1887

Chapter 106 : Hepatitis B and D Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Hepatitis B and D Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap106-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap106-2.gif

Abstract:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was identified and characterized after the discovery of the Australia antigen by Blumberg and colleagues in 1965. The Australia antigen, now designated hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is detected in the sera of patients with both acute and chronic HBV. HBV infects hepatocytes, leading to an acute infection that resolves or a chronic infection lasting years. Safe and effective vaccines against HBV have been available since 1982. HBV infection is diagnosed by serological and molecular markers using serum or plasma. The laboratory diagnosis of HBV uses a combination of tests that detect virus-specific protein and nucleic acid as well as the host immune response to infection. The methods for identification of HBV infection use a combination of molecular, antigenic, and serological methods. Serologic tests for HBV-specific antibodies are used to determine the stage of disease and to establish immunity due to vaccination. Patients with chronic hepatitis that are hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative are more likely to have more advanced liver disease in spite of lower serum HBV DNA levels. The majority of individuals vaccinated for HBV have detectable levels of anti-HBs, but some test negative due to waning levels of anti-HBs. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires the presence of HBV for its replication. The laboratory diagnosis of HDV depends on the detection of specific antibodies, HDAg, and HDV RNA.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106

Key Concept Ranking

Infection and Immunity
0.604018
RNA Polymerase II
0.5140845
Hepatitis C virus
0.47730443
0.604018
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(A) The intact infectious HBV virion and the empty particles are shown. The two HBV particles (right) comprised of HBsAg are shown as elongated or tubular and as spherical particles. These particles vastly outnumber the virions. (Designed by University of Kansas Graphic Design Department.) (B) Electron micrograph of serum showing the presence of three distinct morphologic entities: 17- to 25-nm-diameter, pleomorphic, spherical particles (a); tubular or filamentous forms with diameters similar to those of the small particles (b); and 42- to 47-nm-diameter, double-shelled, spherical particles representing the hepatitis B virion (Dane particle) (c). Magnification, ×10. (C) Diagrammatic representation of HBV coding regions. The functioning genome is a double-stranded circular DNA molecule shown in the middle. RNA transcripts (arrows) are generated using both the plus-strand [(+)Strand] and minus-strand [(−)Strand] DNA templates. The largest transcript codes for the viral polymerase shown around the genome as the P transcript. The transcript for surface antigen (S) is produced as three separate transcripts, pre-S1, pre-S2, and S. The core protein is translated from the C transcript. HBeAg is coded within the HBc gene. The transactivating protein is encoded by the X transcript. (Designed by University of Kansas Graphic Design Department.)

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Worldwide distribution of chronic hepatitis B in 2006. Dark shading, ≥8% of the population (high HBsAg prevalence); medium shading, 2 to 7% of the population (intermediate HBsAg prevalence); light shading, <2% of the population (low HBsAg prevalence). For multiple countries, estimates of prevalence of HBsAg, a marker of chronic HBV infection, are based on limited data, and they might not reflect the current prevalence in countries that have implemented childhood hepatitis B vaccination. In addition, the prevalence of HBsAg might vary within countries by subpopulation and locality. The source for this figure is reference .

