1887

Chapter 118 : and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap118-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap118-2.gif

Abstract:

The opportunistic hyaline or lightly colored moulds constitute a phylogenetically diverse group of common to rare anamorphic and teleomorphic fungi that typically occur as saprobes in soil, in air, or on plant litter or as facultative plant pathogens. Some may be recovered from specimens without having any clinical significance. While several of the genera treated in this chapter include species having either lightly colored or dark (melanized) conidia, the emphasis is on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored, septate hyphal elements. The term fusariosis is used to define infections caused by species of , but the practice of coining disease names based on the genus of fungus involved is disadvantageous for infections caused by uncommon or rare fungal pathogens. In the chapter, the name of the teleomorph is used for species that are identified mainly by their sexual structures. Most of the pathogenic moulds considered in the chapter are classified in the form-class Hyphomycetes (genera which bear their conidia free). The conidiogenous cell produces a single conidium or multiple conidia. The number of hyaline fungal species that have been reported to cause opportunistic infection in humans and animals is increasing. The chapter also describes the salient colonial and microscopic features of the medically important species in the genus and other selected currently recognized hyaline opportunists.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118

Key Concept Ranking

Fungal Infections
0.73247486
Fusarium solani
0.55641025
Fusarium lichenicola
0.5538462
0.73247486
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(A) A member of the FSSC. Microconidia are borne from long monophialides. Macroconidia borne in the aerial mycelium are also present. (B) in the FOSC. Microconidia are borne from short monophialides. A few macroconidia are also present. (C) Chains of microconidia produced by (formerly ) in the GFSC. (D) in the GFSC. Note polyphialides (arrows) with more than one opening not delimited by a septum. Truncate conidia that have been borne in chains as well as false heads are also present. (E) Macroconidia of in the FDSC. Note that conidia are two celled and that the septum is in the middle. (F) Macroconidia of in the FDSC. Note that the septum in two-celled conidia is off-center, and three-celled conidia are also present. (G) Colony of showing yellowish surface mycelium and pink pigment on cornmeal agar after 5 weeks. (H) An isolate of described in reference 106 was glabrous and sterile when grown on potato dextrose agar for 15 days at 30°C.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) The same isolate of as in Fig. 1H turned yellow on oatmeal agar, with development of ascospores after 15 days at 30°C. (B) Ascospores of observed by scanning electron microscopy. Magnification, ×6,000. (C) Perithecium of a species. (D) Brown ascospores of that formed after 8 weeks on carnation leaf agar at 25°C. (E) -like anamorph of showing adelophialides (reduced phialides without a septum) and ellipsoidal conidia. (F) Tissue section stained with Gomori methenamine silver stain showing monokaryotic (clampless) hyphae of in a pulmonary fungus ball. (G) in slide culture preparation showing clamp connections and narrow pegs or spicules (arrows). Magnification, ×580. (H) Dikaryotic culture of showing development of gilled fruiting bodies on potato dextrose agar after 7 weeks in the light.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(A) Setal hyphae of , slide culture preparation on potato flake agar, 10 days, 25°C. Bar, 20 μm. (B) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 14 days at 37°C. (C) Conidia of formed on short curved stalks. (D) Rough stipe, metulae, and phialides of . Note also that conidia are initially cuneiform (wedge shaped). Bar, 10 μm. (E) Conidia of in various stages of maturity. Mature conidia are dark and rough. Bar, 10 μm. (F) Culture of three different isolates of after 5 weeks on Mycosel agar. (G) Setae ( appendages) of . (H) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 7 days.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(A) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 14 days. (B) Verticillate conidiophores of bearing whorls of phialides. Bar, 10 μm. (C) Yellowish colony of on potato flake agar after 14 days at 25°C. (D) Colony of with yellow diffusible pigment on potato dextrose agar after 21 days at 30°C. (E) Conidia of borne in long chains or heads from simple basally inflated phialides. Bar, 2 μm. (F) Roughwalled conidia in chains formed on annellides in . Note branched conidiogenous apparatus. Magnification, ×580. (G) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 4 days at 37°C. Note that the plate has been inoculated on one side. (H) Green, oval conidia of . Bar, 10 μm.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap118
1. Abarca, M. L.,, G. Castellá,, J. Martorell,, and F. J. Cabanes. 2010. Chrysosporium guarroi sp. nov. a new emerging pathogen of pet green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Med. Mycol. 48:365372.
2. Abbott, S. P.,, and L. Sigler. 2001. Heterothallism in the Microascaceae demonstrated by three species in the Scopulariopsis brevicaulis series. Mycologia 93:12111220.
3. Abbott, S. P.,, L. Sigler,, R. McAleer,, D. A. McGough,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and G. Mizell. 1995. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:26922698.
4. Abd-Elsalam, K. A.,, J. R. Guo,, F. Schnieder,, A. M. Asran- Amal,, and J. A. Verreet. 2004. Comparative assessment of genotyping methods for study of genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum isolates. Pol. J. Microbiol. 53:167174.
5. Ajello, L. 1986. Hyalohyphomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: two global disease entities of public health importance. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2:243251.
6. Al-Mohsen, I. Z.,, D. A. Sutton,, L. Sigler,, E. Almodovar,, N. Mahgoub,, H. Frayha,, S. Al-Hajjar,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and T. J. Walsh. 2000. Acrophialophora fusispora brain abscess in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: review of cases and taxonomy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:45694576.
7. Amitani, R.,, K. Nishimura,, A. Niimi,, H. Kobayashi,, R. Nawada,, T. Murayama,, H. Taguchi,, and F. Kuze. 1996. Bronchial mucoid impaction due to the monokaryotic mycelium of Schizophyllum commune. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:146148.
8. Anaissie, E. J.,, R. T. Kuchar,, J. H. Rex,, A. Francesconi,, M. Kasai,, F.-M. Müller,, M. Lozano-Chiu,, R. C. Summerbell,, M. C. Dignani,, S. J. Chanock,, and T. J. Walsh. 2001. Fusariosis associated with pathogenic Fusarium species colonization of a hospital water system: a new paradigm for the epidemiology of opportunistic mold infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:18711878.
9. Aribandi, M.,, C. Bazan,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 2005. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a fatal primary cerebral infection due to Chaetomium strumarium. Australas. Radiol. 49:166169.
10. Arikan, S.,, M. Lozano-Chiu,, V. Paetznick,, S. Nangia,, and J. H. Rex. 1999. Microdilution susceptibility testing of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole against clinical isolates of Aspergillus and Fusarium species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:39463951.
11. Arikan, S.,, M. Lozano-Chiu,, V. Paetznick,, and J. H. Rex. 2001. In vitro susceptibility testing methods for caspofungin against Aspergillus and Fusarium isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:327330.
12. Ascioglu, S.,, J. H. Rex,, B. de Pauw,, J. E. Bennett,, J. Bille,, F. Crokaert, et al. 2002. Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer; Mycoses Study Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an international consensus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:714.
