1887

Chapter 100 : Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap100-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap100-2.gif

Abstract:

The viruses discussed in this chapter are 6 variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B), 7 (HHV-7), and 8 (HHV-8; Kaposi's sarcoma [KS]-associated herpesvirus). These viruses cause diseases that are clinically significant primarily in small children and in immunocompromised patients. HHV-6A and HHV-6B, along with HHV-7, comprise the genus of the betaherpesvirus subfamily. Roseoloviruses share many features of their genomic architecture and genetic content, the ability to replicate and establish latent infections in lymphocytes, and associations with febrile rash illnesses in young children, and they are opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Collectively, HHV-6A and HHV-6B are highly prevalent, with seroprevalences in many populations exceeding 90%. During primary infection in young children in the United States, HHV-6A was found by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 2.5% of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and 17% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens, while HHV-6B was found in 99% of PBMC and 86% of CSF specimens (some specimens were coinfected). HHV-6 primary infection causes roseola in approximately one-quarter of children. Less common but more severe forms of primary HHV-6 infection may include fever of >40°C, respiratory tract distress, tympanic inflammation, diarrhea, and convulsions. Antiviral susceptibility is evaluated by measuring the inhibition of viral replication by immunofluorescence, by antigen slot blots, and by inhibition of virus-induced cytotoxicity.

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2011. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1585-1599. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch100

Key Concept Ranking

Reverse Transcriptase PCR
0.6113116
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
0.43428648
Quantitative PCR
0.43404776
Human herpesvirus 7
0.421875
0.6113116
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Child with roseola during primary HHV-6B infection. Photo courtesy of Stephen Dewhurst, University of Rochester. Previously published in reference .