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Typical sequence of serologic markers in patients with acute HBV infection and with resolution of symptoms.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Typical sequence of serologic markers in patients with HBV infection that progresses to chronicity. In patients with chronic HBV infection, both HBsAg and IgG anti-HBc remain persistently detectable, generally for life. HBeAg is variably present in these patients.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Serologic course of HDV infection, with resolution when the virus is acquired as a coinfection with HBV.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Serologic course of HDV infection when the virus is acquired as a superinfection with HBV. Symptoms and ALT levels are shown to indicate the intermittent nature of symptoms and liver involvement.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap106
1. Aberle, S. W.,, J. Kletzmayr,, B. Watschinger,, B. Schmied,, N. Vetter,, and E. Puchhammer-Stöckl. 2001. Comparison of sequence analysis and the INNO-LiPA HBV DR line probe assay for detection of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus strains in patients under various clinical conditions. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:19721974.
2. Akarsu, M.,, A. Sengonul,, E. Tankurt,, A. A. Sayiner,, O. Topalak,, H. Akpinar,, and Y. H. Abacioglu. 2006. YMDD motif variants in inactive hepatitis B carriers detected by Inno-Lipa HBV DR assay. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 21:17831788.
3. Alter, H. J.,, and B. S. Blumberg. 1966. Further studies on a “new” human isoprecipitin system (Australia antigen). Blood 27:297309.
4. Alter, H. J.,, and H. G. Klein. 2008. The hazards of blood transfusion in historical perspective. Blood 112:26172626.
5. Andersson, K. L.,, and R. T. Chung. 2009. Monitoring during and after antiviral therapy for hepatitis B. Hepatology 49:S166S173.
6.Anomymous. 2000. Consensus statements on the prevention and management of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the Asia-Pacific region. Core Working Party for Asia-Pacific Consensus on Hepatitis B and C. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 15:825841.
7. Ayoub, W. S.,, and E. B. Keeffe. 2008. Review article: current antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis B. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 28:167177.
8. Barboza, L.,, S. Salmen,, D. L. Peterson,, H. Montes,, M. Colmenares,, M. Hernandez,, L. E. Berrueta-Carrillo,, and L. Berrueta. 2009. Altered T cell costimulation during chronic hepatitis B infection. Cell. Immunol. 257:6168.
9. Beltrami, E. M.,, I. T. Williams,, C. N. Shapiro,, and M. E. Chamberland. 2000. Risk and management of bloodborne infections in health care workers. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:385407.
10. Bertoletti, A.,, and A. Gehring. 2007. Immune response and tolerance during chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatol. Res. 37(Suppl. 3):S331S338.
11. Bertoletti, A.,, and A. J. Gehring. 2006. The immune response during hepatitis B virus infection. J. Gen. Virol. 87:14391449.
12. Biswas, R.,, E. Tabor,, C. C. Hsia,, D. J. Wright,, M. E. Laycock,, E. W. Fiebig,, L. Peddada,, R. Smith,, G. B. Schreiber,, J. S. Epstein,, G. J. Nemo,, and M. P. Busch. 2003. Comparative sensitivity of HBV NATs and HBsAg assays for detection of acute HBV infection. Transfusion 43:788798.
13. Blow, J. A.,, C. N. Mores,, J. Dyer,, and D. J. Dohm. 2008. Viral nucleic acid stabilization by RNA extraction reagent. J. Virol. Methods 150:4144.
14. Blumberg, B. S.,, H. J. Alter,, and S. Visnich. 1965. A “new” antigen in leukemia sera. JAMA 191:541546.
15. Boni, C.,, P. Fisicaro,, C. Valdatta,, B. Amadei,, V. P. Di,, T. Giuberti,, D. Laccabue,, A. Zerbini,, A. Cavalli,, G. Missale,, A. Bertoletti,, and C. Ferrari. 2007. Characterization of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell dysfunction in chronic HBV infection. J. Virol. 81:42154225.
