. Lukashov,, R. D. Ganac, and, D. P. Schnurr. 2007. Discovery of a novel human picornavirus from a pediatric patient presenting with fever of unknown origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:21442150.
35. Kapoor, A.,, J. Victoria,, P. Simmonds,, E. Slikas,, T. Chieochansin,, A. Naeem,, S. Shaukat,, S. Sharif,, M. Masroor Alam,, M. Angez,, C. Wang,, R. W. Shafer,, S. Zaidi, and, E. Delwart. 2008. A highly prevalent and genetically diversified Picornaviridae genus in South Asian children. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:2048220487.
36. Kapoor, A.,, J. Victoria,, P. Simmonds,, C. Wang,, R. W. Shafer,, R. Nims,, O. Nielsen, and, E. Delwart. 2008. A highly divergent picornavirus in a marine mammal. J. Virol. 82:311320.
37. Kim, M. C.,, Y. K. Kwon,, S. J. Joh,, S. J. Kim,, C. Tolf,, J. H. Kim,, H. W. Sung,, A. M. Lindberg, and, J. H. Kwon. 2007. Recent Korean isolates of duck hepatitis virus reveal the presence of a new geno- and serotype when compared to duck hepatitis virus type 1 type strains. Arch. Virol. 152:20592072.
38. Kim, M. C.,, Y. K. Kwon,, S. J. Joh,, A. M. Lindberg,, J. H. Kwon,, J. H. Kim, and, S. J. Kim. 2006. Molecular analysis of duck hepatitis virus type 1 reveals a novel lineage close to the genus Parechovirus in the family Picornaviridae. J. Gen. Virol. 87:33073316.
39. Knowles, N. J. 2005. A pan-picornavirus RT-PCR: identification of novel picornavirus species, abstr. A06. EUROPIC 2005: XIIIth Meeting of the European Study Group on the Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 23 to 29 May 2005.
40. Krumbholz, A.,, M. Dauber,, A. Henke,, E. Birch-Hirschfeld,, N. J. Knowles,, A. Stelzner, and, R. Zell. 2002. Sequencing of porcine enterovirus groups II and III reveals unique features of both virus groups. J. Virol. 76:58135821.
41. Le Gall, O.,, P. Christian,, C. M. Fauquet,, A. M. Q. King,, N. J. Knowles,, N. Nakashima,, G. Stanway, and, A. E. Gorbalenya. 2008. Picornavirales, a proposed order of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses with a pseudo T = 3 virion architecture. Arch. Virol. 153:715727.
42. Levine, P. P., and, J. Fabricant. 1950. A hitherto-undescribed virus disease of ducks in North America. Cornell Vet. 40:7186.
43. Li, F.,, G. F. Browning,, M. J. Studdert, and, B. S. Crabb. 1996. Equine rhinovirus 1 is more closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus than to other picornaviruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:990995.
44. Liang, Z.,, A. S. Manoj Kumar,, M. S. Jones,, N. J. Knowles, and, H. L. Lipton. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of the species Theilovirus: emerging murine and human pathogens. J. Virol. 82:1154511554.
45. Lipton, H. L. 2008. Human Vilyuisk encephalitis. Rev. Med. Virol. 18:347352.
46. Lu, Y. S. 1983. Epidemiological studies on duck viral hepatitis. J. Chinese Soc. Vet. Sic. 9:1118.
47. Martín, J.,, E. Samoilovich,, G. Dunn,, A. Lackenby,, E. Feldman,, A. Heath,, E. Svirchevskaya,, G. Cooper,, M. Yermalovich, and, P. D. Minor. 2002. Isolation of an intertypic poliovirus capsid recombinant from a child with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. J. Virol. 76:1092110928.
48. Marvil, P.,, N. J. Knowles,, A. P. A. Mockett,, P. Britton,, T. D. K. Brown, and, D. Cavanagh. 1999. Avian encephalomyelitis virus is a picornavirus and is most closely related to hepatitis A virus. J. Gen. Virol. 80:653662.
49. Monteyne, P.,, J. F. Bureau, and, M. Brahic. 1997. The infection of mouse by Theiler’s virus: from genetics to immunology. Immunol. Rev. 159:163176.
