Chapter 118 : and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi

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The opportunistic hyaline or lightly colored moulds constitute a phylogenetically diverse group of common to rare anamorphic and teleomorphic fungi that typically occur as saprobes in soil, in air, or on plant litter or as facultative plant pathogens. Some may be recovered from specimens without having any clinical significance. While several of the genera treated in this chapter include species having either lightly colored or dark (melanized) conidia, the emphasis is on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored, septate hyphal elements. The term fusariosis is used to define infections caused by species of , but the practice of coining disease names based on the genus of fungus involved is disadvantageous for infections caused by uncommon or rare fungal pathogens. In the chapter, the name of the teleomorph is used for species that are identified mainly by their sexual structures. Most of the pathogenic moulds considered in the chapter are classified in the form-class Hyphomycetes (genera which bear their conidia free). The conidiogenous cell produces a single conidium or multiple conidia. The number of hyaline fungal species that have been reported to cause opportunistic infection in humans and animals is increasing. The chapter also describes the salient colonial and microscopic features of the medically important species in the genus and other selected currently recognized hyaline opportunists.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118

Key Concept Ranking

Fungal Infections
Fusarium solani
Fusarium lichenicola
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Image of FIGURE 1

(A) A member of the FSSC. Microconidia are borne from long monophialides. Macroconidia borne in the aerial mycelium are also present. (B) in the FOSC. Microconidia are borne from short monophialides. A few macroconidia are also present. (C) Chains of microconidia produced by (formerly ) in the GFSC. (D) in the GFSC. Note polyphialides (arrows) with more than one opening not delimited by a septum. Truncate conidia that have been borne in chains as well as false heads are also present. (E) Macroconidia of in the FDSC. Note that conidia are two celled and that the septum is in the middle. (F) Macroconidia of in the FDSC. Note that the septum in two-celled conidia is off-center, and three-celled conidia are also present. (G) Colony of showing yellowish surface mycelium and pink pigment on cornmeal agar after 5 weeks. (H) An isolate of described in reference 106 was glabrous and sterile when grown on potato dextrose agar for 15 days at 30°C.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
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Image of FIGURE 2

(A) The same isolate of as in Fig. 1H turned yellow on oatmeal agar, with development of ascospores after 15 days at 30°C. (B) Ascospores of observed by scanning electron microscopy. Magnification, ×6,000. (C) Perithecium of a species. (D) Brown ascospores of that formed after 8 weeks on carnation leaf agar at 25°C. (E) -like anamorph of showing adelophialides (reduced phialides without a septum) and ellipsoidal conidia. (F) Tissue section stained with Gomori methenamine silver stain showing monokaryotic (clampless) hyphae of in a pulmonary fungus ball. (G) in slide culture preparation showing clamp connections and narrow pegs or spicules (arrows). Magnification, ×580. (H) Dikaryotic culture of showing development of gilled fruiting bodies on potato dextrose agar after 7 weeks in the light.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
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Image of FIGURE 3

(A) Setal hyphae of , slide culture preparation on potato flake agar, 10 days, 25°C. Bar, 20 μm. (B) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 14 days at 37°C. (C) Conidia of formed on short curved stalks. (D) Rough stipe, metulae, and phialides of . Note also that conidia are initially cuneiform (wedge shaped). Bar, 10 μm. (E) Conidia of in various stages of maturity. Mature conidia are dark and rough. Bar, 10 μm. (F) Culture of three different isolates of after 5 weeks on Mycosel agar. (G) Setae ( appendages) of . (H) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 7 days.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
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Image of FIGURE 4

(A) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 14 days. (B) Verticillate conidiophores of bearing whorls of phialides. Bar, 10 μm. (C) Yellowish colony of on potato flake agar after 14 days at 25°C. (D) Colony of with yellow diffusible pigment on potato dextrose agar after 21 days at 30°C. (E) Conidia of borne in long chains or heads from simple basally inflated phialides. Bar, 2 μm. (F) Roughwalled conidia in chains formed on annellides in . Note branched conidiogenous apparatus. Magnification, ×580. (G) Colony of on potato dextrose agar after 4 days at 37°C. Note that the plate has been inoculated on one side. (H) Green, oval conidia of . Bar, 10 μm.

Citation: Sutton D, Brandt M. 2011. and Other Opportunistic Hyaline Fungi, p 1853-1879. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch118
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