16. Bowden, S. 2006. Serological and molecular diagnosis. Semin. Liver Dis. 26:97103.
17. Cane, P. A.,, P. Cook,, D. Ratcliffe,, D. Mutimer,, and D. Pillay. 1999. Use of real-time PCR and fluorimetry to detect lamivudine resistance-associated mutations in hepatitis B virus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:16001608.
18. Carman, W. F. 1996. Molecular variants of hepatitis B virus. Clin. Lab. Med. 16:407428.
19. Carman, W. F.,, M. Thursz,, S. Hadziyannis,, G. McIntyre,, K. Colman,, A. Gioustoz,, G. Fattovich,, A. Alberti,, and H. C. Thomas. 1995. Hepatitis B e antigen negative chronic active hepatitis: hepatitis B virus core mutations occur predominantly in known antigenic determinants. J. Viral Hepat. 2:7784.
20. Carman, W. F.,, A. R. Zanetti,, P. Karayiannis,, J. Waters,, G. Manzillo,, E. Tanzi,, A. J. Zuckerman,, and H. C. Thomas. 1990. Vaccine-induced escape mutant of hepatitis B virus. Lancet 336:325329.
21. Caspari, G.,, and W. H. Gerlich. 2007. The serologic markers of hepatitis B virus infection—proper selection and standardized interpretation. Clin. Lab. 53:335400.
22.Centers for Disease Control. 1991. Recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone invasive procedures. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 40:19.
22a. Chaves, S. S. 2010. Hepatitis B. In CDC Health Information for International Travel. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/ yellowbook/2010/chapter-2/hepatitis-b.aspx.
23. Chisari, F. V. 1992. Hepatitis B virus biology and pathogenesis. Mol. Genet. Med. 2:67104.
24. Chotiyaputta, W.,, and A. S. Lok. 2009. Hepatitis B virus variants. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 6:453462.
25. Chu, C. J.,, E. B. Keeffe,, S. H. Han,, R. P. Perrillo,, A. D. Min,, C. Soldevila-Pico,, W. Carey,, R. S. Brown, Jr.,, V. A. Luketic,, N. Terrault,, and A. S. Lok. 2003. Prevalence of HBV precore/core promoter variants in the United States. Hepatology 38:619628.
26. Coleman, P. F. 2006. Detecting hepatitis B surface antigen mutants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:198203.
27. Custer, B.,, S. D. Sullivan,, T. K. Hazlet,, U. Iloeje,, D. L. Veenstra,, and K. V. Kowdley. 2004. Global epidemiology of hepatitis B virus. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 38:S158S168.
28. Dane, D. S.,, C. H. Cameron,, and M. Briggs. 1970. Viruslike particles in serum of patients with Australia-antigenassociated hepatitis. Lancet i:695698.
29. Degertekin, B.,, and A. S. Lok. 2009. Indications for therapy in hepatitis B. Hepatology 49:S129S137.
30. Degertekin, B.,, and A. S. Lok. 2009. Update on viral hepatitis: 2008. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 25:180185.
31. Doherty, R.,, S. Garland,, M. Wright,, M. Bulotsky,, C. Liss,, H. Lakkis,, A. Nikas,, and W. Straus. 2009. Effectiveness of a bivalent Haemophilus influenzae type B-hepatitis B vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection among children born to hepatitis B e antigen-positive carrier mothers. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 28:777781.
32. Echevarria, J. M.,, and A. Avellon. 2008. Improved detection of natural hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants by a new version of the VITROS HBsAg assay. J. Med. Virol. 80:598602.
33. Elbeik, T.,, P. Nassos,, P. Kipnis,, B. Haller,, and V. L. Ng. 2005. Evaluation of the VACUTAINER PPT plasma preparation tube for use with the Bayer VERSANT assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:37693771.
34. Farci, P.,, L. Chessa,, C. Balestrieri,, G. Serra,, and M. E. Lai. 2007. Treatment of chronic hepatitis D. J. Viral Hepat. 14(Suppl. 1):5863.
