1887

Chapter 12 : Biothreat Agents

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Biothreat Agents, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816728/9781555814632_Chap12-2.gif

Abstract:

Due to their unique features in causing mass destructive diseases, the priority biological agents for use in bioterror events include anthrax, brucellosis, Q fever, tularemia, plague, hemorrhagic fever viruses, and toxins (botulinum, staphylococcal enterotoxins, and T-2 mycotoxins). Each of these is discussed in this chapter with regard to its significance as a biothreat agent, its epidemiology and natural routes of transmission, and appropriate specimens to submit for laboratory diagnosis. The two laboratories considered as Laboratory Response Network (LRN) national laboratories function to perform susceptibility testing on biothreat agents when necessary and can also safely handle highly infectious viral agents. The function of the LRN sentinel laboratories is to recognize possible biothreat agents and submit them to an LRN reference laboratory as soon as possible for definitive identification. A section of the chapter focuses on 16 recently emergent pathogens-some well recognized, others less so-and provides contemporary knowledge, with emphasis on epidemiology and factors responsible for emergence. Most human infections are associated with consumption of beef or direct contact with animals and animal feces. is one of the most important health care-associated pathogens, causing diarrhea and pseudomem-branous colitis in hospitalized patients and residents of long-term care facilities. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is endemic in East and Southeast Asia, where it is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis.

Citation: Sharp S, Loeffelholz M. 2011. Biothreat Agents, p 174-187. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

Infectious Diseases
0.72084767
Immune Systems
0.5297909
Influenza A virus Subtype H5N1
0.5189926
0.72084767
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The LRN is charged with the task of maintaining an integrated network of state and local public health, federal, military, and international laboratories that can respond to bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, and other public health emergencies.

Citation: Sharp S, Loeffelholz M. 2011. Biothreat Agents, p 174-187. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816728.chap12
1. Akerlund, T.,, I. Persson,, M. Unemo,, T. Noren,, B. Svenungsson,, M. Wullt,, and L. G. Burman. 2008. Increased sporulation rate of epidemic Clostridium difficile type 027/NAP1. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 1530 1533.
1a. American Society for Microbiology. 2004. Sentinel laboratory guidelines for suspected agents of bioterrorism. Brucella species. ASM, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org/images/ pdf/Brucella101504.pdf.
1b. American Society for Microbiology. 2003. Sentinel laboratory guidelines for suspected agents of bioterrorism. Coxiella burnetii. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org/images/pdf/CoxiellaBurnetti.pdf.
1c. American Society for Microbiology. 2010. Sentinel level clinical laboratory guidelines for suspected agents of bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases. Yersinia pestis. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org/images/pdf/Clinical/ypestisrevised6-11-10.pdf.
1d. American Society for Microbiology. 2004. Sentinel laboratory guidelines for suspected agents of bioterrorism. Botulinum toxin. ASM, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org/ images/pdf/Botulism.pdf.
1e. American Society for Microbiology. 2003. Sentinel laboratory guidelines for suspected agents of bioterrorism. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B. ASM, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org/images/pdf/SEBrevised.pdf.
2. Arai, S.,, Y. Matsunaga,, T. Takasaki,, K. Tanaka-Taya,, K. Taniguchi,, N. Okabe,, I. Kurane, and the Vaccine Preventable Diseases Surveillance Program of Japan. 2008. Japanese encephalitis: surveillance and elimination effort in Japan from 1982 to 2004. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 61: 333 338.
3. Barker, B. M.,, K. A. Jewell,, S. Kroken,, and M. J. Orbach. 2007. The population biology of Coccidioides—epidemiologic implications for disease outbreaks. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1111: 147 163.
4. Bauer, M. P.,, A. Goorhuis,, T. Koster,, S. C. Numan-Ruberg,, E. C. Hagen,, S. B. Debast,, E. J. Kuijper,, and J. T. van Dissel. 2008. Community-onset Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea not associated with antibiotic usage—two case reports with review of the changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Neth. J. Med. 66: 207 211.