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2011. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1585-1599. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch100
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap100
1. Achour, A.,, D. Boutolleau,, A. Slim,, H. Agut,, and A. Gautheret-Dejean. 2007. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) DNA in plasma reflects the presence of infected blood cells rather than circulating viral particles. J. Clin. Virol. 38:280285.
2. Arav-Boger, R. 2009. Treatment for Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus: great challenges with promising accomplishments. Virus Genes 38:195203.
3. Arsenault, S.,, A. Gravel,, J. Gosselin,, and L. Flamand. 2003. Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody specific for human herpesvirus 6 variant A immediate-early 2 protein. J. Clin. Virol. 28:284290.
4. Barker, R.,, F. Kazmi,, J. Stebbing,, S. Ngan,, R. Chinn,, M. Nelson,, M. O’Doherty,, and M. Bower. 2009. FDG-PET/ CT imaging in the management of HIV-associated multicentric Castleman’s disease. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 36:648652.
5. Barozzi, B.,, M. Luppi,, F. Facchetti,, C. Mecucci,, M. Alu,, R. Sarid,, V. Rasini,, L. Ravazzini,, E. Rossi,, S. Festa,, B. Crescenzi,, D. Wolf,, T. Schulz,, and G. Torelli. 2003. Posttransplant Kaposi sarcoma originates from the seeding of donor-derived progenitors. Nat. Med. 9:554561.
6. Bates, M.,, M. Monze,, H. Bima,, M. Kapambwe,, D. Clark,, F. C. Kasolo,, and U. A. Gompels. 2009. Predominant human herpesvirus 6 variant A infant infections in an HIV-1 endemic region of Sub-Saharan Africa. J. Med. Virol. 81: 779789.
7. Batista, M. D.,, S. Ferreira,, M. M. Sauer,, H. Tomiyama,, M. T. Giret,, C. S. Pannuti,, R. S. Diaz,, E. C. Sabino,, and E. G. Kallas. 2009. High human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) prevalence, clinical correlates and high incidence among recently HIV-1 infected subjects in Sao Paulo, Brazil. PLoS One 4:e5613.
8. Bergallo, M.,, C. Costa,, M. E. Terlizzi,, F. Sidoti,, S. Margio,, S. Astegiano,, R. Ponti,, and R. Cavallo. 2009. Development of a LUX real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of human herpesvirus 7. Can. J. Microbiol. 55:319325.
9. Berneman, Z. N.,, D. V. Ablashi,, G. Li,, M. Eger-Fletcher,, M. S. Reitz, Jr.,, C. L. Hung,, I. Brus,, A. L. Komaroff,, and R. C. Gallo. 1992. Human herpesvirus 7 is a T-lymphotropic virus and is related to, but significantly different from, human herpesvirus 6 and human cytomegalovirus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:1055210556.
10. Black, J. B.,, and P. E. Pellett. 1999. Human herpesvirus 7. Rev. Med. Virol. 9:245262.
11. Black, J.B.,, and P. E. Pellett,. 2000. Antiviral assays for human herpesviruses 6 and 7, p. 129138. In D. Kinchington, and R. F. Schinazi (ed.), Antiviral Methods and Protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
12. Black, J. B.,, K. C. Sanderlin,, C. S. Goldsmith,, H. E. Gary,, C. Lopez,, and P. E. Pellett. 1989. Growth properties of human herpesvirus-6 strain Z29. J. Virol. Methods 26:133145.
13. Black, J. B.,, T. F. Schwarz,, J. L. Patton,, K. Kite-Powell,, P. E. Pellett,, S. Wiersbitzky,, R. Bruns,, C. Muller,, G. Jager,, and J. Stewart. 1996. Evaluation of immunoassays for detection of antibodies to human herpesvirus 7. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 3:7983.
14. Bland, R. M.,, P. L. Mackie,, T. Shorts,, S. Pate,, and J. Y. Paton. 1998. The rapid diagnosis and clinical features of human herpesvirus 6. J. Infect. 36:161165.
15. Blumberg, B. M.,, D. J. Mock,, J. M. Powers,, M. Ito,, J. G. Assouline,, J. V. Baker,, B. Chen,, and A. D. Goodman. 2000. The HHV6 paradox: ubiquitous commensal or insidious pathogen? A two-step in situ PCR approach. J. Clin. Virol. 16:159178.