35. FitzSimons, D.,, G. Francois,, C. G. De,, D. Shouval,, A. Pruss-Ustun,, V. Puro,, I. Williams,, D. Lavanchy,, S. A. De,, A. Kopka,, F. Ncube,, G. Ippolito,, and D. P. Van. 2008. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and other blood-borne infections in healthcare workers: guidelines for prevention and management in industrialised countries. Occup. Environ. Med. 65:446451.
36. Flores, R. 2001. A naked plant-specific RNA ten-fold smaller than the smallest known viral RNA: the viroid. C. R. Acad. Sci. III 324:943952.
37. Fung, S. K.,, H. B. Chae,, R. J. Fontana,, H. Conjeevaram,, J. Marrero,, K. Oberhelman,, M. Hussain,, and A. S. Lok. 2006. Virologic response and resistance to adefovir in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J. Hepatol. 44:283290.
38. Gavilanes, F.,, J. M. Gonzalez-Ros,, and D. L. Peterson. 1982. Structure of hepatitis B surface antigen. Characterization of the lipid components and their association with the viral proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 257:77707777.
39. Gerlich, W. H. 2006. Breakthrough of hepatitis B virus escape mutants after vaccination and virus reactivation. J. Clin. Virol. 36(Suppl. 1):S18S22.
40. Gerlich, W. H.,, D. Glebe,, and C. G. Schuttler. 2007. Deficiencies in the standardization and sensitivity of diagnostic tests for hepatitis B virus. J. Viral Hepat. 14(Suppl. 1):1621.
41. Gintowt, A. A.,, J. J. Germer,, P. S. Mitchell,, and J. D. Yao. 2005. Evaluation of the MagNA Pure LC used with the TRUGENE HBV genotyping kit. J. Clin. Virol. 34:155157.
42. Guidotti, L. G.,, and F. V. Chisari. 2006. Immunobiology and pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. Annu. Rev. Pathol. 1:2361.
43. Hadziyannis, S. J. 1997. Review: hepatitis delta. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 12:289298.
44. Hall, J. G.,, P. S. Eis,, S. M. Law,, L. P. Reynaldo,, J. R. Prudent,, D. J. Marshall,, H. T. Allawi,, A. L. Mast,, J. E. Dahlberg,, R. W. Kwiatkowski,, M. de Arruda,, B. P. Neri,, and V. I. Lyamichev. 2000. Sensitive detection of DNA polymorphisms by the serial invasive signal amplification reaction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:82728277.
45. Heermann, K. H.,, W. H. Gerlich,, M. Chudy,, S. Schaefer,, R. Thomssen, and the Eurohep Pathobiology Group. 1999. Quantitative detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in two international reference plasma preparations. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:6873.
46. Hess, G.,, and M. Reuschling. 1993. Toward routine diagnosis of hepatitis B virus desoxyribonucleic acid. Clin. Biochem. 26:289293.
47. Hong, S. P.,, N. K. Kim,, S. G. Hwang,, H. J. Chung,, S. Kim,, J. H. Han,, H. T. Kim,, K. S. Rim,, M. S. Kang,, W. Yoo,, and S. O. Kim. 2004. Detection of hepatitis B virus YMDD variants using mass spectrometric analysis of oligonucleotide fragments. J. Hepatol. 40:837844.
48. Hsu, C. W.,, C. T. Yeh,, M. L. Chang,, and Y. F. Liaw. 2007. Identification of a hepatitis B virus S gene mutant in lamivudine-treated patients experiencing HBsAg seroclearance. Gastroenterology 132:543550.
49. Huang, W. H.,, C. W. Chen,, H. L. Wu,, and P. J. Chen. 2006. Post-translational modification of delta antigen of hepatitis D virus. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 307:91112.
50. Hussain, S. P.,, J. Schwank,, F. Staib,, X. W. Wang,, and C. C. Harris. 2007. TP53 mutations and hepatocellular carcinoma: insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of liver cancer. Oncogene 26:21662176.
51. Huzly, D.,, T. Schenk,, W. Jilg,, and D. Neumann-Haefelin. 2008. Comparison of nine commercially available assays for quantification of antibody response to hepatitis B virus surface antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:12981306.
52. Jose, M.,, R. Gajardo,, and J. I. Jorquera. 2005. Stability of HCV, HIV-1 and HBV nucleic acids in plasma samples under long-term storage. Biologicals 33:916.