13. Augustinsky, J.,, P. Kammeyer,, A. Husain,, G. S. de Hoog,, and C. R. Libertin. 1990. Engyodontium album endocarditis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:14791481.
14. Aznar, C.,, C. de Bievre,, and C. Guiguen. 1989. Maxillary sinusitis from Microascus cinereus and Aspergillus repens. Mycopathologia 105:9397.
15. Azor, M.,, J. Gené,, J. Cano,, and J. Guarro. 2007. Universal in vitro antifungal resistance of genetic clades of the Fusarium solani species complex. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:15001503.
16. Azor, M.,, J. Gené,, J. Cano,, P. Manikandan,, N. Venkatapathy,, and J. Guarro. 2009. Less frequent species of Fusarium of clinical interest: correlation between morphological and molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:14631468.
17. Azor, M.,, J. Gené,, J. Cano,, D. A. Sutton,, A. W. Fothergill,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and J. Guarro. 2008. In vitro antifungal susceptibility and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme) and Fusarium thapsinum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:22282231.
18. Baddley, J. W.,, S. A. Moser,, D. A. Sutton,, and P. G. Pappas. 2000. Microascus cinereus (anamorph Scopulariopsis) brain abscess in a bone marrow transplant recipient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:395397.
19. Baddley, J. W.,, T. P. Stroud,, D. Salzman,, and P. G. Pappas. 2001. Invasive mold infections in allogenic bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:13191324.
20. Balajee, S. A.,, A. M. Borman,, M. E. Brandt,, J. Cano,, M. Cuenca-Estrella,, E. Dannaoui,, J. Guarro,, G. Haase,, C. C. Kibler,, K. O’Donnell,, C. A. Petti,, J. L. Rodriguez- Tudela,, D. Sutton,, A. Velegraki,, and B. L. Wickes. 2009. Sequencebased identification of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucorales species in the clinical mycology laboratory: where are we and where should we go from here? J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:877884.
21. Barron, M. A.,, D. A. Sutton,, R. Veve,, J. Guarro,, M. Rinaldi,, E. Thompson,, P. J. Cagnoni,, K. Moultney,, and N. E. Madinger. 2003. Invasive mycotic infections caused by Chaetomium perlucidum, a new agent of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:53025307.
22. Boerema, G. H.,, J. de Gruyter,, M. E. Noordeloos,, and M. E. C. Hamers. 2004. Phoma Identification Manual. Differentiation of Specific and Infra-Specific Taxa in Culture. CABI Publishing, Cambridge, MA.
23. Bourbeau, P.,, D. A. McGough,, H. Fraser,, N. Shah,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 1992. Fatal disseminated infection caused by Myceliophthora thermophila, a new agent of mycosis: case history and laboratory characteristics. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:30193023.
24. Boutati, E. I.,, and E. J. Anaissie. 1997. Fusarium, a significant emerging pathogen in patients with hematologic malignancy: ten years’ experience at a cancer center and implications for management. Blood 90:9991008.
25. Brockus, C. W.,, R. K. Myers,, J. M. Crandell,, D. A. Sutton,, B. L. Wickes,, and K. K. Nakasone. 2009. Disseminated Oxyporus corticola infection in a German shepherd dog. Med. Mycol. 47:862868.
26. Bugner, D.,, G. Eagles,, M. Burgess,, P. Procopis,, M. Rogers,, D. Muir,, R. Pritchard,, A. Hocking,, and M. Priest. 1998. Disseminated invasive infection due to Metarrhizium anisopliae in an immunocompromised child. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:11461150.
27. Buzina, W.,, D. Lang-Loidolt,, H. Braun,, K. Freudenschuss,, and H. Stammberger. 2001. Development of molecular methods for identification of Schizophyllum commune from clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:23912396.
28. Cano, J.,, J. Guarro,, and J. Gené. 2004. Molecular and morphological identification of Colletotrichum species of clinical interest. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:24502454.
29. Castelli, M. V.,, A. Alastruey-Izquierdo,, I. Cuesta,, A. Monzon,, E. Mellado,, J. L. Rodríguez-Tudela,, and M. Cuenca- Estrella. 2008. Susceptibility testing and molecular classification of Paecilomyces spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:29262928.
30. Castro, L. G. M.,, A. Salebian,, and M. N. Sotto. 1990. Hyalohyphomycosis by Paecilomyces lilacinus in a renal transplant patient and a review of human Paecilomyces species infections. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 28:1526.
31. Célard, M.,, E. Dannaoui,, M. A. Piens,, E. Guého,, G. Kirkorian,, T. Greenland,, F. Vandenesch,, and S. Picot. 1999. Early Microascus cinereus endocarditis of a prosthetic valve implanted after Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the native valve. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:691692.
32. Cepero de Garcia, M. C.,, M. L. Arboleda,, F. Barraquer,, and E. Grose. 1997. Fungal keratitis caused by Metarrhizium anisopliae. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 35:361363.
33. Chandler, F. W.,, and J. C. Watts. 1987. Pathologic Diagnosis of Fungal Infections. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Inc., Chicago, IL.
34. Chang, D. C.,, G. B. Grant,, K. O’Donnell,, K. A. Wannemuehler,, J. Noble-Wang,, C. Y. Rao,, L. M. Jacobson,, C. S. Crowell,, R. S. Sneed,, F. M. T. Lewis,, J. K. Schaffzin,, M. A. Kainer,, C. A. Genese,, E. C. Alfonso,, D. B. Jones,, A. Srinivasan,, S. K. Fridkin,, and B. J. Park for the Fusarium Keratitis Investigation Team. 2006. Multistate outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with use of a contact lens solution. JAMA 296:953963. 1992.
35. Chan-Tack, K. M.,, C. L. Thio,, N. S. Miller,, C. L. Karp,, C. Ho,, and W. G. Merz. 1999. Paecilomyces lilacinus fungemia in an adult bone marrow transplant recipient. Med. Mycol. 37:5760.
36. Chin-Hong, P. V.,, D. A. Sutton,, M. Roemer,, M. A. Jacobson,, and J. A. Aberg. 2001. Invasive fungal sinusitis and meningitis due to Arthrographis kalrae in a patient with AIDS. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:804807.
37. Chouaki, T.,, V. Lavarde,, L. Lachaud,, C. P. Raccurt,, and C. Hennequin. 2002. Invasive infections due to Trichoderma species; report of 2 cases, findings of in vitro susceptibility testing, and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35:13601367.
38. Cimon, B.,, S. Challier,, H. Béguin,, J. Carrère,, C. Chabasse,, and J.-P. Bouchara. 2005. Airway colonization by Acrophialophora fusispora in patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:14841487.
39. Clancy, C. J.,, and M. H. Nguyen. 1998. In vitro efficacy and fungicidal activity of voriconazole against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17:573575.
40. Clark, S.,, C. K. Campbell,, A. Sandison,, and D. I. Choa. 1996. Schizophyllum commune: an unusual isolate from a patient with allergic fungal sinusitis. J. Infect. 32:147150.