16. Bonnafous, P.,, D. Boutolleau,, L. Naesens,, C. Deback,, A. Gautheret-Dejean,, and H. Agut. 2008. Characterization of a cidofovir-resistant HHV-6 mutant obtained by in vitro selection. Antivir. Res. 77:237240.
17. Bonnafous, P.,, L. Naesens,, S. Petrella,, A. Gautheret-Dejean,, D. Boutolleau,, W. Sougakoff,, and H. Agut. 2007. Different mutations in the HHV-6 DNA polymerase gene accounting for resistance to foscarnet. Antivir. Ther. 12:877888.
18. Braun, D. K.,, G. Dominguez,, and P. E. Pellett. 1997. Human herpesvirus 6. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:521567.
19. Broccolo, F.,, F. Drago,, A. M. Careddu,, C. Foglieni,, L. Turbino,, C. E. Cocuzza,, C. Gelmetti,, P. Lusso,, A. E. Rebora,, and M. S. Malnati. 2005. Additional evidence that pityriasis rosea is associated with reactivation of human herpesvirus-6 and -7. J. Investig. Dermatol. 124:12341240.
20. Burbelo, P. D.,, H. P. Leahy,, S. Groot,, L. R. Bishop,, W. Miley,, M. J. Iadarola,, D. Whitby,, and J. A. Kovacs. 2009. Four-antigen mixture containing v-cyclin for serological screening of human herpesvirus 8 infection. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 16:621627.
21. Cannon, M. J.,, E. A. Operskalski,, J. W. Mosley,, K. Radford,, and S. C. Dollard. 2009. Lack of evidence for human herpesvirus-8 transmission via blood transfusion in a historical US cohort. J. Infect. Dis. 199:15921598.
22. Caserta, M. T.,, M. P. McDermott,, S. Dewhurst,, K. Schnabel,, J. A. Carnahan,, L. Gilbert,, G. Lathan,, G. K. Lofthus,, and C. B. Hall. 2004. Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA persistence and reactivation in healthy children. J. Pediatr. 145:478484.
23. Casper, C. 2008. New approaches to the treatment of human herpesvirus 8-associated disease. Rev. Med. Virol. 18:321329.
24. Casper, C.,, E. Krantz,, S. Selke,, S. R. Kuntz,, J. Wang,, M. L. Huang,, J. S. Pauk,, L. Corey,, and A. Wald. 2007. Frequent and asymptomatic oropharyngeal shedding of human herpesvirus 8 among immunocompetent men. J. Infect. Dis. 195:3036.
25. Casper, C.,, A. S. Meier,, A. Wald,, R. A. Morrow,, L. Corey,, and A. B. Moscicki. 2006. Human herpesvirus 8 infection among adolescents in the REACH cohort. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 160:937942.
26. Cattani, P.,, M. Capuano,, R. Graffeo,, R. Ricci,, F. Cerimele,, D. Cerimele,, G. Nanni,, and G. Fadda. 2001. Kaposi’s sarcoma associated with previous human herpesvirus 8 infection in kidney transplant recipients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:506508.
27. Cesarman, E.,, and D. M. Knowles. 1999. The role of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) in lymphoproliferative diseases. Semin. Cancer Biol. 9:165174.
28. Chan, P. K.,, H. K. Ng,, M. Hui,, and A. F. Cheng. 2001. Prevalence and distribution of human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B in adult human brain. J. Med. Virol. 64:4246.
29. Chang, Y.,, E. Cesarman,, M. S. Pessin,, F. Lee,, J. Culpepper,, D. M. Knowles,, and P. S. Moore. 1994. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 266:18651869.
30. Chiu, S. S.,, C. Y. Cheung,, C. Y. Tse,, and M. Peiris. 1998. Early diagnosis of primary human herpesvirus 6 infection in childhood: serology, polymerase chain reaction, and virus load. J. Infect. Dis. 178:12501256.
31. Chuh, A. A.,, H. H. Chan,, and V. Zawar. 2004. Is human herpesvirus 7 the causative agent of pityriasis rosea?—A critical review. Int. J. Dermatol. 43:870875.
32. Clark, D. 2004. Human herpesvirus type 6 and multiple sclerosis. Herpes 11(Suppl. 2):112A119A.
33. Clark, D. A.,, I. M. Kidd,, K. E. Collingham,, M. Tarlow,, T. Aueni,, A. Riordan,, P. D. Griffiths,, V. C. Emery,, and D. Pillay. 1997. Diagnosis of primary human herpesvirus 6 and 7 infections in febrile infants by polymerase chain reaction. Arch. Dis. Child. 77:4245.
34. Clark, D. A.,, and K. N. Ward. 2008. Importance of chromosomally integrated HHV-6A and -6B in the diagnosis of active HHV-6 infection. Herpes 15:2832.
