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Chapter 19 : Adaptive Immune Responses

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Abstract:

The main protection against virus-induced disease is the immune system. This chapter provides a brief overview of the adaptive immune response and discusses its relevance to picornavirus infection. The immune response can be classified in several ways, but it may be most logical to do so by antigen specificity. Thus, immune responses may be termed non-antigen-specific or antigen-specific responses. A small subset of T cells expresses a different T-cell receptor (TCR), with one γ and one δ chain; the function and target antigens of these γ δ T cells are less well defined but studies, described later in this chapter, suggest that these cells may regulate picornavirus pathogenesis. Memory B cells probably do not secrete antibody; instead, they maintain cell surface expression of their immunoglobulin receptors so that they can recognize their specific antigen. The benefits of antiviral antibodies in almost all viral infections (and antiviral vaccines) are abundantly clear. High levels of neutralizing antibody can protect animals from infection and disease, and in certain instances (e.g., rabies virus, hepatitis B virus, and Junin virus infections) postexposure antibody therapy is often recommended and is efficacious. The chapter summarizes the events that follow virus infection in naïve and immune hosts.

Citation: Kemball C, Fujinami R, Whitton J. 2010. Adaptive Immune Responses, p 303-319. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch19
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Figure 1.

Diagrammatic representation of antigen presentation during bacterial and viral infections and of the differences between the two. As is the norm in biology, exceptions exist. For example, some bacteria are intracellular, and they induce relatively strong CD8 T-cell responses; is an excellent example. Conversely, some viruses are so well adapted that they almost completely evade the host CD8 T-cell response, for example, some enteroviruses, as discussed in this chapter.

Citation: Kemball C, Fujinami R, Whitton J. 2010. Adaptive Immune Responses, p 303-319. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch19
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Tables

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Table 1.

Biological roles of CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes are defined by the anatomical distribution and function of the MHC molecules with which they interact

Citation: Kemball C, Fujinami R, Whitton J. 2010. Adaptive Immune Responses, p 303-319. In Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R (ed), The Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816698.ch19

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