53. Kajiwara, E.,, Y. Tanaka,, T. Ohashi,, K. Uchimura,, S. Sadoshima,, M. Kinjo,, and M. Mizokami. 2008. Hepatitis B caused by a hepatitis B surface antigen escape mutant. J. Gastroenterol. 43:243247.
54. Krajden, M.,, L. Comanor,, O. Rifkin,, A. Grigoriew,, J. M. Minor,, and G. F. Kapke. 1998. Assessment of hepatitis B virus DNA stability in serum by the Chiron Quantiplex branched-DNA assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:382386.
55. Krajden, M.,, G. McNabb,, and M. Petric. 2005. The laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B virus. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. 16:6572.
56. Krajden, M.,, J. Minor,, L. Cork,, and L. Comanor. 1998. Multi-measurement method comparison of three commercial hepatitis B virus DNA quantification assays. J. Viral Hepat. 5:415422.
57. Krajden, M.,, J. M. Minor,, O. Rifkin,, and L. Comanor. 1999. Effect of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on hepatitis B virus DNA and hepatitis C virus RNA quantification as measured with branched-DNA technology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:16831686.
58. Kuo, M. Y.,, L. Sharmeen,, G. Dinter-Gottlieb,, and J. Taylor. 1988. Characterization of self-cleaving RNA sequences on the genome and antigenome of human hepatitis delta virus. J. Virol. 62:44394444.
59. Kusumoto, K.,, H. Yatsuhashi,, R. Nakao,, R. Hamada,, M. Fukuda,, Y. Tamada,, N. Taura,, A. Komori,, M. Daikoku,, K. Hamasaki,, K. Nakao,, H. Ishibashi,, Y. Miyakawa,, and K. Eguchi. 2008. Detection of HBV core promoter and precore mutations helps distinguish flares of chronic hepatitis from acute hepatitis B. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 23:790793.
60. Lai, M. M. 1995. Molecular biologic and pathogenetic analysis of hepatitis delta virus. J. Hepatol. 22:127131.
61. Liang, T. J. 2009. Hepatitis B: the virus and disease. Hepatology 49:S13S21.
62. Liu, W. C.,, M. Lindh,, M. Buti,, P. H. Phiet,, M. Mizokami,, H. H. Li,, K. T. Sun,, K. C. Young,, P. N. Cheng,, I. C. Wu,, and T. T. Chang. 2008. Genotyping of hepatitis B virus— genotypes a to g by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Intervirology 51:247252.
63. Lok, A. S.,, and B. J. McMahon. 2007. Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 45:507539.
64. Lu, C. Y.,, Y. H. Ni,, B. L. Chiang,, P. J. Chen,, M. H. Chang,, L. Y. Chang,, I. J. Su,, H. S. Kuo,, L. M. Huang,, D. S. Chen,, and C. Y. Lee. 2008. Humoral and cellular immune responses to a hepatitis B vaccine booster 15-18 years after neonatal immunization. J. Infect. Dis. 197:14191426.
65. Lu, H. Y.,, Z. Zeng,, X. Y. Xu,, N. L. Zhang,, M. Yu,, and W. B. Gong. 2006. Mutations in surface and polymerase gene of chronic hepatitis B patients with coexisting HBsAg and anti- HBs. World J. Gastroenterol. 12:42194223.
66. Ly, T. D.,, A. Servant-Delmas,, S. Bagot,, S. Gonzalo,, M. P. Ferey,, A. Ebel,, E. Dussaix,, S. Laperche,, and A. M. Roque- Afonso. 2006. Sensitivities of four new commercial hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) assays in detection of HBsAg mutant forms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:23212326.
66a. MacCallum, F. O.,, and D. J. Bauer. 1947. Homologous serum hepatitis. Lancet. ii:691692.
67. Maddrey, W. C. 2000. Hepatitis B: an important public health issue. J. Med Virol. 61:362366.
68. McMahon, B. J. 2005. Epidemiology and natural history of hepatitis B. Semin. Liver Dis. 25(Suppl. 1):38.
69. McMahon, B. J. 2009. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology 49:S45S55.
70. Mizuochi, T.,, Y. Okada,, K. Umemori,, S. Mizusawa,, and K. Yamaguchi. 2006. Evaluation of 10 commercial diagnostic kits for in vitro expressed hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigens encoded by HBV of genotypes A to H. J. Virol. Methods 136:254256.