35. Corral, I.,, C. Quereda,, M. J. Perez-Elias,, and S. Moreno. 2003. Search for human herpesvirus 6 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid from AIDS patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J. Neurovirol. 9:136137.
36. Costa, C.,, M. Bergallo,, L. Delsedime,, P. Solidoro,, P. Donadio,, and R. Cavallo. 2009. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with HHV-7 infection in an immunocompetent patient: a case report. New Microbiol. 32:315316.
37. Deback, C.,, F. Agbalika,, C. Scieux,, A. G. Marcelin,, A. Gautheret- Dejean,, J. Cherot,, L. Hermet,, O. Roger,, and H. Agut. 2008. Detection of human herpesviruses HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8 in whole blood by real-time PCR using the new CMV, HHV-6, 7, 8 R-gene kit. J. Virol. Methods 149:285291.
38. De Bolle, L.,, L. Naesens,, and E. De Clercq. 2005. Update on human herpesvirus 6 biology, clinical features, and therapy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:217245.
39. De Bolle, L.,, J. Van Loon,, E. De Clercq,, and L. Naesens. 2005. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus 6 cell tropism. J. Med. Virol. 75:7685.
40. De Clercq, E.,, L. Naesens,, L. De Bolle,, D. Schols,, Y. Zhang,, and J. Neyts. 2001. Antiviral agents active against human herpesviruses HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8. Rev. Med. Virol. 11:381395.
41. Della Bella, S.,, A. Taddeo,, M. L. Calabrò,, L. Brambilla,, M. Bellinvia,, E. Bergamo,, M. Clerici,, and M. L. Villa. 2008. Peripheral blood endothelial progenitors as potential reservoirs of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. PLoS One 3:e1520.
42. de Sanjose, S.,, G. Mbisa,, S. Perez-Alvarez,, Y. Benavente,, S. Sukvirach,, N. T. Hieu,, H. R. Shin,, P. T. Anh,, J. Thomas,, E. Lazcano,, E. Matos,, R. Herrero,, N. Muñoz,, M. Molano,, S. Franceschi,, and D. Whitby. 2009. Geographic variation in the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors for transmission. J. Infect. Dis. 199:14491456.
43. Di Stefano, M.,, M. L. Calabrò,, I. M. Di Gangi,, S. Cantatore,, M. Barbierato,, E. Bergamo,, A. J. Kfutwah,, M. Neri,, L. Chieco-Bianchi,, P. Greco,, L. Gesualdo,, A. Ayouba,, E. Menu,, and J. R. Fiore. 2008. In vitro and in vivo human herpesvirus 8 infection of placenta. PLoS One 3:e4073.
44. Dollard, S. C.,, and P. E. Pellett. 2000. Human herpesviruses 6, 7 and 8. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 11:113.
45. Dotti, G.,, R. Fiocchi,, T. Motta,, B. Facchinetti,, B. Chiodini,, G. M. Borleri,, G. Gavazzeni,, T. Barbui,, and A. Rambaldi. 1999. Primary effusion lymphoma after heart transplantation: a new entity associated with human herpesvirus-8. Leukemia 13:664670.
46. Flamand, L.,, A. Gravel,, D. Boutolleau,, R. Alvarez-Lafuente,, S. Jacobson,, M. S. Malnati,, D. Kohn,, Y. W. Tang,, T. Yoshikawa,, and D. Ablashi. 2008. Multicenter comparison of PCR assays for detection of human herpesvirus 6 DNA in serum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:27002706.
47. Ganem, D., 2007. Kaposi’ssarcoma-associated herpesvirus, p. 28472888. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
48. Gautheret-Dejean, A.,, C. Henquell,, F. Mousnier,, D. Boutolleau,, P. Bonnafous,, N. Dhedin,, C. Settegrana,, and H. Agut. 2009. Different expression of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) load in whole blood may have a significant impact on the diagnosis of active infection. J. Clin. Virol. 46:3336.
49. Hall, C. B.,, M. T. Caserta,, K. Schnabel,, L. M. Shelley,, A. S. Marino,, J. A. Carnahan,, C. Yoo,, G. K. Lofthus,, and M. P. McDermott. 2008. Chromosomal integration of human herpesvirus 6 is the major mode of congenital human herpesvirus 6 infection. Pediatrics 122:513520.
50. Hall, C. B.,, M. T. Caserta,, K. C. Schnabel,, C. Boettrich,, M. P. McDermott,, G. K. Lofthus,, J. A. Carnahan,, and S. Dewhurst. 2004. Congenital infections with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV7). J. Pediatr. 145:472477.