5. Bleck, T. P., 2005. Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon, p. 3624 3625. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
6. Borgherini, G.,, P. Poubeau,, A. Jossaume,, A. Gouix,, L. Cotte,, A. Michault,, C. Arvin-Berod,, and F. Paganin. 2008. Persistent arthralgia associated with chikungunya virus: a study of 88 adult patients on Reunion Island. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47: 469 475.
7. Borio, L. L., 2005. Plague as an agent of bioterrorism, p. 3601 3605. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
8. Brachman, P. S. 1980. Inhalational anthrax. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 353: 83 93.
9. Brooks, J. T.,, E. G. Sowers,, J. G. Wells,, K. D. Greene,, P. M. Griffin,, R. M. Hoekstra,, and N. A. Strockbine. 2005. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983-2002. J. Infect. Dis. 192: 1422 1429.
10. Buekens, P.,, O. Almendares,, Y. Carlier,, E. Dumonteil,, M. Eberhard,, R. Gamboa-Leon,, M. James,, N. Padilla,, D. Wesson,, and X. Xiong. 2007. Mother-to-child transmission of Chagas’ disease in North American: why don’t we do more? Matern. Child Health J. 12: 283 286.
11. Butler, T.,, and D. T. Dennis,. 2005. Yersinia species, including plague, p. 2691 2701. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
12. Byrnes, E. J.,, R. J. Bildfell,, S. A. Frank,, T. G. Mitchell,, K. A. Marr,, and J. Heitman. 2009. Molecular evidence that the range of the Vancouver Island outbreak of Cryptococcus gattii infection has expanded into the Pacific Northwest in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 199: 1081 1086.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Tularemia—United States, 1990-2000. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 182184.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. Chagas disease after organ transplantationLos Angeles, California, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 55: 798800.
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Blood donor screening for Chagas disease—United States, 2006- 2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56: 141143.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Surveillance for community-associated Clostridium difficile—Connecticut, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 340343.
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Laboratory- acquired brucellosis—Indiana and Minnesota, 2006. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 3942.
18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Increase in coccidioidomycosis—California, 2000-2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58: 105109.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Neurologic complications associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children—Dallas, Texas, May 2009. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58: 773778.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Intensivecare patients with severe novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection—Michigan, June 2009. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 58: 749752.
20a. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Society for Microbiology, and the Association of Public Health Laboratories. 2001. Basic protocols for level A laboratories for the presumptive identification of Francisella tularensis. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. http://www.asm.org/images/pdf/tularemiaprotocol.pdf.
21. Chambers, C.,, L. MacDougall,, M. Li,, and E. Galanis. 2008. Tourism and specific risk areas for Cryptococcus gattii, Vancouver Island, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1781 1783.
22. Chen, H. L.,, S. R. Lin,, H. F. Liu,, C. C. King,, S. C. Hsieh,, and W. K. Wang. 2008. Evolution of dengue virus type 2 during two consecutive outbreaks with an increase in severity in southern Taiwan in 2001-2002. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 79: 495 505.
23. Christopher, G. W.,, T. J. Cieslak,, J. A. Pavlin,, and E. M. Litzen. 1997. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. JAMA 278: 412 417.
24. Cordova, E.,, A. Boschi,, and J. Ambrosioni. 2008. Reactivation of Chagas disease with central nervous system involvement in HIV-infected patients in Argentina, 1992-2007. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 12: 587 592.
25. Curry, S. R.,, J. W. Marsh,, C. A. Muto,, M. M. O’Leary,, A. W. Pasculle,, and L. H. Harrison. 2007. tcdC genotypes associated with severe TcdC truncation in an epidemic clone and other strains of Clostridium difficile. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 21 221.
26. Daher, E. D.,, P. P. Fonseca,, E. S. Gerhard,, T. D. Silva Leitao,, and G. B. Silva. 2008. Clinical and epidemiological features of visceral leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection in 15 patients from Brazil. J. Parasitol. 2: 1. ( Epub ahead of print.)