71. Nayersina, R.,, P. Fowler,, S. Guilhot,, G. Missale,, A. Cerny,, H. J. Schlicht,, A. Vitiello,, R. Chesnut,, J. L. Person,, A. G. Redeker,, and F. V. Chisari. 1993. HLA A2 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to multiple hepatitis B surface antigen epitopes during hepatitis B virus infection. J. Immunol. 150:46594671.
72. Nguyen, M. H.,, and E. B. Keeffe. 2009. Chronic hepatitis B: early viral suppression and long-term outcomes of therapy with oral nucleos(t)ides J. Viral Hepat. 16:149155.
73. Ni, Y. H.,, L. M. Huang,, M. H. Chang,, C. J. Yen,, C. Y. Lu,, S. L. You,, J. H. Kao,, Y. C. Lin,, H. L. Chen,, H. Y. Hsu,, and D. S. Chen. 2007. Two decades of universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan: impact and implication for future strategies. Gastroenterology 132:12871293.
74. Niro, G. A.,, F. Rosina,, and M. Rizzetto. 2005. Treatment of hepatitis D. J. Viral Hepat. 12:29.
75.Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. 2009. Bloodborne pathogens. 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1030. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC.
76. Olivero, A.,, A. Ciancio,, M. L. Abate,, S. Gaia,, A. Smedile,, and M. Rizzetto. 2006. Performance of sequence analysis, INNO-LiPA line probe assays and AFFIGENE assays in the detection of hepatitis B virus polymerase and precore/core promoter mutations. J. Viral Hepat. 13:355362.
77. Osiowy, C. 2006. Detection of HBsAg mutants. J. Med. Virol. 78(Suppl. 1):S48S51.
78. Pawlotsky, J. M.,, G. Dusheiko,, A. Hatzakis,, D. Lau,, G. Lau,, T. J. Liang,, S. Locarnini,, P. Martin,, D. D. Richman,, and F. Zoulim. 2008. Virologic monitoring of hepatitis B virus therapy in clinical trials and practice: recommendations for a standardized approach. Gastroenterology 134:405415.
79. Peters, M. G. 2009. Special populations with hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology 49:S146S155.
80. Punia, P.,, P. Cane,, C. G. Teo,, and N. Saunders. 2004. Quantitation of hepatitis B lamivudine resistant mutants by real-time amplification refractory mutation system PCR. J. Hepatol. 40:986992.
81. Qiu, X.,, P. Schroeder,, and D. Bridon. 1996. Identification and characterization of a C(K/R)TC motif as a common epitope present in all subtypes of hepatitis B surface antigen. J. Immunol. 156:33503356.
82. Rizzetto, M. 2009. Hepatitis D: the comeback? Liver Int. 29(Suppl. 1):140142.
83. Rizzetto, M. 2009. Hepatitis D: thirty years after. J. Hepatol. 50:10431050.
84. Rotman, Y.,, T. A. Brown,, and J. H. Hoofnagle. 2009. Evaluation of the patient with hepatitis B. Hepatology 49:S22S27.
85. Sablon, E.,, and F. Shapiro. 2005. Advances in molecular diagnosis of HBV infection and drug resistance. Int. J. Med. Sci. 2:816.
86. Safadi, R.,, Y. Greenboim,, and M. Donchin. 2000. Impact of standard vaccination of health care workers with hepatitis B vaccine on reducing the occupational risk of infection. J. Hosp. Infect. 45:250251.
87. Saldanha, J.,, W. Gerlich,, N. Lelie,, P. Dawson,, K. Heermann,, and A. Heath. 2001. An international collaborative study to establish a World Health Organization international standard for hepatitis B virus DNA nucleic acid amplification techniques. Vox Sang. 80:6371.
88. Seeger, C.,, and W. S. Mason. 2000. Hepatitis B virus biology. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64:5168.
89. Selabe, S. G.,, E. Song,, R. J. Burnett,, and M. J. Mphahlele. 2009. Frequent detection of hepatitis B virus variants associated with lamivudine resistance in treated South African patients infected chronically with different HBV genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 81:9961001.
90. Shakil, A. O.,, S. Hadziyannis,, J. H. Hoofnagle,, A. M. Di Bisceglie,, J. L. Gerin,, and J. L. Casey. 1997. Geographic distribution and genetic variability of hepatitis delta virus genotype. Virology 234:160167.