41.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Interpretive Criteria for Identification of Bacteria and Fungi by DNA Target Sequencing: Guideline. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document MM18-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
42.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi. Approved standard, 2nd ed. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M38-A2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
43.Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/NCCLS. 2002. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi. Approved standard. NCCLS document M38-A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute/ NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
44. Dan, M.,, O. Yossepowitch,, D. Hendel,, O. Shwartz,, and D. A. Sutton. 2006. Phialemonium curvatum arthritis of the knee following intra-articular injection of a corticosteroid. Med. Mycol. 44:571574.
45. Davis, C. M.,, L. M. Noroski,, M. K. Dishop,, D. A. Sutton,, R. M. Broverman,, M. E. Paul,, and H. M. Rosenblatt. 2007. Basidiomycetous fungal Inonotus tropicalis sacral osteomyelitis in X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:655656.
46. De Beer, Z. W.,, D. Begerow,, R. Bauer,, G. S. Pegg,, P. W. Crous,, and M. J. Wingfield. 2006. Phylogeny of the Quambalariaceae fam. nov., including important Eucalyptus pathogens in South Africa and Australia. Stud. Mycol. 55:289298.
47. De Hoog, G. S.,, J. Guarro,, J. Gené,, and M. J. Fígueras. 2000. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, The Netherlands.
48. De Hoog, G. S.,, J. Guarro,, J. Gene,, and M. J. Fígueras. 2009. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, pilot version of 3rd ed., CDROM. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, The Netherlands.
49. Destino, L.,, D. A. Sutton,, A. L. Helon,, P. L. Havens,, J. G. Thometz,, R. E. Willoughby, Jr.,, and M. J. Chusid. 2006. Severe osteomyelitis caused by Myceliophthora thermophila after a pitchfork injury. Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 5:21.
50. Diekema, D. J.,, S. A. Messer,, R. J. Hollis,, R. N. Jones,, and M. A. Pfaller. 2003. Activities of caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against 448 recent clinical isolates of filamentous fungi. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:36233626.
51. Di Pietro, A.,, M. P. Madred,, Z. Caracuel,, J. Delgado- Jarana,, and M. I. G. Roncero. 2003. Fusarium oxysporum: exploring the molecular arsenal of a vascular wilt pathogen. Mol. Plant Pathol. 4:315325.
52. Domsch, K. H.,, W. Gams,, and T.-H. Anderson. 1980. Compendium of Soil Fungi. IHW-Verlag, Eching, Germany. [Reprinted in 1993.].
53. Domsch, K. H.,, W. Gams,, and T.-H. Anderson. 2007. Compendium of Soil Fungi, 2nd ed. IHW-Verlag, Eching, Germany.
54. Driver, F.,, R. J. Milner,, and J. W. H. Trueman. 2000. A taxonomic revision of Metarhizium based on a phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequence data. Mycol. Res. 104:134150.
55. Druzhinina, I. S.,, A. G. Kopchinskiy,, and C. P. Kubicek. 2006. The first 100 Trichoderma species characterized by molecular data. Mycoscience 47:5564.
56. Duthie, R.,, and D. W. Denning. 1995. Aspergillus fungemia: report of two cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:598605.
57. Ellis, D.,, S. Davis,, H. Alexiou,, R. Handke,, and R. Bartley. 2007. Descriptions of Medical Fungi. Nexus Print Solutions, Underdale, South Australia, Australia.
58. Ellison, M. D.,, R. T. Hung,, K. Harris,, and B. H. Campbell. 1998. Report of the first case of invasive fungal sinusitis caused by Scopulariopsis acremonium. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 124:10141016.
59. Espinel-Ingroff, A. 2001. Comparison of the E-test with the NCCLS M38-P method for antifungal susceptibility testing of common and emerging pathogenic filamentous fungi. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:13601367.
60. Farina, C.,, A. Gamba,, R. Tambini,, H. Beguin,, and J. L. Trouillet. 1998. Fatal aortic Myceliophthora thermophila infection in a patient affected by cystic medial necrosis. Med. Mycol. 36:113118.
61. Foell, J. L.,, M. Fischer,, M. Seibold,, M. Borneff-Lipp,, A. Wawer,, G. Horneff,, and S. Burdach. 2006. Lethal double infection with Acremonium strictum and Aspergillus fumigatus during induction chemotherapy in a child with ALL. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 49:858861.
62. Fredricks, D. N.,, C. Smith,, and A. Meier. 2005. Comparison of six DNA extraction methods for recovery of fungal DNA as assessed by quantitative PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:51225128.
63. Gams, W. 1978. Connected and disconnected chains of phialoconidia and Sagenomella gen. nov. segregated from Acremonium. Persoonia 10:97110.
64. Gams, W.,, and M. R. McGinnis. 1983. Phialemonium, a new anamorphic genus intermediate between Phialophora and Acremonium. Mycologia 75:977987.
65. Garcia-Effron, G.,, A. Gomez-Lopez,, E. Mellado,, A. Monzon,, J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela,, and M. Cuenca-Estrella. 2004. In vitro activity of terbinafine against medically important non-dermatophyte species of filamentous fungi. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53:10861089.
66. Gavin, P. J.,, D. A. Sutton,, and B. Z. Katz. 2002. Fatal endocarditis caused by the dematiaceous fungus Phialemonium obovatum: case report and review of the literature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:22072212.
67. Geiser, D. M.,, M. del MarJiménez-Gasco,, S. Kang,, I. Makalowska,, N. Veeraraaghavan,, T. J. Ward,, N. Zhang,, G. A. Kuldau,, and K. O’Donnell. 2004. FUSARIUM-ID v. 1.0: a DNA sequence database for identifying Fusarium. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 110:473479.
68. Gené, J.,, J. L. Blanco,, J. Cano,, M. E. García,, and J. Guarro. 2003. New filamentous fungus Sagenomella chlamydospora responsible for a disseminated infection in a dog. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:17221725.
69. Girmenia, C.,, W. Arcese,, A. Micozzi,, P. Martino,, P. Bianco,, and G. Morace. 1992. Onychomycosis as a possible origin of disseminated Fusarium solani infection in a patient with severe aplastic anemia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:1167.
70. Girmenia, C.,, L. Pagano,, L. Corvatta,, L. Mele,, A. Del Favero,, and P. Martino for the Gimena Infection Programme. 2000. The epidemiology of fusariosis in patients with haematological diseases. Br. J. Haematol. 111:272276.
71. Glenn, A. F.,, C. W. Bacon,, R. Price,, and R. T. Hanlin. 1996. Molecular phylogeny of Acremonium and its taxonomic implications. Mycologia 88:369383.
72. Godoy, P.,, J. Cano,, J. Gene,, J. Guarro,, A. L. Hofling- Lima,, and A. L. Colombo. 2004. Genotyping of 44 isolates of Fusarium solani, the main agent of fungal keratitis in Brazil. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:44944497.