27. Datta, K.,, K. H. Bartlett,, and K. A. Marr. 2009. Cryptococcus gattii: emergence in western North America: exploitation of a novel ecological niche. Interdiscip. Perspect. Infect. Dis. 2009: 176532. ( Epub 15 January 2009.)
28. Davis, C. J. 1999. Nuclear blindness: an overview of the biological weapons programs of the former Soviet Union and Iraq. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5: 509 512.
29. de Aguiar Cordeiro, R.,, R. S. N. Brilhante,, M. F. G. Rocha,, S. P. Bandeira,, M. A. B. Fechine,, Z. P. de Camargo,, and J. J. C. Sidrim. 2008. Twelve years of coccidioidomycosis in Ceara State, northeast Brazil: epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 66: 65 72.
30. Derbes, V. J. 1966. De Mussis and the great plague of 1348. A forgotten episode of bacteriological warfare. JAMA 196: 59 62.
31. Economopoulou, A.,, M. Dominguez,, B. Helynck,, D. Sissoko,, O. Wichmann,, P. Quenel,, P. Germonneau,, and I. Quatresous. 2008. Atypical Chikungunya virus infections: clinical manifestations, mortality and risk factors for severe disease during the 2005-2008 outbreak on Reunion. Epidemiol. Infect. 11: 1 8.
32. Eitzem, E.,, J. Pavlin,, T. Cieslak,, G. Christopher,, and R. Culpepper. 1998. Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, 3rd ed., p. 107 109. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD.
33. El Sayed, F.,, and R. Dhaybi. 2008. Chikungunya associated with cutaneous ulcerations. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 33: 463 464.
34. Espie, E.,, F. Grimont,, P. Mariani-Kurkdjian,, P. Bouvet,, S. Haeghebaert,, I. Filliol,, C. Loirat,, B. Decludt,, N. N. Minh,, V. Vaillant,, and H. de Valk. 2008. Surveillance of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children less than 15 years of age, a system to monitor O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in France, 1996-2006. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 27: 595 601.
35. Ethelberg, S.,, B. Smith,, M. Torpdahl,, M. Lisby,, J. Boel,, T. Jensen,, E. Moller Nielsen,, and K. Molbak. 2009. Outbreak of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection from consumption of beef sausage. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: e78 e81.
36. Fawley, W. N.,, J. Freeman,, C. Smith,, C. Harmanus,, R. J. van den Berg,, E. J. Kuijper,, and M. H. Wilcox. 2008. Use of highly discriminatory fingerprinting to analyze clusters of Clostridium difficile infection cases due to epidemic ribotype 027 strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 954 960.
36a. Federal Register. 2009. HHS and USDA select agents and toxins. 7 CFR Part 331, 9 CFR Part 121, and 42 CFR Part 73. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.
37. Fisher, M. C.,, G. L. Koenig,, T. J. White,, and J. W. Taylor. 2002. Molecular and phenotypic description of Coccidioides posadasii sp. nov., previously recognized as the non-California population of Coccidioides immitis. Mycologia 94: 73 84.
38. Franke, C. R.,, M. Ziller,, C. Staubach,, and M. Latif. 2002. Impact of the El Nino/southern oscillation on visceral leishmaniasis, Brazil. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 914 917.
39. Fraser, J. A.,, S. S. Giles,, E. C. Wenink,, S. G. Geunes- Boyer,, J. R. Wright,, S. Diezmann,, A. Allen,, J. E. Stajich,, F. S. Dietrich,, J. R. Perfect,, and J. Heitman. 2005. Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature 437: 1360 1364.
40. Gilchrist, M. J. R.,, W. P. McKinney,, J. M. Miller,, and J. W. Snyder,. 2000. Cumitech 33. Laboratory safety, management, and diagnosis of biological agents associated with bioterrorism. Coord. ed., J. W. Snyder. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
41. Gustafson, T. L.,, C. M. Reed,, P. B. McGreevy,, M. G. Pappas,, J. C. Fox,, and P. G. Lawyer. 1985. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired in Texas. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34: 58 63.