91. Shamliyan, T. A.,, R. MacDonald,, A. Shaukat,, B. C. Taylor,, J. M. Yuan,, J. R. Johnson,, J. Tacklind,, I. Rutks,, R. L. Kane,, and T. J. Wilt. 2009. Antiviral therapy for adults with chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference. Ann. Intern. Med. 150:111124.
92. Shaw, T.,, A. Bartholomeusz,, and S. Locarnini. 2006. HBV drug resistance: mechanisms, detection and interpretation. J. Hepatol. 44:593606.
93. Shepard, C. W.,, E. P. Simard,, L. Finelli,, A. E. Fiore,, and B. P. Bell. 2006. Hepatitis B virus infection: epidemiology and vaccination. Epidemiol. Rev. 28:112125.
94. Sorrell, M. F.,, E. A. Belongia,, J. Costa,, I. F. Gareen,, J. L. Grem,, J. M. Inadomi,, E. R. Kern,, J. A. McHugh,, G. M. Petersen,, M. F. Rein,, D. B. Strader,, and H. T. Trotter. 2009. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference statement: management of hepatitis B. Ann. Intern. Med. 150:104110.
95. Taylor, J. M. 2006. Hepatitis delta virus. Virology 344:7176.
96. Tseng, C. H.,, K. S. Jeng,, and M. M. Lai. 2008. Transcription of subgenomic mRNA of hepatitis delta virus requires a modified hepatitis delta antigen that is distinct from antigenomic RNA synthesis. J. Virol. 82:94099416.
97. Valsamakis, A. 2007. Molecular testing in the diagnosis and management of chronic hepatitis B. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20:426439.
98. Wang, T. C.,, and M. Chao. 2003. Molecular cloning and expression of the hepatitis delta virus genotype IIb genome. Biochem. Biophys. Res.Commun. 303:357363.
99. Wang, X. W.,, S. P. Hussain,, T. I. Huo,, C. G. Wu,, M. Forgues,, L. J. Hofseth,, C. Brechot,, and C. C. Harris. 2002. Molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Toxicology 181-182:4347.
100. Weber, B.,, T. Dengler,, A. Berger,, H. W. Doerr,, and H. Rabenau. 2003. Evaluation of two new automated assays for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) detection: IMMULITE HBsAg and IMMULITE 2000 HBsAg. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:135143.
101. Whalley, S. A.,, D. Brown,, C. G. Teo,, G. M. Dusheiko,, and N. A. Saunders. 2001. Monitoring the emergence of hepatitis B virus polymerase gene variants during lamivudine therapy using the LightCycler. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:14561459.
102. Wursthorn, K.,, M. P. Manns,, and H. Wedemeyer. 2008. Natural history: the importance of viral load, liver damage and HCC. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 22:10631079.
103. Yeon, J. E. 2008. Technique for the early detection of drugresistant HBV DNA during antiviral therapy. Intervirology 51(Suppl. 1):710.
104. Yim, H. J.,, and A. S. Lok. 2006. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: what we knew in 1981 and what we know in 2005. Hepatology 43:S173S181.
105. Yurdaydin, C.,, H. Bozkaya,, H. Karaaslan,, F. O. Onder,, O. E. Erkan,, K. Yalcin,, H. Degertekin,, A. M. Bozdayi,, and O. Uzunalimoglu. 2007. A pilot study of 2 years of interferon treatment in patients with chronic delta hepatitis. J. Viral Hepat. 14:812816.
106. Yurdaydin, C.,, H. Bozkaya,, F. O. Onder,, H. Senturk,, H. Karaaslan,, M. Akdogan,, H. Cetinkaya,, E. Erden,, O. Erkan-Esin,, K. Yalcin,, A. M. Bozdayi,, R. F. Schinazi,, J. L. Gerin,, O. Uzunalimoglu,, and A. Ozden. 2008. Treatment of chronic delta hepatitis with lamivudine vs lamivudine 1 interferon vs interferon. J. Viral Hepat. 15:314321.
107. Zheng, X.,, K. M. Weinberger,, R. Gehrke,, M. Isogawa,, G. Hilken,, T. Kemper,, Y. Xu,, D. Yang,, W. Jilg,, M. Roggendorf,, and M. Lu. 2004. Mutant hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg) are immunogenic but may have a changed specificity. Virology 329:454464.
108. Zoulim, F. 2006. In vitro models for studying hepatitis B virus drug resistance. Semin. Liver Dis. 26:171180.
109. Zoulim, F.,, M. Buti,, and A. S. Lok. 2007. Antiviralresistant hepatitis B virus: can we prevent this monster from growing? J. Viral Hepat. 14(Suppl. 1):2936.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

