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Chapter 115 : and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance

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Abstract:

The taxonomy of yeasts is continually evolving, and currently yeasts that are of medical importance belong to two classes: the Saccharomycetes (previously Hemiascomycetes or Endomycetes), which contains species, and the Tremellomycetes (previously Heterobasidiomycetes), which contains the basidiomycetous fungi and . A number of species have been merged into , including and . There is evidence that var. may be a new cause of vaginitis that is often misidentified as on the Vitek 2 ID-YST system. species are ubiquitous yeasts, being found on many plants and as the normal biota of the alimentary tract of mammals and mucocutaneous membranes of humans. In nearly 45% of AIDS patients, cryptococcosis was reported as the first AIDS-defining illness. Because none of the presenting signs or symptoms of cryptococcal meningitis (such as headache, fever, and malaise) are sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it from other infections that occur in patients with AIDS, determining cryptococcal antigen titers and culturing blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are useful in making a diagnosis. Not surprisingly, little effort has been undertaken to develop serologic tests for detection of invasive infections caused by yeasts other than and species. In order to develop a universal genetic identification system for yeasts, the most reproducible, specific, and sensitive sequence for comparison must be identified, and the majority of research has focused on the rDNA regions.

Citation: Howell S, Hazen K. 2011. and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance, p 1793-1821. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch115

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Antifungal Agents
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Morphological features of some yeast and yeast-like organisms on cornmeal agar at 24 to 48 h and ambient temperature. (a) extremely elongated, rarely branched pseudohyphae; few blastoconidia. (b) blastoconidia formed at septa and between septa. (c) arthroconidia. (d) chains of blastoconidia forming sparse pseudohyphae in a young culture. (e) short distinctly curved pseudohyphae with blastoconidia formed at, and occasionally between, septa. (f) true hyphae and annelloconidia resembling arthroconidia. (g) blastoconidia, chlamydospores, true hyphae, and pseudohyphae. (h) elongated, delicately curved pseudohyphae with blastoconidia at septa. (i) spp.: blastoconidia formed at the corners of arthroconidia. Magnification, ×370. (Courtesy of B. A. Davis.)

Citation: Howell S, Hazen K. 2011. and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance, p 1793-1821. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch115
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

India ink preparation of . Magnification, ×400. (Courtesy of E. S. Jacobson.)

Citation: Howell S, Hazen K. 2011. and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance, p 1793-1821. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch115
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Diagnostic features of selected yeasts. (a) Ascus of containing hat-shaped ascospores; (b) sporangium of containing sporangiospores; (c) with vegetative cell and ascus containing four globose ascospores; (d) bottle-shaped, budding yeast demonstrating annelloconidium and collarette (arrow) of . Magnification, ×1,000. (Courtesy of B. A. Davis.)

Citation: Howell S, Hazen K. 2011. and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance, p 1793-1821. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch115
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Scheme for identification of yeasts from clinical specimens.

Citation: Howell S, Hazen K. 2011. and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance, p 1793-1821. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch115
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Germ tube test. (a) Germ tube formation of (b) blastoconidial germination with constriction (arrow) of not seen with true germ tubes of . Magnification, ×400. (Courtesy of B. A. Davis.)

Citation: Howell S, Hazen K. 2011. and Other Yeasts of Medical Importance, p 1793-1821. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch115
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