42. Guzman-Tapia, Y.,, M. J. Ramirez-Sierra,, J. Escobedo- Ortegon,, and E. Dumonteil. 2005. Effect of hurricane Isidore on triatoma dimidiate distribution and Chagas disease transmission risk in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73: 1019 1025.
43. Hamilton, P. B.,, E. R. Adams,, F. Njiokou,, W. C. Gibson,, G. Cuny,, and S. Herder. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the presence of the Trypanosoma cruzi clade in African terrestrial mammals. Infect. Genet. Evol. 9: 81 86.
44. Hofhuis, A.,, J. Reimerink,, C. Reusken,, E. J. Scholte,, A. D. Boer,, W. Takken,, and M. Koopmans. 2009. The hidden passenger of lucky bamboo: do imported Aedes albopictus mosquitoes cause dengue virus transmission in the Netherlands? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 9: 217 220. ( Epub ahead of print 30 October 2008.)
45. Kamboj, D. V.,, A. K. Goel,, and L. Singh. 2006. Biological warfare agents. Defense Sci. J. 56: 495 506.
46. Kanakaratne, N.,, W. M. P. B. Wahala,, W. B. Messer,, H. A. Tissera,, A. Shahani,, N. Abeysinghe,, A. M. de Silva,, and M. Gunasekera. 2009. Severe dengue epidemics in Sri Lanka, 2003-2006. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15: 192 199.
47. Karama, M.,, R. P. Johnson,, R. Holtslander,, and C. L. Gyles. 2008. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O103:H2 isolates from cattle and humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 3569 3575.
48. Kariuki Njenga, M.,, L. Nderitu,, J. P. Ledermann,, A. Ndirangu,, C. H. Logue,, C. H. Kelly,, R. Sang,, K. Sergon,, R. Breiman,, and A. M. Powers. 2008. Tracking epidemic Chikungunya virus into the Indian Ocean from East Africa. J. Gen. Virol. 89: 2754 2760.
49. Kaur, P.,, M. Punish,, M. V. Moorhead,, V. Ramachandran,, R. Ramachandran,, H. K. Raju,, V. Perumal,, A. C. Mishra,, and M. D. Gupte. 2008. Chikungunya outbreak, South India, 2006. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1623 1625.
50. Kidd, S. E.,, P. J. Bach,, A. O. Hingston,, S. Mak,, Y. Chow,, L. MacDougall,, J. W. Kronstad,, and K. H. Bartlett. 2007. Cryptococcus gattii dispersal mechanisms, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 51 57.
51. Koopmans, M.,, B. Wilbrink,, M. Conyn,, G. Natrop,, H. van der Nat,, H. Vennema,, A. Meijer,, J. van Steenbergen,, R. Fouchier,, A. Osterhaus,, and A. Bosman. 2004. Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Lancet 363: 587 593.
52. Labbe, A. C.,, L. Poirier,, D. Maccannell,, T. Louie,, M. Savoie,, C. Beliveau,, M. Laverdiere,, and J. Pepin. 2008. Clostridium difficile infections in a Canadian tertiary care hospital before and during a regional epidemic associated with the BI/NAP1/027 strain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52: 3180 3187.
53. Lemant, J.,, V. Boisson,, A. Winer,, L. Thibault,, H. Andre,, F. Tixier,, M. Lemercier,, E. Antok,, M. P. Cresta,, P. Grivard,, M. Besnard,, O. Rollot,, F. Favier,, M. Huerre,, J. L. Campinos,, and A. Michault. 2008. Serious acute chikungunya virus infection requiring intensive care during the Reunion Island outbreak in 2005-2006. Crit. Care Med. 36: 2536 2541.
54. Levy, R.,, J. Pitout,, P. Long,, and M. J. Gill. 2007. Late presentation of Cryptococcus gattii meningitis in a traveler to Vancouver Island: a case report. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. 18: 197 199.
55. Lin, Y. P.,, M. Shaw,, V. Gregory,, K. Cameron,, W. Lim,, A. Klimov,, K. Subbarao,, Y. Guan,, S. Krauss,, K. Shortridge,, R. Webster,, N. Cox,, and A. Hay. 2000. Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 9654 9658.