HBV markers in different stages of infection and convalescence

This description can be applied to early convalescence and to individuals who remain HBV DNA positive for prolonged periods in the absence of HBsAg.

Remote infection can be applied to individuals with anti-HBc in the absence of other serological markers, including DNA. These patients may or may not have anti-HBs. There is evidence that these patients may reactivate HBV during immunosuppression. HBsAg, complex antigen found on the surface of HBV and on 20- nm-diameter particles and tubular forms; HBcAg, antigen associated with the 27-nm-diameter core of HBV; HBeAg, protein that results from the proteolytic cleavage of the precore/core protein by cellular proteases and that is secreted as soluble protein in serum.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Commercial systems for serological testing of HBV antigens and antibodies

CMIA, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay; CIA, chemiluminescent immunoassay; CEIA, chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay; EIA, enzyme immunoassay (usually plate or well based); ELFA, enzyme-linked fluorescent assay; ECL-EIA, electrochemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay, MEIA, microparticle enzyme immunoassay.

All information on methods are derived from FDA submissions and manufacturers' information, when available. LOD, limit of detection; OD, optical density.

A, diagnostic use only; not for use in the evaluation of blood, blood products, or tissue/blood donors; B, diagnostic use and screening of blood, blood products, and/or tissue/blood donors; C, screening of blood, blood products, and/or tissue/blood donors only; D, evaluate postvaccination response.

All assays require positive results to be repeated and confirmed with a separate confirmation assay specific for each kit.

Serum includes specimens collected in serum separator tubes; plamsa includes collections in potassium EDTA, sodium citrate, sodium heparin, lithium heparin, and/or plasma separator tubes unless otherwise stated for a specific test.

Some reactive and/or gray zone/indeterminate results are repeated in duplicate or with a new specimen before results are reported. See package insert for specific instructions.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Molecular assays used to detect HBV nucleic acid

Data from manufacturers' literature and websites.

CE-IVD, European Conformity In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices.

FDA-IVD, Food and Drug Administration In Vitro Diagnostic Product.

Verify instrumentation use with manufacturer's kit. Evaluated on the Roto-Gene instrument.

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

HBV genotypes and geographic circulation

Information derived from references , and .

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Antiviral agents and HBV mutations associated with resistance

Resistance is defined as virologic breakthrough confirmed by an increase on two consecutive occasions of HBV DNA levels by >1 log copies/ml during therapy. Data are derived from references , and .

Citation: Horvat R, Tegtmeier G. 2011. Hepatitis B and D Viruses, p 1659-1676. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch106

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error