73. González, G. M.,, D. A. Sutton,, E. Thompson,, R. Tijerina,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 2001. In vitro activities of approved and investigational antifungal agents against 44 clinical isolates of basidiomycetous fungi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:633635.
74. Grant, D. C.,, D. A. Sutton,, C. A. Sandberg,, R. D. Tyler, Jr.,, E. H. Thompson,, A. M. Romanelli,, and B. L. Wickes. 2009. Disseminated Geosmithia argillacea infection in a German shepherd dog. Med. Mycol. 47:221226.
75. Grossi, P.,, C. Farina,, R. Fiocchi,, and D. Dalla Gasperina. 2000. Prevalence and outcome of invasive fungal infections in 1,963 thoracic organ transplant recipients: a multicenter retrospective study. Transplantation 70:112116.
76. Guarro, J.,, W. Gams,, I. Pujol,, and J. Gene. 1997. Acremonium species: new emerging fungal opportunists—in vitro antifungal susceptibilities and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25:12221229.
77. Guarro, J.,, and J. Gené. 2002. Acrophialophora fusispora misidentified as Scedosporium prolificans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:35443545. (Authors’ reply, 40:3545.).
78. Guarro, J.,, J. Gené,, and A.M. Stchigel. 1999. Developments in fungal taxonomy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:454500.
79. Guarro, J.,, D. K. Mendiratta,, H. De Sequeira,, V. Rodríguez,, D. Thamke,, A. M. Gomes,, A. K. Shuklal,, F. Menezes,, P. Narang,, J. R. Vieira,, and J. Gené. 2007. Acrophialophora fusispora: an emerging agent of human mycoses. A report of 3 new clinical cases. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 59:8588.
80. Guarro, J.,, M. Nucci,, T. Akiti,, J. Gené,, J. Cano,, M. Da Gloria,, C. Barreiro,, and C. Aguilar. 1999. Phialemonium fungemia: two documented nosocomial cases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:24932497.
81. Guarro, J.,, T. E. Svidzinski,, L. Zaror,, M. H. Forjaz,, J. Gené,, and O. Fischman. 1998. Subcutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:30603065.
82. Gupta, A. K.,, C. B. Horgan-Bell,, and R. C. Summerbell. 1998. Onychomycosis associated with Onychocola canadensis: ten case reports and a review of the literature. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 39:410417.
83. Hay, R. J. 2007. Fusarium infections of the skin. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 20:115117.
84. Healy, M.,, K. Reece,, D. Walton,, J. Huong,, S. Frye,, I. I. Raad,, and D. P. Kontoyiannis. 2005. Use of the DiversiLab System for species and strain differentiation of Fusarium species isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:52785280.
85. Hibbett, D. S.,, M. Binder,, J. F. Bischoff,, M. Blackwell,, P. F. Cannon,, O. E. Eriksson,, S. Huhndorf,, T. James,, P. M. Kirk,, R. Lucking,, H. Thorsten Lumbsch,, F. Lutzoni,, P. B. Matheny,, D. J. McLaughlin,, M. J. Powell,, S. Redhead,, C. L. Schoch,, J. W. Spatafora,, J. A. Stalpers,, R. Vilgalys,, M. C. Aime,, A. Aptroot,, R. Bauer,, D. Begerow,, G. L. Benny,, L. A. Castlebury,, P. W. Crous,, Y. C. Dai,, W. Gams,, D. M. Geiser,, G. W. Griffith,, C. Gueidan,, D. L. Hawksworth,, G. Hestmark,, K. Hosaka,, R. A. Humber,, K. D. Hyde,, J. E. Ironside,, U. Koljalg,, C. P. Kurtzman,, K. H. Larsson,, R. Lichtwardt,, J. Longcore,, J. Miadlikowska,, A. Miller,, J. M. Moncalvo,, S. Mozley-Standridge,, F. Oberwinkler,, E. Parmasto,, V. Reeb,, J. D. Rogers,, C. Roux,, L. Ryvarden,, J. P. Sampaio,, A. Schussler,, J. Sugiyama,, R. G. Thorn,, L. Tibell,, W. A. Untereiner,, C. Walker,, Z. Wang,, A. Weir,, M. Weiss,, M. M. White,, K. Winka,, Y. J. Yao,, and N. Zhang. 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the fungi. Mycol. Res. 111:509547.
86. Hue, F.-X.,, M. Huerre,, M. A. Rouffault,, and C. de Bievre. 1999. Specific detection of Fusarium species in blood and tissues by a PCR technique. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:24342438.
87. Ikemura, K.,, K. Ikegami,, T. Shimazu,, T. Yoshioka,, and T. Sugimoto. 1989. False-positive result in Limulus test caused by Limulus amebocyte lysate-reactive material in immunoglobulin products. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:19651968.
88. Imamura, Y.,, J. Chandra,, P. K. Mukherjee,, A. A. Lattif,, L. B. Szczotka-Flynn,, E. Pearlman,, J. H. Lass,, K. O’Donnell,, and M. A. Ghannoum. 2008. Fusarium and Candida albicans on soft contact lenses: model development, influence of lens type, and susceptibility to lens care solutions. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:171182.
89. Iwen, P. C.,, L. Sigler,, S. R. Tarantolo,, D. A. Sutton,, M. G. Rinaldi,, R. P. Lackner,, D. I. McCarthy,, and S. H. Hinrichs. 2000. Pulmonary infection caused by Gymnascella hyalinospora in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:375381.
90. Jaakkola, M. S.,, S. Laitinen,, R. Piipari,, J. Uitti,, H. Nordman,, A. M. Haapala,, and J. J. Jaakkola. 2002. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against indoor dampness-related microbes and adult onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 129:107112.
91. Jaeger, E. E.,, N. M. Carroll,, S. Choudhury,, A. A. Dunlop,, H. M. Towler,, M. M. Matheson,, P. Adamson,, N. Okhravi,, and S. Lightman. 2000. Rapid detection and identification of Candida, Aspergillus, and Fusarium species in ocular samples using nested PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:29022908.
92. Joffe, A. Z., 1978. Fusarium poae and F. sporotrichoides as principal causal agents of alimentary toxic aleukia, p. 2741. In T. Willie, and L. Morehouse (ed.), Mycotoxic Fungi, Mycotoxins, Mycotoxicoses. An Encyclopedic Handbook. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
93. Kamai, K.,, H. Unno,, J. Ito,, K. Nishimura,, and M. Miyakji. 1999. Analysis of the cases in which Schizophyllum commune was isolated. Jpn. J. Med. Mycol. 40:175181.
94. Kane, J.,, R. Summerbell,, L. Sigler,, S. Krajden,, and G. Land. 1997. Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
95. Kappe, R.,, and A. Schulze-Berge. 1993. New cause for false-positive results with the Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:24892490.
96. Katiyar, S. K.,, and T. D. Edlind. 2009. Role of Fks1 in the intrinsic echinocandin resistance of Fusarium solani as evidenced by hybrid expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:17721778.
