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Chapter 1 : Introduction: Biological Responses to DNA Damage

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Introduction: Biological Responses to DNA Damage, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter provides an introduction to biological responses to DNA damage. Given the huge spectrum of damage that the genome can suffer either spontaneously or from exposure to genotoxic environmental agents, it is not surprising that cells have evolved a multitude of mechanisms by which either damaged DNA is removed from the genome or the potentially lethal effects caused by interference with normal DNA metabolism (especially replication and transcription) are otherwise mitigated. The chapter summarizes the spectrum of biological responses to DNA damage that have been identified thus far. DNA repair can occur by one of two fundamental mechanisms that involve either the reversal of DNA damage or the excision of damaged elements. In addition to DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance, both of which represent biological responses that directly process sites of damage in the genome, prokaryotic and especially eukaryotic cells have evolved responses that greatly facilitate the efficiency of repair and damage tolerance. Various types of DNA damage and/or arrested DNA replication activate specific cell cycle checkpoints that result in arrested cell cycle progression, thereby providing increased time for repair or damage tolerance to occur.

Citation: Errol C, Graham C, Wolfram S, Richard D, Roger A, Tom E. 2006. Introduction: Biological Responses to DNA Damage, p 3-7. In DNA Repair and Mutagenesis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816704.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

DNA Synthesis
0.6545271
DNA Damage and Repair
0.631462
Genetic Recombination
0.61882555
DNA Damage
0.5909089
Nucleotide Excision Repair
0.58120483
Base Excision Repair
0.56275386
DNA Repair
0.5323456
0.6545271
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References

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1. Crick, F., 1974. The double helix: a personal view. Nature 248:766769.
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7. Nakamura, J.,, V. E. Walker,, P. B. Upton,, S. Y. Chiang,, Y. W. Kow, and, J. A. Swenberg. 1998. Highly sensitive apurinic/apyrimidinic site assay can detect spontaneous and chemically induced depurination under physiological conditions. Cancer Res. 58:222225.
8. Rydberg, B., and, T. Lindahl. 1982. Nonenzymatic methylation of DNA by the intracellular methyl group donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine is a potentially mutagenic reaction. EMBO J. 1:211216.
9. Schrödinger, E., 1944. What Is Life? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
10. Shen, J. C.,, W. M. Rideout III, and, P. A. Jones. 1994. The rate of hydrolytic deamination of 5-methylcytosine in double-stranded DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 22:972976.
11. Timoféeff-Ressovsky, N. W.,, K. G. Zimmer, and, M. Delbrück. 1935. Uber die natur der genmutation und der genkostruktur. Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen FG VIBiol. N. F. 1:189245.

Tables

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Table 1–1

Biological responses to DNA damage

Citation: Errol C, Graham C, Wolfram S, Richard D, Roger A, Tom E. 2006. Introduction: Biological Responses to DNA Damage, p 3-7. In DNA Repair and Mutagenesis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816704.ch1

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