50. Nateri, A. S.,, P. J. Hughes, and, G. Stanway. 2000. In vivo and in vitro identification of structural and sequence elements of the human parechovirus 5′ untranslated region required for internal initiation. J. Virol. 74:62696277.
51. Nateri, A. S.,, P. J. Hughes, and, G. Stanway. 2002. Terminal RNA replication elements in human parechovirus 1. J. Virol. 76:1311613122.
52. Nollens, H. H.,, R. Rivera,, G. Palacios,, J. F. Wellehan,, J. T. Saliki,, S. L. Caseltine,, C. R. Smith,, E. D. Jensen,, J. Hui,, W. I. Lipkin,, P. K. Yochem,, R. S. Wells,, J. St. Leger, and, S. Venn-Watson. 2009. New recognition of enterovirus infections in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Vet. Microbiol. 139:170175.
53. Oberste, M. S.,, K. Maher,, D. R. Kilpatrick, and, M. A. Pallansch. 1999. Molecular evolution of the human enteroviruses: correlation of serotype with VP1 sequence and application to picornavirus classification. J. Virol. 73:19411948.
54. Oberste, M. S.,, K. Maher, and, M. A. Pallansch. 2003. Genomic evidence that simian virus 2 and six other simian picornaviruses represent a new genus in Picornaviridae. Virology 314:283293.
55. Ohsawa, K.,, Y. Watanabe,, H. Miyata, and, H. Sato. 2003. Genetic analysis of a Theiler-like virus isolated from rats. Comp. Med. 53:191196.
56. Ong, K. C.,, S. Devi,, M. J. Cardosa, and, K. T. Wong. 2010. Formaldehyde-inactivated whole-virus vaccine protects a murine model of enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis against disease. J. Virol. 84:661665.
57. Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. 1988. Seal death. Nature (London) 334:301302.
58. Palmenberg, A. C.,, D. Spiro,, R. Kuzmickas,, S. Wang,, A. Djikeng,, J. A. Rathe,, C. M. Fraser-Liggett, and, S. B. Liggett. 2009. Sequencing and analyses of all known human rhinovirus genomes reveal structure and evolution. Science 324:5559.
59. Reddy, P. S.,, K. D. Burroughs,, L. M. Hales,, S. Ganesh,, B. H. Jones,, N. Idamakanti,, C. Hay,, S. S. Li,, K. L. Skele,, A. J. Vasko,, J. Yang,, D. N. Watkins,, C. M. Rudin, and, P. L. Hallenbeck. 2007. Seneca Valley virus, a systemically deliverable oncolytic picornavirus, and the treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 99:16231633.
60. Reuter, G.,, Á. Boldizsár,, I. Kiss, and, P. Pankovics. 2008. Candidate new species of kobuvirus in porcine hosts. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:19681970.
61. Reuter, G.,, A. Boldizsár, and, P. Pankovics. 2008. Complete nucleotide and amino acid sequences and genetic organization of porcine kobuvirus, a member of a new species in the genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae. Arch. Virol. 154:101108.
62. Smura, T.,, S. Blomqvist,, A. Paananen,, T. Vuorinen,, Z. Sobotová,, V. Bubovica,, O. Ivanova,, T. Hovi, and, M. Roivainen. 2007. Enterovirus surveillance reveals proposed new serotypes and provides new insight into enterovirus 5′-untranslated region evolution. J. Gen. Virol. 88:25202526.
63. Stanway, G.,, F. Brown,, P. Christian,, T. Hovi,, T. Hyypiä,, A. M. Q. King,, N. J. Knowles,, S. M. Lemon,, P. D. Minor,, M. A. Pallansch,, A. C. Palmenberg, and, T. Skern. 2005. Family Picornaviridae, p. 757–778. In C. M. Fauquet,, M. A. Mayo,, J. Maniloff,, U. Desselberger, and, L. A. Ball (ed.), Virus Taxonomy: VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
64. Tauraso, N. M.,, G. E. Coghill, and, M. J. Klutch. 1969. Properties of the attenuated vaccine strain of duck hepatitis virus. Avian Dis. 13:321329.
65. Todd, D.,, V. J. Smyth,, N. W. Ball,, B. M. Donnelly,, M. Wylie,, N. J. Knowles, and, B. M. Adair. 2009. Identification of chicken enterovirus-like viruses, duck hepatitis virus (DHV) type 2 and DHV type 3 as astroviruses. Avian Pathol. 38:2130.