97. Kato, A.,, T. Takita,, M. Furuhashi,, T. Takahashi,, Y. Maruyama,, and A. Hishida. 2001. Elevation of blood (1,3)- beta-D-glucan concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 89:159.
98. Kaufman, L.,, P. G. Standard,, M. Jalbert,, and D. Kraft. 1997. Immunohistologic identification of Aspergillus spp. and other hyaline fungi by using polyclonal fluorescent antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:22062209.
99. Keynan, Y.,, H. Sprecher,, and G. Weber. 2007. Acremonium vertebral osteomyelitis: molecular diagnosis and response to voriconazole. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45:e5e6.
100. Khan, Z. U.,, S. Ahmad,, and A. M. Theyyathel. 2008. Diagnostic value of DNA and (1→3)-β-D-glucan detection in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage of mice experimentally infected with Fusarium oxysporum. J. Med. Microbiol. 57(Pt. 1):3642.
101. Khan, Z. U.,, H. S. Randhawa,, T. Kowshik,, S. N. Gaur,, and G. A. de Vries. 1988. The pathogenic potential of Sporotrichum pruinosum isolated from the human respiratory tract. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 26:145151.
102. Khor, W.-B.,, T. Aung,, S.-M. Saw,, T.-Y. Wong,, P. A. Tambyah,, A.-L. Tan,, R. Beuerman,, L. Lim,, W.-K. Chan,, W.-J. Heng,, J. Lim,, R. S. K. Loh,, S.-B. Lee,, and D. T. H. Tan. 2006. An outbreak of Fusarium keratitis associated with contact lens wear in Singapore. JAMA 295:28672873.
103. Kirk, P. M.,, P. G. Cannon,, J. C. David,, and J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi, 9th ed. CABI Bioscience, Surrey, United Kingdom.
104. Kisla, T. A.,, A. Cu-Unjieng,, L. Sigler,, and J. Sugar. 2000. Medical management of Beauveria bassiana keratitis. Cornea 19:405406.
105. Kornerup, A.,, and J. H. Wanscher. 1983. Methuen Handbook of Colour. Eyre Methuen Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
106. Kriesel, J. D.,, E. E. Adderson,, W. M. Gooch III,, and A. T. Pavia. 1994. Invasive sinonasal disease due to Scopulariopsis candida: case report and review of Scopulariopsis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:317319.
107. Krisher, K. K.,, N. B. Holdridge,, M. M. Mustafa,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and D. A. McGough. 1995. Disseminated Microascus cirrosus infection in a pediatric bone marrow transplant patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:735737.
108. Kuhls, K.,, E. Lieckfeldt,, T. Börner,, and E. Guého. 1999. Molecular reidentification of human pathogenic Trichoderma isolatesas Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Trichoderma citrinoviride. Med. Mycol. 37:2533.
109. Kuhn, D. M.,, and M. A. Ghannoum. 2003. Indoor mold, toxigenic fungi, and Stachybotrys chartarum: infectious disease perspective. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16:144172.
110. Lagrou, K.,, C. Massonet,, K. Theunissen,, W. Meersseman,, M. Lontie,, E. Verbeken,, J. Van Eldere,, and J. Maertens. 2005. Fatal pulmonary infection in a leukaemic patient caused by Hormographiella aspergillata. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:685688.
111. Landlinger, C.,, S. Preuner,, B. Willinger,, B. Haberpursch,, Z. Racil,, J. Mayer,, and T. Lion. 2009. Species-specific identification of a wide range of clinically relevant fungal pathogens by use of Luminex xMAP technology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:10631073.
112. Lappalainen, S.,, A. L. Pasanen,, M. Reiman,, and P. Kalliokoski. 1998. Serum IgG antibodies against Wallemia sebi and Fusarium species in Finnish farmers. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 81:585592.
113. Lass-Flörl, C.,, M. Cuenca-Estrella,, D. W. Denning,, and J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela. 2006. Antifungal susceptibility testing in Aspergillus spp. according to EUCAST methodology. Med. Mycol. 44(Suppl.):319325.
114. Lass-Flörl, C.,, A. Mayr,, S. Perkhofer,, G. Hinterberger,, J. Hausdorfer,, C. Speth,, and M. Fille. 2008. Activities of antifungal agents against yeasts and filamentous fungi: assessment according to the methodology of the European Committee on Antimicrobial susceptibility Testing. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:36373641.
115. Leslie, J. F.,, and B. F. Summerell. 2006. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA.
116. Lionakis, M. S.,, and D. P. Kontoyiannis. 2004. The significance of isolation of saprophytic molds from the lower respiratory tract in patients with cancer. Cancer 100:165172.
117. Liu, K.,, D. N. Howell,, J. R. Perfect,, and W. A. Schell. 1998. Morphologic criteria for the preliminary identification of Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Acremonium species by histopathology. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 109:4554.
118. Llovo, J.,, E. Prieto,, H. Vazquez,, and A. Muñoz. 2002. Onychomycosis due to Onychocola canadensis: report of the first two Spanish cases. Med. Mycol. 40:209212.
119. Lozano-Chiu, M.,, S. Arikan,, V. L. Paetznick,, E. J. Anaissie,, D. Loebenberg,, and J. H. Rex. 1999. Treatment of murine fusariosis with SCH 56592. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:589591.
120. Marques, A. R.,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, S. M. Holland,, M. L. Turner,, and J. J. Gallin. 1995. Suppurative cutaneous granulomata caused by Microascus cinereus in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 110114.
121. Mayayo, E.,, I. Pujol,, and J. Guarro. 1999. Experimental pathogenicity of four opportunistic Fusarium species in a murine model. J. Med. Microbiol. 48:363366.
122. McDonnell, P. J.,, T. P. Werblin,, L. Sigler,, and W. R. Green. 1985. Mycotic keratitis due to Beauveria alba. Cornea 3:213216.
123. Middelhoven, W. J.,, E. Guého,, and G. S. de Hoog. 2000. Phylogenetic position and physiology of Cerinosterus cyanescens. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 77:313320.
124. Migrino, R. Q.,, G. S. Hall,, and D. L. Longworth. 1995. Deep tissue infections caused by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis: report of a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:672674.
125. Miyakis, S.,, A. Velegraki,, S. Delikou,, A. Parcharidou,, V. Papadakis,, V. Kitra,, I. Papadatos,, and S. Polychronopoulou. 2006. Invasive Acremonium strictum infection in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 25:273275.
126. Mohammedi, I.,, M. A. Piens,, C. Audigier-Valette,, J. C. Gantier,, L. Argaud,, O. Martin,, and D. Robert. 2004. Fatal Microascus trigonosporus (anamorph Scopulariopsis) pneumonia in a bone marrow transplant recipient. Eur. J. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23:215217.
127. Morton, F. J.,, and G. Smith. 1963. The genera Scopulariopsis Bainier, Microascus Zukal, and Doratomyces Corda. Mycol. Pap. 86:196.