56. Lucey, D., 2005. Anthrax, p. 3618. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
57. Lucey, D., 2005. Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), p. 2486. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
58. MacDougall, L.,, S. E. Kidd,, E. Galanis,, S. Mak,, M. J. Leslie,, P. R. Cieslak,, J. W. Kronstad,, M. G. Morshed,, and K. H. Bartlett. 2007. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and detection in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13: 42 50.
59. Maharom, P.,, S. Siripattanapipong,, M. Mungthin,, T. Naaglor,, R. Sukkawee,, R. Pudkorn,, W. Wattana,, D. Wanachiwanawin,, D. Areechokchai,, and S. Leelayoova. 2008. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 39: 988 990.
60. Marrie, T. J.,, and D. Roult,. 2005. Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), p. 2296 2303. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
61. Martin, H.,, B. Willey,, D. E. Low,, H. R. Staempfli,, A. McGeer,, P. Boerlin,, M. Mulvey,, and J. S. Weese. 2008. Characterization of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients in Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2006. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 2999 3004.
62. McDonald, L. C.,, G. E. Killgore,, A. Thompson,, R. C. Owens,, S. V. Kazakova,, S. P. Sambol,, S. Johnson,, and D. N. Gerding. 2005. An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N. Engl. J. Med. 353: 2433 2441.
63. McFarland, L. V. 2009. Renewed interest in a difficult disease: Clostridium difficile infections—epidemiology and current treatment strategies. Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 25: 24 35.
64. Mellmann, A.,, M. Bielaszewska,, R. Kock,, A. W. Friedrich,, A. Fruth,, B. Middendorf,, D. Harmsen,, M. A. Schmidt,, and H. Karch. 2008. Analysis of collection of hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1287 1290.
65. Milei, J.,, R. A. Guerri-Guttenberg,, D. R. Grana,, and R. Storino. 2009. Prognostic impact of Chagas disease in the United States. Am. Heart J. 157: 22 29.
66. Missaghi, B.,, A. J. Valenti,, and R. C. Owens. 2008. Clostridium difficile infection: a critical review. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 10: 165 173.
67. Mitchell, C. L.,, and R. L. Penn,. 2005. Francisella tularensis (tularemia) as an agent of bioterrorism, p. 3607 3612. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
68. Moreillon, P.,, Y. Que,, and M. P. Glauser,. 2005. Staphylococcus aureus (including staphylococcal toxin shock), p. 2330 2332. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
69. Morens, D. M.,, G. K. Folkers,, and A. S. Fauci. 2004. The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature 430: 242 249.
70. Nawaratna, S. S.,, D. J. Weilgama,, and K. Rajapaksha. 2009. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka: a study of possible animal reservoirs. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 13: 513 517. (Epub ahead of print 16 December 2008.)
71. Nga, P. T.,, M. del Carmen Parquet,, V. D. Cuong,, S.-P. Ma,, F. Hasebe,, S. Inoue,, Y. Makino,, M. Takagi,, V. S. Nam,, and K. Morita. 2004. Shift in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype circulating in northern Vietnam: implications for frequent introductions of JEV from Southeast Asia to East Asia. J. Gen. Virol. 85: 1625 1631.
72. Nitatpattana, N.,, A. Dubot-Peres,, M. A. Gouilh,, M. Souris,, P. Barbazan,, S. Yoksan,, X. de Lamballerie,, and J. P. Gonzalez. 2008. Change in Japanese encephalitis virus distribution, Thailand. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1762 1765.
73.Novel Swine-OriginI nfluenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team. 2009. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 360: 26052615. (Erratum, 360: 102-a.).
74. Olano, J. P.,, and D. H. Walker,. 2009. Agents of emerging infectious diseases, p. 3 20. In A. D. Barrett, and L. R. Stanberry (ed.), Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases. Elsevier, London, United Kingdom.
75. Oya, A.,, and I. Kurane. 2007. Japanese encephalitis for a reference to international travelers. Int. Soc. Travel Med. 14: 259 268.
