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Chapter 104 : Human Parvoviruses

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Abstract:

The current classification of parvoviruses is based upon their host range and dependence on other viruses for their replication. This chapter focuses primarily on Erythrovirus but does contain brief updates on human bocavirus (HBoV) and the newly described human parvovirus 4 (PARV4). Subsequent evaluation of blood unit, using immune electron microscopy, revealed viral particles consistent in size and morphology with parvovirus. Many important observations regarding the B19 virion have been made using electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography. The major nonstructural protein is NS1 (71 kDa), a DNA binding protein involved in viral replication. The VP1 and VP2 capsid proteins originate from the same ORF and are identical in sequence, except for an additional 227 amino acids at the amino terminus of VP1. Using nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT), B19 DNA has been detected in numerous batches of albumin, factor VIII, factor IX, clotting factor concentrates, and immunoglobulin. Serum from whole blood, collected in a sterile tube lacking anticoagulant, is most suitable for serologic testing, although plasma, containing either EDTA or sodium citrate, can also be used. Capture enzyme immunoassays employing native or recombinant antigens are excellent choices for detecting B19-specific immunoglobulin. Testing sera for the presence of B19-specific IgG antibodies can determine past or previous infection in the immunocompetent individual.

Citation: Jordan J. 2011. Human Parvoviruses , p 1636-1646. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch104

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FIGURE 1

Schematic representation of human parvovirus B19 genome and the transcription map with the unique region of VP1 comprising bp 2444 to 3124.

Citation: Jordan J. 2011. Human Parvoviruses , p 1636-1646. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch104
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Clinical features, hematologic changes, B19 DNA presence, and serologic findings associated with B19 infection in a healthy individual. Reprinted from reference .

Citation: Jordan J. 2011. Human Parvoviruses , p 1636-1646. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch104
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Diagnostic methods used to detect human parvovirus B19 infections

Citation: Jordan J. 2011. Human Parvoviruses , p 1636-1646. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch104

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