51. Hall, C. B.,, M. T. Caserta,, K. C. Schnabel,, C. Long,, L. G. Epstein,, R. A. Insel,, and S. Dewhurst. 1998. Persistence of human herpesvirus 6 according to site and variant: possible greater neurotropism of variant A. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:132137.
52. Hammock, L.,, A. Reisenauer,, W. Wang,, C. Cohen,, G. Birdsong,, and A. L. Folpe. 2005. Latency-associated nuclear antigen expression and human herpesvirus-8 polymerase chain reaction in the evaluation of Kaposi sarcoma and other vascular tumors in HIV-positive patients. Mod. Pathol. 18:463468.
53. Hladik, W.,, S. C. Dollard,, J. Mermin,, A. L. Fowlkes,, R. Downing,, M. M. Amin,, F. Banage,, E. Nzaro,, P. Kataaha,, T. J. Dondero,, P. E. Pellett,, and E. M. Lackritz. 2006. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 by blood transfusion. N. Engl. J. Med. 355:13311338.
54. Isegawa, Y.,, C. Matsumoto,, K. Nishinaka,, K. Nakano,, T. Tanaka,, N. Sugimoto,, and A. Ohshima. 2010. PCR with quenching probes enables the rapid detection and identification of ganciclovir-resistance-causing U69 gene mutations in human herpesvirus 6. Mol. Cell. Probes 24:167177.
55. Jones, D.,, M. E. Ballestas,, K. M. Kaye,, J. M. Gulizia,, G. L. Winters,, J. Fletcher,, D. T. Scadden,, and J. C. Aster. 1998. Primary-effusion lymphoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma in a cardiac-transplant recipient. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:444449.
56. Kempf, W.,, V. Adams,, P. Mirandola,, L. Menotti,, D. Di Luca,, N. Wey,, B. Muller,, and G. Campadelli-Fiume. 1998. Persistence of human herpesvirus 7 in normal tissues detected by expression of a structural antigen. J. Infect. Dis. 178:841845.
57. Kimball, L. E.,, C. Casper,, D. M. Koelle,, R. Morrow,, L. Corey,, and J. Vieira. 2004. Reduced levels of neutralizing antibodies to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in persons with a history of Kaposi sarcoma. J. Infect. Dis. 189:20162022.
58. Kositanont, U.,, C. Wasi,, N. Wanprapar,, P. Bowonkiratikachorn,, K. Chokephaibulkit,, S. Chearskul,, K. Chimabutra,, R. Sutthent,, S. Foongladda,, R. Inagi,, T. Kurata,, and K. Yamanishi. 1999. Primary infection of human herpesvirus 6 in children with vertical infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Infect. Dis. 180:5055.
59. Lautenschlager, I.,, K. Linnavuori,, and K. Hockerstedt. 2000. Human herpesvirus-6 antigenemia after liver transplantation. Transplantation 69:25612566.
60. Lebbe, C.,, C. Legendre,, and C. Frances. 2008. Kaposi sarcoma in transplantation. Transplant. Rev. 22:252261.
61. Leong, H. N.,, P. W. Tuke,, R. S. Tedder,, A. B. Khanom,, R. P. Eglin,, C. E. Atkinson,, K. N. Ward,, P. D. Griffiths,, and D. A. Clark. 2007. The prevalence of chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 genomes in the blood of UK blood donors. J. Med. Virol. 79:4551.
62. Ljungman, P.,, R. de la Camara,, C. Cordonnier,, H. Einsele,, D. Engelhard,, P. Reusser,, J. Styczynski,, K. Ward, and European Conference on Infections in Leukemia. 2008. Management of CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7 and Kaposi-sarcoma herpesvirus (HHV-8) infections in patients with haematological malignancies and after SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant. 42:227240.
63. Luppi, M.,, P. Barozzi,, T. F. Schulz,, G. Setti,, K. Staskus,, R. Trovato,, F. Narni,, A. Donelli,, A. Maiorana,, R. Marasca,, S. Sandrini,, G. Torelli,, and J. Sheldon. 2000. Bone marrow failure associated with human herpesvirus 8 infection after transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 343:13781385.
64. Lusso, P.,, R. W. Crowley,, M. S. Malnati,, C. Di Serio,, M. Ponzoni,, A. Biancotto,, P. D. Markham,, and R. C. Gallo. 2007. Human herpesvirus 6A accelerates AIDS progression in macaques. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:50675072.