76. Parida, M.,, P. K. Dash,, N. K. Tripathi,, Ambuj,, S. Sannarangaiah,, P. Saxena,, S. Agarwal,, A. K. Sahni,, S. P. Singh,, A. K. Rathi,, R. Bhargava,, A. Abhyankar,, S. K. Verma,, P. V. Lakshmana Rao,, and K. Sekhar. 2006. Japanese encephalitis outbreak, India, 2005. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12: 1427 1430.
76a. Park, C. W.,, M. R. Melia,, L. F. Littlejohn,, and T. M. Stein. 2008. CBRNE - T-2 mycotoxins. Emedicine from WebMD. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/830892-overview.
77. Penn, R. L., 2005. Francisella tularensis (tularemia), p. 2674 2685. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
78. Peters, C. J., 2005. Bioterrorism: viral hemorrhagic fevers, p. 3626 3629. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
79. Pike, R. M. 1976. Laboratory-associated infections: summary and analysis of 3921 cases. Health Lab. Sci. 13: 105 114.
80. Pyke, A. T.,, D. T. Williams,, D. J. Nisbet,, A. F. van den Hurk,, C. T. Taylor,, C. A. Johansen,, J. MacDonald,, R. A. Hall,, R. J. Simmons,, R. J. V. Mason,, J. M. Lee,, S. A. Ritchie,, G. A. Smith,, and J. S. Mackenzie. 2001. The appearance of a second genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus in the Australasian region. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65: 747 753.
81. Ramani, R.,, and V. Chaturvedi. 2007. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii from endemic and non-endemic areas. Mycopathologia 163: 315 319.
82. Rao, G.,, Y. Z. Khan,, and D. S. Chitins. 2008. Chikungunya infection in neonates. Indian Pediatr. 45: 240 242.
83. Rezza, G.,, L. Nicoletti,, R. Angelini,, R. Romi,, A. C. Finarelli,, M. Panning,, P. Cordioli,, C. Fortuna,, S. Boros,, F. Magurano,, G. Silvi,, P. Angelini,, M. Dottori,, M. G. Ciufolini,, G. C. Majori,, A. Cassone, for the CHIKV Study Group. 2007. Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. Lancet 370: 1840 1846.
84. Rotz, L. D.,, J. Cono,, and I. Damon,. 2005. Smallpox and bioterrorism, p. 3612 3617. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
85. Sanchez,, S. A. Garcia-Sanchez,, R. Martinez,, J. Blanco,, J. E. Blanco,, M. Blanco,, G. Dahbi,, A. Mora,, J. Hermoso de Mendoza,, J. M. Alonso,, and J. Rey. 2009. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than Escherichia coli O157:H7 in wild ruminants. Vet. J. 180: 384 388.
86. Saubolle, M. A.,, P. P. McKellar,, and D. Sussland. 2007. Epidemiologic, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of coccidioidomycosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 26 30.
87. Scholte E. J.,, Dijkstra,, E. H. Blok,, A. Vries,, W. Takken,, A. Hofhuis,, M. Koopmans,, A. De Boer,, and C. B. Reusken. 2008. Accidental importation of the mosquito Aedes albopictus into the Netherlands: a survey of mosquito distribution and the presence of dengue virus. Med. Vet. Entomol. 22: 352 358.
88. Schuffenecker, I.,, I. Iteman,, A. Michault,, S. Murri,, L. Frangeul,, M. C. Vaney,, R. Lavenir,, N. Pardigon,, J. M. Reynes,, F. Pettinelli,, L. Biscornet,, L. Diancourt,, S. Michel,, S. Duquerroy,, G. Guigon,, M. P. Frenkiel,, A. C. Brehin,, N. Cubito,, P. Despres,, F. Kunst,, F. A. Rey,, H. Zeller,, and S. Brisse. 2006. Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak. PLoS Med. 3: e263.
89. Schwartz, E.,, C. Hatz,, and J. Blum. 2006. New world cutaneous leishmaniasis in travelers. Lancet Infect. Dis. 6: 342 349.