66. Tolf, C.,, M. Gullberg,, E. S. Johansson,, R. B. Tesh,, B. Andersson, and, A. M. Lindberg. 2009. Molecular characterization of a novel Ljungan virus (Parechovirus; Picornaviridae) reveals a fourth genotype and indicates ancestral recombination. J. Gen. Virol. 90:843853.
67. Toth, T. E. 1969. Studies of an agent causing mortality among ducklings immune to duck virus hepatitis. Avian Dis. 13:834846.
68. Tseng, C. H.,, N. J. Knowles, and, H. J. Tsai. 2007. Molecular analysis of type 1 duck hepatitis virus indicated that it should be assigned to a new genus. Virus Res. 123:190203.
69. Tseng, C. H., and, H. J. Tsai. 2007. Sequence analysis of a duck picornavirus isolate indicates that it together with porcine enterovirus type 8 and simian picornavirus type 2 should be assigned to a new picornavirus genus. Virus Res. 129:104114.
70. Venkataraman, S.,, S. P. Reddy,, J. Loo,, N. Idamakanti,, P. L. Hallenbeck, and, V. S. Reddy. 2008. Structure of Seneca Valley virus-001: an oncolytic picornavirus representing a new genus. Structure 16:15551561.
71. Wernery, U.,, N. J. Knowles,, C. Hamblin,, R. Wernery,, S. Joseph,, J. Kinne, and, P. Nagy. 2008. Abortions in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) caused by equine rhinitis A virus. J. Gen. Virol. 89:660666.
72. Woolcock, P. R. 2003. Duck hepatitis, p. 343–354. In Y. M. Saif,, H. J. Barnes,, J. R. Glisson,, A. M. Fadly,, L. R. McDougald, and, D. E. Swayne (ed.), Diseases of Poultry, 11th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.
73. Wutz, G.,, H. Auer,, N. Nowotny,, B. Grosse,, T. Skern, and, E. Kuechler. 1996. Equine rhinovirus serotypes 1 and 2: relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses. J. Gen. Virol. 77:17191730.
74. Yamashita, T.,, M. Ito,, Y. Kabashima,, H. Tsuzuki,, A. Fujiura, and, K. Sakae. 2003. Isolation and characterization of a new species of kobuvirus associated with cattle. J. Gen. Virol. 84:30693077.
75. Yamashita, T.,, K. Sakae,, H. Tsuzuki,, Y. Suzuki,, N. Ishikawa,, N. Takeda,, T. Miyamura, and, S. Yamazaki. 1998. Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of Aichi virus, a distinct member of the Picornaviridae associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans. J. Virol. 72:84088412.
76. Yu, J. M.,, M. Jin,, Q. Zhang,, H. Y. Li,, D. D. Li,, Z. Q. Xu,, J. S. Li,, S. X. Cui,, S. H. Yang,, N. Liu, and, Z. J. Duan. 2009. Candidate porcine kobuvirus, China. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:823825.
77. Zell, R.,, M. Dauber,, A. Krumbholz,, A. Henke,, E. Birch-Hirschfeld,, A. Stelzner,, D. Prager, and, R. Wurm. 2001. Porcine teschoviruses comprise at least eleven distinct serotypes: molecular and evolutionary aspects. J. Virol. 75:16201631.
78. Zheng, T. 2007. Characterisation of two enteroviruses isolated from Australian brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand. Arch. Virol. 152:191198.
79. Zimmerman, J. J. 1994. Encephalomyocarditis, p. 423–436. In G. W. Beran and, J. H. Steele (ed.), CRC Handbook Series of Zoonoses. Section B: Viral, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Classification and comparative features of picornaviruses

Citation: Knowles N, Hovi T, King A, Stanway G. 2010. Overview of Taxonomy, p 19-32. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Natural host ranges and associated diseases of picornaviruses

Citation: Knowles N, Hovi T, King A, Stanway G. 2010. Overview of Taxonomy, p 19-32. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Unassigned picorna-like viruses

Citation: Knowles N, Hovi T, King A, Stanway G. 2010. Overview of Taxonomy, p 19-32. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error