65. Marcelin, A. G.,, A. M. Roque-Afonso,, M. Hurtova,, N. Dupin,, M. Tulliez,, M. Sebagh,, Z. A. Arkoub,, C. Guettier,, D. Samuel,, V. Calvez,, and E. Dussaix. 2004. Fatal disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma following human herpesvirus 8 primary infections in liver-transplant recipients. Liver Transpl. 10:295300.
66. Markowitz, G. S.,, G. S. Williams,, Y. Chang,, M. A. Hardy,, R. Saouaf,, and V. D. D’Agati. 2001. A novel etiology of renal allograft dysfunction. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 38:658663.
67. Martro, E.,, M. J. Cannon,, S. C. Dollard,, T. J. Spira,, A. S. Laney,, C. Y. Ou,, and P. E. Pellett. 2004. Evidence for both lytic replication and tightly regulated human herpesvirus 8 latency in circulating mononuclear cells, with virus loads frequently below common thresholds of detection. J. Virol. 78:1170711714.
68. Minhas, V.,, L. N. Crosby,, K. L. Crabtree,, S. Phiri,, T. J. M’soka,, C. Kankasa,, W. J. Harrington,, C. D. Mitchell,, and C. Wood. 2008. Development of an immunofluorescence assay using recombinant proteins expressed in insect cells to screen and confirm presence of human herpesvirus 8-specific antibodies. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 15:12591264.
69. Mock, D. J.,, J. M. Powers,, A. D. Goodman,, S. R. Blumenthal,, N. Ergin,, J. V. Baker,, D. H. Mattson,, J. G. Assouline,, E. J. Bergey,, B. Chen,, L. G. Epstein,, and B. M. Blumberg. 1999. Association of human herpesvirus 6 with the demyelinative lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. J. Neurovirol. 5:363373.
70. Nacheva, E.P.,, K. N. Ward,, D. Brazma,, A. Virgili,, J. Howard,, H. N. Leong,, and D. A. Clark. 2008. Human herpesvirus 6 integrates within telomeric regions as evidenced by five different chromosomal sites. J. Med. Virol. 80:19521958.
71. Nascimento, M. C.,, V. A. de Souza,, L. M. Sumita,, W. Freire,, F. Munoz,, J. Kim,, C. S. Pannuti,, and P. Mayaud. 2007. Comparative study of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus serological assays using clinically and serologically defined reference standards and latent class analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:715720.
72. Nishimura, N.,, T. Yoshikawa,, T. Ozaki,, H. Sun,, F. Goshima,, Y. Nishiyama,, Y. Asano,, T. Kurata,, and T. Iwasaki. 2005. In vitro and in vivo analysis of human herpesvirus- 6 U90 protein expression. J. Med. Virol. 75:8692.
73. Nitsche, A.,, C. W. Muller,, A. Radonic,, O. Landt,, H. Ellerbrok,, G. Pauli,, and W. Siegert. 2001. Human herpesvirus 6A DNA is detected frequently in plasma but rarely in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients after bone marrow transplantation. J. Infect. Dis. 183:130133.
74. Oksenhendler, E. 2009. HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Curr. Opin. HIV AIDS 4:1621.
75. Oksenhendler, E.,, D. Cazals-Hatem,, T. F. Schulz,, V. Barateau,, L. Grollet,, J. Sheldon,, J. P. Clauvel,, F. Sigaux,, and F. Agbalika. 1998. Transient angiolymphoid hyperplasia and Kaposi’s sarcoma after primary infection with human herpesvirus 8 in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:15851590.
76. Opsahl, M. L.,, and P. G. Kennedy. 2005. Early and late HHV-6 gene transcripts in multiple sclerosis lesions and normal appearing white matter. Brain 128:516527.
77. Osman, H. K.,, C. Wells,, C. Baboonian,, and H. O. Kangro. 1993. Growth characteristics of human herpesvirus-6: comparison of antigen production in two cell lines. J. Med. Virol. 39:303311.
78. Parravicini, C.,, S. J. Olsen,, M. Capra,, F. Poli,, G. Sirchia,, S. J. Gao,, E. Berti,, A. Nocera,, E. Rossi,, G. Bestetti,, M. Pizzuto,, M. Galli,, M. Moroni,, P. S. Moore,, and M. Corbellino. 1997. Risk of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus transmission from donor allografts among Italian posttransplant Kaposi’s sarcoma patients. Blood 90:28262829.