90. Shaw, P. K.,, L. T. Quigg,, D. S. Allain,, D. D. Juranek,, and G. R. Healy. 1976. Autochthonous dermal leishmaniasis in Texas. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 25: 788 796.
91. Shu, P.-Y.,, C.-F. Yang,, C.-L. Su,, C.-Y. Chen,, S.-F. Chang,, K.-H. Tsai,, C.-H. Cheng,, and J.-H. Huang. 2008. Two imported chikungunya cases, Taiwan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 1325 1326.
92. Singh, S. S.,, S. P. Manimunda,, A. P. Sugunan, Sahina, and P. Vijayachari. 2008. Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis associated with chikungunya virus infection. Epidemiol. Infect. 136: 1277 1280.
93. Sissoko, D.,, D. Malvy,, C. Giry,, G. Delmas,, C. Paquet,, P. Gabrie,, F. Pettinelli,, M. A. Sanquer,, and V. Pierre. 2008. Outbreak of Chikungunya fever in Mayotte, Comoros archipelago, 2005-2006. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102: 780 786.
94. Stabler, R. A.,, L. F. Dawson,, L. T. Phua,, and B. W. Wren. 2008. Comparative analysis of BI/NAP1/027 hypervirulent strains reveals novel toxin B encoding gene ( tcdB) sequences. J. Med. Microbiol. 57: 771 775.
95. Stark, D.,, S. van Hal,, R. Lee,, D. Marriott,, and J. Harkness. 2008. Leishmaniasis, and emerging imported infection: report of 20 cases from Australia. J. Travel Med. 15: 351 354.
96. Stephen, C.,, S. Lester,, W. Black,, M. Fyfe,, and S. Raverty. 2002. Multispecies outbreak of cryptococcosis on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Can. Vet. J. 43: 792 794.
97. Townson, H.,, and M. B. Nathan. 2008. Resurgence of chikungunya. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102: 308 309.
98. Tucker, J. B. 2000. Toxic terror. BCSIA studies in international security. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
99. Ungchusak K.,, P. Auewarakul,, S. F. Dowell,, R. Kitphati,, W. Auwanit,, P. Puthavathana,, M. Uiprasertkul,, K. Boonnak,, C. Pittayawonganon,, N. J. Cox,, S. R. Zaki,, P. Thawatsupha,, M. Chittaganpitch,, R. Khontong,, J. M. Simmerman,, and S. Chunsutthiwat. 2005. Probable personto- person transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). N. Eng. J. Med. 352: 333 340.
100. United Nations, Department of Public Information. 1996. The United Nations and the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, 1990-1996, p. 784. United Nations Blue Book Series, vol. IX. United Nations, Department of Public Information, New York, NY.
101. Vasilakis, N.,, and S. C. Weaver. 2008. The history and evolution of human dengue emergence. Adv. Virus Res. 72: 1 76.
102. Warny, M.,, J. Pepin,, A. Fang,, G. Killgore,, A. Thompson,, J. Brazier,, E. Frost,, and L. C. McDonald. 2005. Toxin production by an emerging strain of Clostridium difficile associated with outbreaks of severe disease in North American and Europe. Lancet 366: 1079 1084.
103. Wilder-Smith, A.,, and D. J. Gubler. 2008. Geographic expansion of dengue: the impact of international travel. Med. Clin. North Am. 92: 1377 1390.
104. Wright, N. A.,, L. E. Davis,, K. S. Aftergut,, C. A. Parrish,, and C. J. Cockerell. 2008. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas: a northern spread of endemic areas. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58: 650 652.
105. Writing Committee of the Second World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus. 2008. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 358: 261273.
106. Young, E. J., 2005. Brucella species, p. 2669-2674. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett,, and R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Critical biological agents for public health preparedness

Citation: Sharp S, Loeffelholz M. 2011. Biothreat Agents, p 174-187. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 2

Diagnosis of biothreat agents

BSL, biosafety level.

Citation: Sharp S, Loeffelholz M. 2011. Biothreat Agents, p 174-187. In Versalovic J, Carroll K, Funke G, Jorgensen J, Landry M, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 10th Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816728.ch12

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error