128. Munoz, F. M.,, G. J. Demmler,, W. R. Travis,, A. K. Ogden,, S. N. Rossmann,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 1997. Trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in a pediatric patient with aplastic anemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:499503.
129. Musa, M. O.,, A. Al Eisa,, M. Halim,, E. Sahovic,, M. Gyger,, N. Chaudhri,, F. Al Mohareb,, P. Seth,, M. Aslam,, and M. Aljurf. 2000. The spectrum of Fusarium infection in immunocompromised patients with haematological malignancies and in non-immunocompromised patients: a single institution experience over 10 years. Br. J. Haematol. 108:544548.
130. Nakao, A.,, M. Yasui,, T. Kawagoe,, H. Tamura,, S. Tanaka,, and H. Takagi. 1997. False-positive endotoxemia derives from gauze glucan after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis. Hepatogastroenterology 44:14131418.
131. Nelson, P. E.,, M. C. Dignani,, and E. J. Anaissie. 1994. Taxonomy, biology and clinical aspects of Fusarium species. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 7:479504.
132. Nelson, P. E.,, T. A. Toussoun,, and W. F. O. Marasas. 1983. Fusarium Species: an Illustrated Manual of Identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, State College.
133. Ninet, B.,, I. Jan,, O. Bontems,, B. Lechenne,, O. Jousson,, D. Lew,, J. Schrenzel,, R. G. Panizzon,, and M. Monod. 2005. Molecular identification of Fusarium species in onychomycoses. Dermatology 210:2125.
134. Nirenberg, H. I.,, and K. O’Donnell. 1998. New Fusarium species and combinations within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Mycologia 90:434458.
135. Nir-Paz, R.,, J. Strahilevitz,, M. Shapiro,, N. Keller,, A. Goldschmied-Reouven,, O. Yarden,, C. Block,, and I. Polacheck. 2004. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of infections caused by Fusarium species: a collaborative study from Israel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:34563461.
136. Nucci, M. 2003. Emerging moulds: Fusarium, Scedosporium and Zygomycetes in transplant recipients. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 16:607612.
137. Nucci, M.,, and E. Anaissie. 2006. Emerging fungi. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 20:563579.
138. Nucci, M.,, and E. Anaissie. 2007. Fusarium infections in immunocompromised patients. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20:695704.
139. Nucci, M.,, and E. J. Anaissie,. 2009. Hyalohyphomycosis, p. 309327. In E. J. Anaissie,, M. R. McGinnis,, and M. A. Pfaller (ed.), Clinical Mycology, 2nd ed. Elsevier, London, United Kingdom.
140. Nucci, M.,, E. J. Anaissie,, F. Queiroz-Telles,, C. A. Martins,, P. Trabasso,, C. Solza,, C. Mangini,, B. P. Simoes,, A. L. Colombo,, J. Vaz,, C. E. Levy,, S. Costa,, V. A. Moreira,, J. S. Oliveira,, N. Paraguay,, G. Duboc,, J. C. Voltarelli,, A. Maiolino,, R. Pasquini,, and C. A. Souza. 2003. Outcome predictors of 84 patients with hematologic malignancies and Fusarium infection. Cancer 98:315319.
141. Nucci, M.,, K. A. Marr,, F. Queiroz-Telles,, C. A. Martins,, P. Trabasso,, S. Costa,, J. C. Voltarelli,, A. L. Colombo,, A. Imhof,, R. Pasquini,, A. Maiolino,, C. A. Souza,, and E. Anaissie. 2004. Fusarium infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:12371242.
142. Obayashi, T.,, M. Yoshida,, T. Mori,, H. Goto,, A. Yasuoka,, H. Iwasaki,, H. Teshima,, S. Kohno,, A. Horiuchi,, A. Ito,, H. Yamaguchi,, K. Shimada,, and T. Kawai. 1995. Plasma (1→3)-β-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes. Lancet 345:1720.
143. Odabasi, Z.,, G. Mattiuzzi,, E. Estey,, H. Kantarjian,, F. Saeki,, R. J. Ridge,, P. A. Ketchum,, M. A. Finkelman,, J. H. Rex,, and L. Ostrosky-Zeichner. 2004. Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:199205.
144. Odds, F.,, T. Arai,, A. F. DiSalvo,, E. G. V. Evans,, R. J. Hay,, H. S. Randhawa,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and T. J. Walsh. 1992. Nomenclature of fungal diseases: a report and recommendations from a subcommittee of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM). J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30:110.
145. O’Donnell, K. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of the Nectria haematococca-Fusarium solani species complex. Mycologia 92:919938.
146. O’Donnell, K.,, E. Cigelnik,, and H. I. Nirenberg. 1998. Molecular systematic and phylogeography of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Mycologia 90:465493.
147. O’Donnell, K.,, H. I. Nirenberg,, A. Takayuki,, and E. Cigelnik. 2000. A multigene phylogeny of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex: detection of additional phylogenetically distinct species. Mycoscience 41:6178.
148. O’Donnell, K.,, B. A. J. Sarver,, M. Brandt,, D. C. Chang,, J. Noble-Wang,, B. J. Park,, D. A. Sutton,, L. Benjamin,, M. Lindsley,, A. Padhye,, D. M. Geiser,, and T. J. Ward. 2007. Phylogenetic diversity and microsphere array-based genotyping of human pathogenic fusaria, including isolates from the multistate contact lens-associated U.S. keratitis outbreaks of 2005 and 2006. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:22352248.
149. O’Donnell, K.,, D. A. Sutton,, M. G. Rinaldi,, C. Gueidan,, P. W. Crous,, and D. M. Geiser. 2009. Novel multilocus sequence typing scheme reveals high genetic diversity of human pathogenic members of the Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti and F. chlamydosporum species complexes within the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:38513861.
150. O’Donnell, K.,, D. A. Sutton,, A. Fothergill,, D. McCarthy,, M. G. Rinaldi,, M. E. Brandt,, N. Zhang,, and D. M. Geiser. 2008. Molecular phylogenetic diversity, multilocus haplotype nomenclature, and in vitro antifungal resistance within the Fusarium solani species complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:24772490.
151. O’Donnell, K.,, D. A. Sutton,, M. G. Rinaldi,, K. C. Magnon,, P. A. Cox,, S. G. Revankar,, S. Sanche,, D. M. Geiser,, J. H. Juba,, J. A. van Burik,, A. Padhye,, E. J. Anaissie,, A. Francesconi,, T. J. Walsh,, and J. S. Robinson. 2004. Genetic diversity of human pathogenic members of the Fusarium oxysporum complex inferred from multilocus DNA sequence data and amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses: evidence for the recent dispersion of a geographically widespread clonal lineage and nosocomial origin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:51095120.
152. Okhravi, N.,, and S. Lightman. 2007. Clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome of Paecilomyces lilacinus infections. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13:553554.