79. Pellett, P. E.,, T. J. Spira,, O. Bagasra,, C. Boshoff,, L. Corey,, L. de Lellis,, M. L. Huang,, J. C. Lin,, S. Matthews,, P. Monini,, P. Rimessi,, C. Sosa,, C. Wood,, and J. A. Stewart. 1999. Multicenter comparison of PCR assays for detection of human herpesvirus 8 DNA in semen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:12981301.
80. Pellett, P. E.,, D. J. Wright,, E. A. Engels,, D. V. Ablashi,, S. C. Dollard,, B. Forghani,, S. A. Glynn,, J. J. Goedert,, F. J. Jenkins,, T. H. Lee,, F. Neipel,, D. S. Todd,, D. Whitby,, G. J. Nemo,, and M. P. Busch. 2003. Multicenter comparison of serologic assays and estimation of Human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence among US blood donors. Transfusion 43:12601268.
81. Rhoads, M. P.,, A. S. Magaret,, and D. M. Zerr. 2007. Family saliva sharing behaviors and age of human herpesvirus-6B infection. J. Infect. 54:623626.
82. Schatz, O.,, P. Monini,, R. Bugarini,, F. Neipel,, T. F. Schulz,, M. Andreoni,, P. Erb,, M. Eggers,, J. Haas,, S. Butto,, M. Lukwiya,, J. R. Bogner,, S. Yaguboglu,, J. Sheldon,, L. Sarmati,, F. D. Goebel,, R. Hintermaier,, G. Enders,, N. Regamey,, M. Wernli,, M. Sturzl,, G. Rezza,, and B. Ensoli. 2001. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus serology in Europe and Uganda: multicentre study with multiple and novel assays. J. Med. Virol. 65:123132.
83. Sergerie, Y.,, and G. Boivin. 2003. Evaluation of susceptibility of human herpesvirus 8 to antiviral drugs by quantitative real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:38973900.
84. Staskus, K. A.,, W. Zhong,, K. Gebhard,, B. Herndier,, H. Wang,, R. Renne,, J. Beneke,, J. Pudney,, D. J. Anderson,, D. Ganem,, and A. T. Haase. 1997. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene expression in endothelial (spindle) tumor cells. J. Virol. 71:715719.
85. Stefan, A.,, M. De Lillo,, G. Frascaroli,, P. Secchiero,, F. Neipel,, and G. Campadelli-Fiume. 1999. Development of recombinant diagnostic reagents based on pp85(U14) and p86(U11) proteins to detect the human immune response to human herpesvirus 7 infection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:39803985.
86. Sturzl, M.,, A. Wunderlich,, G. Ascherl,, C. Hohenadl,, P. Monini,, C. Zietz,, P. J. Browning,, F. Neipel,, P. Biberfeld,, and B. Ensoli. 1999. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) gene expression in Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) primary lesions: an in situ hybridization study. Leukemia 13(Suppl. 1):S110S112.
87. Tedeschi, R.,, A. Marus,, E. Bidoli,, C. Simonelli,, and P. De Paoli. 2008. Human herpesvirus 8 DNA quantification in matched plasma and PBMCs samples of patients with HHV8-related lymphoproliferative diseases. J. Clin. Virol. 43:255259.
88. Wada, K.,, S. Mizoguchi,, Y. Ito,, J. Kawada,, Y. Yamauchi,, T. Morishima,, Y. Nishiyama,, and H. Kimura. 2009. Multiplex real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus, human herpesvirus 6, and human herpesvirus 7. Microbiol. Immunol. 53:2229.
89. Wang, F. Z.,, and P. E. Pellett,. 2006. Human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7: immunobiology and host response, p. 850874. In A. Arvin,, G. Campadelli-Fiume,, E. S. Mocarski,, B. Roizman,, R. J. Whitley,, and K. Yamanishi (ed.), Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
90. Wang, Q. J.,, F. J. Jenkins,, L. P. Jacobson,, L. A. Kingsley,, R. D. Day,, Z. W. Zhang,, Y. X. Meng,, P. E. Pellett,, K. G. Kousoulas,, A. Baghian,, and C. R. Rinaldo, Jr. 2001. Primary human herpesvirus 8 infection generates a broadly specific CD8(1) T-cell response to viral lytic cycle proteins. Blood 97:23662373.
91. Ward, K. N. 2005. The natural history and laboratory diagnosis of human herpesviruses-6 and -7 infections in the immunocompetent. J. Clin. Virol. 32:183193.
92. Ward, K. N.,, N. J. Andrews,, C. M. Verity,, E. Miller,, and E. M. Ross. 2005. Human herpesviruses-6 and -7 each cause significant neurological morbidity in Britain and Ireland. Arch. Dis. Child. 90:619623.
93. Ward, K. N.,, H. N. Leong,, A. D. Thiruchelvam,, C. E. Atkinson,, and D. A. Clark. 2007. Human herpesvirus 6 DNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid due to primary infection differ from those due to chromosomal viral integration and have implications for diagnosis of encephalitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:12981304.
94. Ward, K. N.,, A. D. Thiruchelvam,, and X. Couto-Parada. 2005. Unexpected occasional persistence of high levels of HHV-6 DNA in sera: detection of variants A and B. J. Med. Virol. 76:563570.
95. Wong, G. A.,, and N. H. Shear. 2004. Is a drug alone sufficient to cause the drug hypersensitivity syndrome? Arch. Dermatol. 140:226230.
96. Yamamoto, K.,, T. Yoshikawa,, S. Okamoto,, K. Yamaki,, K. Shimokata,, and Y. Nishiyama. 2005. HHV-6 and 7 DNA loads in lung tissues collected from patients with interstitial pneumonia. J. Med. Virol. 75:7075.
97. Yamanishi, K.,, M. Mori,, and P. E. Pellett,. 2007. Human herpesviruses 6and 7, p. 28192845. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman,, and S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
98. Yoshikawa, T. 2003. Human herpesvirus-6 and -7 infections in transplantation. Pediatr. Transplant. 7:1117.
99. Zerr, D.M.,, M. L. Huang,, L. Corey,, M. Erickson,, H. L. Parker,, and L. M. Frenkel. 2000. Sensitive methods for detection of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in saliva collected in field studies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:1981-1983.
100. Zerr, D. M.,, A. S. Meier,, S. S. Selke,, L. M. Frenkel,, M. L. Huang,, A. Wald,, M. P. Rhoads,, L. Nguy,, R. Bornemann,, R. A. Morrow,, and L. Corey. 2005. A population-based study of primary human herpesvirus 6 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 352:768776.
101. Zhang, Y.,, L. De Bolle,, S. Aquaro,, A. van Lommel,, E. De Clercq,, and D. Schols. 2001. Productive infection of primary macrophages with human herpesvirus 7. J. Virol. 75:1051110514.
102. Zong, J.,, D. M. Ciufo,, R. Viscidi,, L. Alagiozoglou,, S. Tyring,, P. Rady,, J. Orenstein,, W. Boto,, H. Kalumbuja,, N. Romano,, M. Melbye,, G. H. Kang,, C. Boshoff,, and G. S. Hayward. 2002. Genotypic analysis at multiple loci across Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) DNA molecules: clustering patterns, novel variants and chimerism. J. Clin. Virol. 23:119148.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Disease associations

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2011. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1585-1599. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch100
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Commercial sources of reagents and assays

DNA, purified DNA; qDNA, DNA for use as quantitative reference; qPCR, kit for quantitative PCR. No FDA-approved tests are available for any of these viruses.

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2011. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1585-1599. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch100
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Some commercial sources for HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 testing

Q, quantitative PCR; q, qualitative PCR.

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2011. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1585-1599. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch100
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Diagnostic methods for HHV-6, -7, and -8

ACIF, anticomplement immunofluorescence; NT, neutralization test; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR. No FDA-approved tests are available for these viruses.

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2011. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1585-1599. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch100

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error