153. Osorio, S.,, R. de la Cámara,, M. C. Monteserin,, R. Granados,, F. Oña,, J. L. Rodríguez-Tudela,, and M. Cuenca-Estrella. 2007. Recurrent disseminated skin lesions due to Metarrhizium anisopliae in an adult patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:651655.
154. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.,, B. D. Alexander,, D. H. Kett,, J. Vazquez,, P. G. Pappas,, F. Saeki,, P. A. Ketchum,, J. Wingard,, R. Schiff,, H. Tamura,, M. A. Finkelman,, and J. H. Rex. 2005. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3) beta-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:654659.
155. Pariseau, B.,, S. Nehls,, G. S. H. Ogawa,, D. A. Sutton,, B. L. Wickes,, and A. M. Romanelli. 2010. Beauveria keratitis and biopesticides: case histories and a random amplification of polymorphic DNA comparison. Cornea 29:152158.
156. Pastor, F. J.,, and J. Guarro. 2006. Clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome of Paecilomyces lilacinus infections. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:948960.
157. Patel, R.,, C. A. Gustaferro,, R. A. F. Krom,, R. H. Wiesner,, G. D. Roberts,, and C. V. Paya. 1994. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Scopulariopsis brumptii in a liver transplant patient. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:198200.
158. Perfect, J. R.,, K. A. Marr,, T. J. Walsh,, R. N. Greenberg,, B. DuPont,, J. de la Torre-Cisneros,, G. Just-Nubling,, H. T. Schlamm,, I. Lutsar,, A. Espinel-Ingroff,, and E. Johnson. 2003. Voriconazole treatment for less-common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:11221131.
159. Perlman, E. M.,, and L. Binns. 1997. Intense photophobia caused by Arthrographis kalrae in a contact lens wearing patient. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 123:547549.
160. Pfaller, M. A.,, F. Marco,, S. A. Messer,, and R. N. Jones. 1998. In vitro activity of two echinocandin derivatives, LY303366 and MK-0991 (L-743,792), against clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Rhizopus, and other filamentous fungi. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 30:251255.
161. Pfaller, M. A.,, S. A. Messer,, R. J. Hollis,, and R. N. Jones, and the SENTRY Participants Group. 2002. Antifungal activities of posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole compared to those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 239 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi: report from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 2000. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:10321037.
162. Phillips, P.,, W. S. Wood,, G. Phillips,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 1989. Invasive hyalohyphomycosis caused by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in a patient undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12:429432.
163. Pihet, M.,, J. Carrère,, B. Cimon,, D. Chabasse,, L. Delhaes,, F. Symoens,, and J.-P. Bouchara. 2009. Occurrence and relevance of filamentous fungi in respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis—a review. Med. Mycol. 47(Special Issue):387397.
164. Pounder, J. I.,, K. E. Simmon,, C. A. Barton,, S. L. Hohmann,, M. E. Brandt,, and C. A. Petti. 2007. Discovering potential pathogens among fungi identified as nonsporulating molds. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:568571.
165. Prins, C.,, P. Chavez,, K. Tamm,, and C. Hauser. 1995. Ecthyma gangrenosum-like lesions: a sign of disseminated Fusarium infection in the neutropenic patient. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 20:428430.
166. Proia, L. A.,, M. K. Hayden,, P. L. Kammeyer,, J. Ortiz,, D. A. Sutton,, T. Clark,, H.-J. Schroers,, and R. C. Summerbell. 2004. Phialemonium: an emerging mold pathogen that caused 4 cases of hemodialysis-associated endovascular infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:373379.
167. Pryce, T. M.,, S. Palladino,, I. D. Kay,, and G. W. Coombs. 2003. Rapid identification of fungi by sequencing the ITS1 and ITS2 regions using an automated capillary electrophoresis system. Med. Mycol. 41:369381.
168. Qiu, W. Y.,, Y. F. Yao,, Y. F. Zhu,, Y. M. Zhang,, P. Zhou,, Y. Q. Jin,, and B. Zhang. 2005. Fungal spectrum identified by a new slide culture and in vitro drug susceptibility using Etest in fungal keratitis. Curr. Eye Res. 30:11131120.
169. Raad, I.,, J. Tarrand,, H. Hanna,, M. Albitar,, E. Janssen,, M. Boktour,, G. Bodey,, M. Mardani,, R. Hachem,, D. Ontoyiannis,, E. Whimbey,, and K. Rolston. 2002. Epidemiology, molecular mycology, and environmental sources of Fusarium infection in patients with cancer. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 23:532537.
170. Rabodonirina, M.,, M. A. Piens,, M. F. Monier,, E. Gueho,, D. Fiere,, and M. Mojon. 1994. Fusarium infections in the immunocompromised patients: case reports and literature review. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13:152161.
171. Rajeev, S.,, D. A. Sutton,, B. L. Wickes,, D. L. Miller,, D. Giri,, M. Wan Meter,, E. H. Thompson,, M. G. Rinaldi,, A. M. Romanelli,, J. F. Cano,, and J. Guarro. 2009. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal species, Chrysosporium ophiodiicola, from a mycotic granuloma of a black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta). J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:12641268.
172. Rampazzo, A.,, P. Kuhnert,, J. Howard,, and V. Bornand. 2009. Hormographiella aspergillata keratomycosis in a dog. Vet. Ophthalmol. 12:4347.
173. Rao, S. K.,, P. T. H. Lam,, E. Y. M. Li,, H. K. L. Yuen,, and D. S. C. Lam. 2007. A case series of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis in Hong Kong. Cornea 26:12051209.
174. Revankar, S. G.,, D. A. Sutton,, S. E. Sanche,, J. Rao,, M. Zervos,, F. Dashti,, and M. G. Rinaldi. 1999. Metarrhizium anisopliae as a cause of sinusitis in immunocompetent hosts. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:195198.
175. Rezai, K. A.,, D. Eliott,, O. Plous,, J. A. Vasquez,, and G. W. Abrams. 2005. Disseminated Fusarium infection presenting as bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Arch. Ophthalmol. 123:702703.
176. Richter, S.,, M. G. Cormican,, M. A. Pfaller,, C. K. Lee,, R. Gingrich,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and D. A. Sutton. 1999. Fatal disseminated Trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in an adult bone marrow transplant patient: species identification and review of the literature. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:11541160.
177. Rihs, J. D.,, A. A. Padhye,, and C. B. Good. 1996. Brain abscess caused by Schizophyllum commune: an emerging basidiomycete pathogen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:16281632.
178. Rimek, D.,, J. Singh,, and R. Kappe. 2003. Cross reactivity of the PLATELIA CANDIDA antigen detection enzyme immunoassay with fungal antigen extracts. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:33953398.
179. Roh, M. L.,, C. U. Tuazon,, R. Mandler,, K. J. Kwon- Chung,, and C. E. Geist. 2005. Sphenocavernous syndrome associated with Schizophyllum commune infection of the sphenoid sinus. Ophthal. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 21:7174.
180. Roilides, E.,, L. Sigler,, E. Bibashi,, H. Katsifa,, N. Flaris,, and C. Panteliadis. 1999. Disseminated infection due to Chrysosporium zonatum in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease and review of non-Aspergillus infections in these patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:1825.
181. Romanelli, A. M.,, D. A. Sutton,, E. H. Thompson,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and B. L. Wickes. 2010. Sequence-based identification of filamentous basidiomycetous fungi from clinical specimens: a cautionary note. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48: 741752.
182. Ruíz-Cendoya, M.,, M. Mariné,, M. Mar Rodríguez,, and J. Guarro. 2009. Interactions between triazoles and amphotericin B in the treatment of disseminated murine infection by Fusarium oxysporum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:17051708.
183. Ryder, N. S. 1999. Activity of terbinafine against serious fungal pathogens. Mycoses 42:115119.
184. Rydjord, B.,, G. Hetland,, and H. G. Wiker. 2005. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against environmental moulds in a Norwegian healthy population show a bimodal distribution for Aspergillus versicolor. Scand. J. Immunol. 62:281288.
185. Saini, S. K.,, S. R. Boas,, A. Jerath,, M. Roberts,, and P. A. Greenberger. 1998. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis to Fusarium vasinfectum in a child. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 80:377380.
186. Sampathkumar, P.,, and C. V. Paya. 2001. Fusarium infection after solid-organ transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:12371240.
187. Samson, R. A.,, E. S. Hoekstra,, J. Frisvad,, and O. Filtenborg. 2000. Introduction to Food- and Airborne Fungi, 6th ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
188. Schell, W. A.,, and J. R. Perfect. 1996. Fatal, disseminated Acremonium strictum infection in a neutropenic host. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:13331336.
189. Schinabeck, M. K.,, and M. A. Ghannoum. 2003. Human hyalohyphomycoses: a review of human infections due to Acremonium spp., Paecilomyces spp., Penicillium spp., and Scopulariopsis spp. J. Chemother. 15(Suppl. 2):515.
190. Schmidt, A. L.,, and V. Mitter. 2004. Microsatellite mutation directed by an external stimulus. Mutat. Res. 568:233243.
191. Schroers, H.-J.,, K. O’Donnell,, S. C. Lamprecht,, P. L. Kammeyer,, S. Johnson,, D. A. Sutton,, M. G. Rinaldi,, D. M. Geiser,, and R. C. Summerbell. 2009. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Fusarium dimerum species group. Mycologia 101:4470.
192. Seguin, P.,, B. Degeilh,, I. Grulois,, A. Gacouin,, S. Maugendre,, T. Dufour,, B. Dupont,, and C. Camus. 1995. Successful treatment of a brain abscess due to Trichoderma longibrachiatum after surgical resection. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:445448.
193. Serena, C.,, M. Ortoneda,, J. Capilla,, F. J. Pastor,, D. A. Sutton,, M. G. Rinaldi,, and J. Guarro. 2003. In vitro activities of new antifungal agents against Chaetomium spp. and inoculum standardization. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:31613164.
194. Sigler, L., 2003. Ascomycetes: the Onygenaceae and other fungi from the order Onygenales, p. 195236. In D. H. Howard (ed.), Fungi Pathogenic for Humans and Animals, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
195. Sigler, L., 2003. Miscellaneous opportunistic fungi: Microascaceae and other ascomycetes, hyphomycetes, coelomycetes and basidiomycetes, p. 637676. In D. H. Howard (ed.), Fungi Pathogenic for Humans and Animals, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
196. Sigler, L.,, and S. P. Abbott. 1997. Characterizing and conserving diversity of filamentous basidiomycetes from human sources. Microbiol. Cult. Collect. 13:2127.
197. Sigler, L.,, S. P. Abbott,, and A. Woodgyer. 1994. New records of nail and skin infection due to Onychocola canadensis and description of its teleomorph Arachnomyces nodosetosus sp. nov. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 32:275285.
198. Sigler, L.,, J. R. Bartley,, D. H. Parr,, and A. J. Morris. 1999. Maxillary sinusitis caused by medusoid form of Schizophyllum commune. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:33953398.
199. Sigler, L.,, L. De La Maza,, G. Tan,, K. N. Egger,, and R. K. Sherburne. 1995. Diagnostic difficulties caused by a nonclamped Schizophyllum commune isolate in a case of fungus ball of the lung. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:19791983.
200. Sigler, L.,, J. L. Harris,, D. M. Dixon,, A. L. Flis,, I. F. Salin,, M. Kemna,, and R. A. Duncan. 1990. Microbiology and potential virulence of Sporothrix cyanescens, a fungus rarely isolated from blood and skin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:10091015.
201. Sigler, L.,, and M. J. Kennedy,. 1999. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and other opportunistic moniliaceous fungi, p. 12121241. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, M. A. Pfaller,, F. C. Tenover,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
202. Sigler, L.,, and D. A. Sutton. 2002. Acrophialophora fusispora misidentified as Scedosporium prolificans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:35443545. (Authors’ reply, 40:3545.).
203. Sigler, L.,, D. A. Sutton,, C. F. C. Gibas,, R. C. Summerbell,, R. K. Noel,, and P. C. Iwen. 2010. Phialosimplex, a new anamorphic genus associated with infections in dogs and having phylogenetic affinity to the Trichocomaceae. Med. Mycol. 48:335345.
204. Sigler, L.,, and P. E. Verweij,. 2003. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and other opportunistic moniliaceous fungi, p. 17261760. In P. R. Murray,, E. J. Baron,, J. H. Jorgensen,, M. A. Pfaller,, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
205. Sponsel, W. E.,, J. R. Graybill,, H. L. Nevarez,, and D. Dang. 2002. Ocular and systemic posaconazole (SCH- 56592) treatment of invasive Fusarium solani keratitis and endophthalmitis. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 86:829830.
206. Steinbach, W. J.,, W. A. Schell,, J. L. Miller,, J. R. Perfect,, and P. L. Martin. 2004. Fatal Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection in a paediatric stem cell transplant patient treated with voriconazole and caspofungin and a review of Scopulariopsis infections in immunocompromised patients. J. Infect. 48:112116.
207. St-Germain, G.,, and R. Summerbell. 1996. Identifying Filamentous Fungi. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.
208. Sugiura, Y.,, J. R. Barr,, D. B. Barr,, J. W. Brock,, C. M. Elie,, Y. Ueno,, D. G. Patterson,, M. E. Potter,, and E. Reiss. 1999. Physiological characteristics and mycotoxins of human clinical isolates of Fusarium species. Mycol. Res. 103:14621468.
209. Summerbell, R. C. 1993. The benomyl test as a fundamental diagnostic method for medical mycology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:572577.
210. Summerbell, R. C., 2003. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Sporothrix, Piedraia, and their relatives, p. 237498. In D. H. Howard (ed.), Fungi Pathogenic for Humans and Animals, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.